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Introduction aux Digital Humanities


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Présentation donnée dans le cadre du Forum des Archivistes genevois à Genève le 2 avril 2012.

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Introduction aux Digital Humanities

  1. 1. Introduction auxhumanités numériques / Digital Humanities Forum des archivistes, Genève, 2 avril 2012 Enrico Natale T +41 31 311 75 72
  2. 2. Plan de la présentation:3. Définitions4. Origines et précurseurs5. Apparition des « Digital Humanities »6. Typologie des projets en DH7. Modes d’institutionnalisation des DH8. Développements récents en Suisse9.Sociologie des Humanités Numériques10. Bibliographie T +41 31 311 75 72
  3. 3. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ? T +41 31 311 75 72
  4. 4. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ?„If you think you are doing it, then you probablyare, but the UCLDH definition is: theapplication of computational methods tohumanities research or to cultural heritage; orof humanities research methods to digitalphenomena.“—Claire WarwickSource: T +41 31 311 75 72
  5. 5. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ?I think of digital humanities as an umbrella term thatcovers a wide variety of digital work in the humanities:development of multimedia pedagogies andscholarship, designing & building tools, humancomputer interaction, designing & building archives[collections], etc. DH is interdisciplinary; bynecessity it breaks down boundaries betweendisciplines at the local (e.g., English and history) andglobal (e.g., humanities and computer sciences) levels.—Kathie GossettSource: T +41 31 311 75 72
  6. 6. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ?I guess I define DH twofold : Using technologyto do Humanities research and doingHumanities research about technology. Plus acommitment to the openness of knowledge.Plus a commitment to build new scholarlyobjects.— My Definition (in poor English)Source: T +41 31 311 75 72
  7. 7. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ?The great opportunity to burn down academic walls— Enrica SalvatoriDH is what critical theory is or was--an opportunityto ask new questions, try new methods, engage innew conversations.— ssenierSource: T +41 31 311 75 72
  8. 8. I. How do you define Digital Humanities ?Manifeste des DigitalHumanities, THATCamp Paris,2010Art. 1 - Le tournant numériquepris par la société modifie etinterroge les conditions deproduction et de diffusion dessavoirs.Source: T +41 31 311 75 72
  9. 9. II. Origines et précurseurs des DHUne histoire qui reste à écrire...- Histoire des sciences et des techniques- Application de l‘informatique aux sciences humaines- Utopies informationelles / PC Revolution- Structuralisme / Post-modernisme T +41 31 311 75 72
  10. 10. II. Origines et précurseurs des DH Evolution des technologies du savoirRobert Pascal, Mnémotechnologies : Unethéorie générale critique des technologiesintellectuelles, Hermes Science Publications,2010. Revue d‘anthropologie des connaissances, S.A.C., Paris, 2007- T +41 31 311 75 72
  11. 11. II. Origines et précurseurs des DH Application de l‘informatique aux sciences humainesPère Roberto Busa, IndexThomisticus, 56 vol., 1949-1989.Source: T +41 31 311 75 72
  12. 12. II. Origines et précurseurs des DHUtopies informationellesBush Vannevar, As We May Think, The Atlantic, may 1945.Consider a future device for individual use, which is a sort of mechanizedprivate file and library. It needs a name, and, to coin one at random,"memex" will do. A memex is a device in which an individual stores all hisbooks, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that itmay be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlargedintimate supplement to his memory.It consists of a desk, and while it can presumably be operated from adistance, it is primarily the piece of furniture at which he works. On the topare slanting translucent screens, on which material can be projected forconvenient reading. There is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and levers.Otherwise it looks like an ordinary desk. T +41 31 311 75 72
  13. 13. II. Origines et précurseurs des DH Utopies informationelles Today, at this moment, we can and must design the media, design the molecules of our new water, and I believe the details of this design matter very deeply.Nelson Theodore H., Computer Lib / DreamMachine, Redmond, Microsoft Press, 1974. T +41 31 311 75 72
  14. 14. II. Origines et précurseurs des DH Utopies informationelles I know now that our research with psychedelic drugs and, in fact, the drug culture itself was a forecast of our preparation for the personal computer age. (...). It is no accident that the term LSD was used twice in Time magazine‘s cover story about Steve Jobs. –T. Leary, Personal Computers / Personal FreedomDitlea Steve et Lunch Group (éds.), Digital Deli. Thecomprehensive, user-lovable menu of computer lore,culture, lifestyles and fancy., New York, WorkmanPublishing Company, Inc., 1984. T +41 31 311 75 72
  15. 15. II. Origines et précurseurs des DHStructuralisme / Post-modernisme • Roland Barthes, The Death of the author, ASPEN, 1967 • Foucault Michel, « Qu’est-ce qu’un auteur ? », in Bulletin de la Société française de philosophie, juillet-septembre 1969.Aspen No 5+6: T +41 31 311 75 72
