Tìm hiểu về Công nghệ thông tin (IT) toàn tập


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Tìm hiểu về Công nghệ thông tin (IT) toàn tập

  1. 1. Institute of Product Design & Manufacturing Universiti Kuala Lumpur
  2. 2. About the lecturer Zaipul Anwar Bin Zainu din Institute of Product Design & Manufacturing, Universiti Kuala Lumpur 03-27154715 Email: zaipulanwar@iprom.unikl.edu.my Website: http://www.zaipul.net Blog: http://5wives1husband.blogspot.com/
  3. 3. Subject Contents in General Computer Hardware Computer software Application programs Word processing Presentation Spreadsheets Data & information management Computer networking Applications of networking: Internet, Intranet
  4. 4. Subject Content in Details 1.0 The Information Technology         Basic Information Technology Concepts Computer History Basic Components of Computer System     How a Computer System Works    2.0 Function of Major Computer Hardware Computer Configuration and Classification Central Processing Unit Input-Output Devices and Peripherals Secondary Storage 3.0 Basic Uses of Application S/ware & OS Operating System and Its Functions      Disk Operating System (DOS) Primer   High and Low Level Languages Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter WINDOWS and MS Office Primer     4.0 Data Security   Importance of Backup The Computer Virus Crisis   5.0 Computer and Network Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) LAN Components, Topologies and Types Transmission Media  
  5. 5. Objectives Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are used Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage List some common input, output, and storage media Distinguish data from information Describe the significance of networking Explain the significance of the Internet Explain the various classifications of computers
  6. 6. Course Assessment Total = 100% Quiz 20% Test 20% Assignment 20% Final Exam 40%
  7. 7. Introduction to Computers Computer hardware Input, Output & peripheral devices History of computers
  8. 8. Basic Components of a Computer System What is computer? An electronic device that can accept data (input), process the input to useful information (process) according to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of processing (storage), and produce the information (output).
  9. 9. Other definition:- A machine that can be programmed to accept data ( input ), process it into useful information ( output ), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware Basic Components of a Computer System
  10. 10. Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age Will continue into the current century Information Age
  11. 11. Cornerstones of our Economy Land Labor Capital Information Forging a Computer-Based Society:
  12. 12. Jobs From physical to mental From muscle-power to brain-power Forging a Computer-Based Society:
  13. 13. A Computer in Your Future Where used? Bank withdrawal Supermarket Drive the car Do I need a Personal Computer? Campaign: One Home, One PC Many more use at work Will I use a computer in my future career? Almost every job will involve use of a computer Video: Future of Information Technology
  14. 14. Computer Literacy Awareness Importance Versatility Pervasiveness in our society Knowledge What are computers How do computers work Terminology Interaction Use some simple computer applications
  15. 15. Is computer literacy enough? Need to be computer literate to manipulate a computer Need to be computer fluent on computer concepts as a basis to build deeper knowledge Computer fluency make one able to continue follow developments as computers continue to evolve
  16. 16. Basic Information Technology Concept Information technology - the use of modern technology to aid the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and communication of information. The various methods of delivering information are by the use of data, text, image, and voice for personal or organization needs.
  17. 17. History of Computers Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or sets of units to represent numbers or quantities. A number or a quantity can be represented by a physical thing, whether it is: a pebble     a transistor a bead of wire   a mark on a bit of paper    a mechanical gear wheel   an electrical relay  a vacuum tube
  18. 18. The Nature of Computers Characteristics Speed Reliability Storage capability Results Productivity Decision making Cost reduction
  19. 19. Where Computers Are Used: Graphics Graphs and charts Animated graphics Visual walk-through
  20. 20. Where Computers Are Used: Education Teaching and testing aid Learning by doing Computer-based instruction
  21. 21. Where Computers Are Used: Retailing Bar codes for pricing and inventory Shipping
  22. 22. Where Computers Are Used: Energy Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium Monitor the power network Meter reading
  23. 23. Where Computers Are Used :Law Enforcement National fingerprint files National files on criminal Computer modeling of DNA
  24. 24. Where Computers Are Used: Transportation Cars Run rapid transit systems Load containerships Track railroad cars Monitor air traffic
  25. 25. Where Computers Are Used: Money Record keeping Banking by phone Credit cards
  26. 26. Where Computers Are Used: Agriculture Billing Crop information Feed combinations Livestock breeding and performance
  27. 27. Where Computers Are Used: Government Forecast weather E-government Process immigrants Taxes Registration: birth, identity, car etc.
  28. 28. Where Computers Are Used: The Home Educational tool Record keeping Letter writing Budgeting Drawing and editing pictures Newsletters Connecting with others
  29. 29. Where Computers Are Used: Health and Medicine Monitor patients Electronic imaging Diagnose illnesses Tele-health
  30. 30. Where Computers Are Used: Robotics Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans Factory work
  31. 31. Where Computers Are Used: The Human Connection Assist the disabled Assist athletes by monitoring their movements
  32. 32. Where Computers Are Used The Sciences Research Simulation Connectivity Communication Telecommuting
  33. 33. Where Computers Are Used Training Airline pilots Railroad engineers Paperwork Junk mail Term paper Record keeping
  34. 34. Computers are all around! Grocery store Schools Libraries Bank Mail Malls We interact with computers everyday!
  35. 35. What computers can’t do yet? Complex human activities What else? Can you think of others?
  36. 36. Computer System People Software Hardware
  37. 37. People Computer programmer – person who writes programs Users or End-users – make use of the computer’s capabilities
  38. 38. Software Programs Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results
  39. 39. Hardware: Basic Components of a Computer
  40. 40. Computer Components 1. Input Devices - examples: keyboard and the mouse - data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the computer’s memory and displayed on the monitor 2. System Unit - contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur - consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM) and other electronic components - CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit - RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are processed
  41. 41. 4. Output Devices - most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer - Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display - Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc. 5. Secondary Storage Devices - also known as auxiliary storage devices - stores instructions and data when they are not being used by the system unit - Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive Computer Components – cont.
  42. 42. Input Process Output Data Information Storage How a Computer System Works
  43. 43. How a Computer System Works – cont. Software - The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks. The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a program to complete the tasks from user. Operating system is the system software that controls the basic, low-level hardware operations and file management.
  44. 44. Microcomputers Also known as personal computers Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case Cheaper and smaller in size Minicomputer Also known as departmental computers Physical sizes : small to large cabinets S upport business application Computer Configuration and Classification
  45. 45. Mainframe L arge computers with the capability to process data at millions of instructions per second. Physical size : partial to full room of equipment Supercomputer Most powerful and expensive computers Vast quantities of data manipulation Physical size : full room of equipment - No. of users : hundreds of users Computer Configuration and Classification – cont.
  46. 46. Central Processing Unit (CPU) It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor chip. A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. - CPU perform three main tasks :- Perform arithmetic operations Perform logic operations Retrieval and storage of data
  47. 47. CPU – cont. - CPU consists of two main units :- 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, / - logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <, <= 2. Control unit - fetches instructions from memory - decode/translate instructions - executes the processing tasks - stores result in memory Four Tasks
  48. 48. CPU – cont. CU fetches instructions from memory CU decodes/translates instructions, directs necessary data to ALU - ALU executes arithmetic/logic instruction ALU stores results into memory I-Time E-Time What happens in a CPU?
  49. 49. Memory - also known as primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage, and main memory - Consists of RAM and ROM 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) - volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON - two types of RAM, dynamic and static 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) - non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and cannot be changed CPU – cont.