  16. 16. II. Origines et précurseurs des DHStructuralisme / Post-modernismeJean-François Lyotard, Les immatériaux,exposition au centre Georges Pompidou, 1985 On dirait que les changements, comme toujours, nous viennent du dehors. Par les conditions de travail, par le milieu de la vie quotidienne, par les moyens dinformation. Mais cest dans nos têtes que ça change. T +41 31 311 75 72
  17. 17. II. Origines et précurseurs des DHJean-François Lyotard, Les immatériaux, exposition aucentre Georges Pompidou, 1985 (fiche du catalogue) T +41 31 311 75 72
  18. 18. III. Apparition des DH2001A Companion to Digital Humanities, ed.Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, JohnUnsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. of Digital HumanitiesOrganisations- Digital Humanities Quarterly, 2007- T +41 31 311 75 72
  19. 19. III. Apparition des DHSource: ULC Center for Digital Humanities, Quantifying T +41 31 311 75 72DH, 2011
  20. 20. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Projets de recherche  Editions de sources  Développement d‘outils  Modes de communication scientifique  Médiation culturelle  Enseignement T +41 31 311 75 72
  21. 21. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Projets de rechercheThe Valley of Shadows, Uni. Virginia, 1993- de données des élite de Suisse au XXe siècle, UNIL, 2007-, UNIL, 2010- T +41 31 311 75 72
  22. 22. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Editions de sourcesDocuments diplomatiques suisses Manuscript Library of Switzerland, UniFri, 2005- Melancholy, ed. By Radu Suciu, 2011- T +41 31 311 75 72
  23. 23. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Développement d‘outilsZotero http://www.zotero.orgLit-Link T +41 31 311 75 72
  24. 24. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Modes de communication scientifiqueTHATCamp – The Technology and Humanities Camp / www.switzerland2011.thatcamp.orgScholarly Blogging #digitalhumanitiesNouvelles formes de publications scientifiques T +41 31 311 75 72
  25. 25. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  Médiation culturelleBritish Library - Timelinesée national suisse – Transferts virtuels T +41 31 311 75 72
  26. 26. IV. Typologie des activités en DH  EnseignementDH Bachelor and Master Programs / Summer schools Swiss Digital Humanities Summer school 2012 ?Online educational ressources Digital Literacy Toolkit T +41 31 311 75 72
  27. 27. V. Modes d’institutionnalisation des DHCentre interdisciplinaire universitaire;; de bibliothèque de financement de la recherche; ;émies des sciences www.sagw.chAppels d‘offre Google Grants for Digital Humanities Presenting History Online ( ) T +41 31 311 75 72
  28. 28. VI. Développements récents en Suisse• Humanités Digitales@unil 2011• THATCamp Switzerland 2011• NCCR Digital Culture UNIL/EPFL/UNIBE• „Culture digitale“ OFC 2012-2016• Bulletin SAGW 2012/1 Digital Humanities• Call for projects Presenting History Online (30/4/2012)• Swiss Digital Humanities Summer school 2012 ? T +41 31 311 75 72
  29. 29. VI. Sociologie des DH @ Day of DH• Trier Center for Digital Humanities ( ) Team members are intent upon various research projects: They develop metadata structures and encoding schemas for different editorial projects, some are engaged in the encoding of reference works, editions, and primary texts as well as programming and design work on virtual research environments and tools to support collaborative research.• Javier de la Rosa ( ) We are working on a slideshow game that shows baroque paintings and ask for the user to punch the faces of the people that appears on. And the other modality, to poke their eyes out. In the background, we are collecting all the points the people provides to train machine learning algorithms.• Dona Maria Alexander ( ) Social media is central to my day to day work. I’ll be tweeting, facebooking and hopefully a little bit of blogging too! T +41 31 311 75 72
  30. 30. VII. Courte bibliographie récente (1/2)• Schreibman Susan, A companion to digital humanities, Malden, Blackwell Pub, 2004.• McCarty Willard, Humanities computing, Basingstoke, Hampshire [etc.], Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.• Siemens Ray, A companion to digital literary studies, Oxford, Blackwell, 2007.• Kirschenbaum Matthew G., Mechanisms : new media and the forensic imagination, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press, 2008.• McGann Jerome J., Online Humanities Scholarship: The Shape of Things to Come, 2010.• Bartscherer Thomas et Coover Roderick, Switching codes : thinking through digital technology in the humanities and the arts, Chicago, London, University of Chicago Press, 2011. T +41 31 311 75 72
  31. 31. VII. Courte bibliographie récente (2/2)• Fitzpatrick Kathleen, Planned Obsolescence, New York University Press, 2011.• Berry David M., Understanding Digital Humanities, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.• Gold Matthew K., Debates in the Digital Humanities, Univ of Minnesota, 2012.• Hayles N. Katherine, How We Think: Digital Media and Contemporary Technogenesis, Univ of Chicago, 2012.• Ramsay Stephen, Reading Machines: Toward and Algorithmic Criticism, Univ of Illinois, 2012. T +41 31 311 75 72
  32. 32. VIII. T +41 31 311 75 72