  50. 50. Function of Computer System Data handling I Input P Process O Output S Storage
  51. 51. Processing: Batch vs. Interactive 2 types of information processing Batch processing Interactive processing : Real time
  52. 52. Input devices Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form Getting data into the computer Typing on a keyboard Pointing with a mouse Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader Terminal
  53. 53. Output devices Monitor or screen Text Numbers Symbols Art Photographs Video Printer Black and white Color Convert from electronic form to some other form May display the processed results Usable information
  54. 54. Input and Output Devices Input devices - Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the mouse - Standard type of keyboard is the QWERTY which has 86 keys (basic) and 101-102 keys (enhanced). - Mouse is a pointing device for effective use of computer interface. Trackball and touch pad are also considered as pointing devices.
  55. 55. Input and Output Devices – cont. Digitizer A pad with a pen-like stylus. The tablet sends electronic signals to the computer, displaying the image drawn.
  56. 56. Input and Output Devices – cont. the use of special equipment to collect data at the source and send it directly to the computer. Source data automation MICR Images OCR Bar code Hand Written Input devices– cont.
  57. 57. Input and Output Devices – cont. 2. Output devices - most common devices are monitor displays and printers - Two types of display; flat panel display and CRT display (Cathode Ray Tube) - Two categories of printers; impact and non-impact printers
  58. 58. Displays 1. Flat Panel - commonly used in laptop, notebook - examples of flat panel; LCD, Gas Plasma 2. CRT - produce best images for computers - two types of display; monochrome and color - monochrome; displays one color (green or amber) - color; four types: Input and Output Devices – cont.
  59. 59. Displays – cont. Input and Output Devices – cont. Standard Graphic Add-on-Boards Resolution (by pixels) CGA (Color Graphic Adapter) 640 x 200 EGA (Enhanced Graphic Adapter) 640 x 350 VGA (Video Graphic Array) 640 x 480 SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) 1024 x 768
  60. 60. Two types of printers (according to printing methods) Impact printers use a physical contact with the paper to produce an image e.g. dot matrix printer and line printer Non-impact printers Place images on a paper without physically touching it -e.g. thermal, inkjet, laser printer Input and Output Devices – cont. Printers
  61. 61. Can you think of any other input/output devices?
  62. 62. The Processor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Converts data to useful information Interpret and execute instructions Communicate with input, output and storage
  63. 63. Two Types of Storage Secondary storage long-term storage Primary storage or memory temporary storage
  64. 64. Memory / Primary Storage Temporary storage Holds input to be processed Holds results of processing Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output Volatile
  65. 65. Secondary Storage Long-term storage Non-volatile
  66. 66. Secondary Storage Examples Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic disk drive Hard disk Diskette Optical disks – read and written by optical disk drives CD-ROM DVD-ROM Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic tape drives Primarily used for back-up
  67. 67. Magnetic Disk
  68. 68. It is needed because Main memory stores data temporarily Main memory space is limited Secondary Storage Benefits of secondary storage Space Reliability Convenience Economic
  69. 69. Computer System Computer CPU Memory Peripheral equipment Connected to the computer by a cable Input, output, storage
  70. 70. Computer Network Definition A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources. Types Local area network (LAN) – connects computers in close proximity Metropolitan are network (MAN) – connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area Wide are network (WAN) – connects computers over great distances
  71. 71. Home Connectivity Connect home PC to other computers Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats
  72. 72. Internet Collection of networks No ownership No central source for services available No comprehensive index of what information is available Individuals Businesses Organizations Libraries Research labs Government Connects Everyone!
  73. 73. Getting Connected User’s computer must connect to a server Server must communicate using TCP/IP The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
  74. 74. Internet – What Can You Do? WWW – World Wide Web FTP – File Transfer Protocol E-mail UseNet IRC – Internet Relay Chat Bulletin Boards
  75. 75. World Wide Web Browser – program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics Web page Web site Home page
  76. 76. Classifications of Computers Use the computer that fits your needs Based upon Size Speed Cost Portability Number of simultaneous users supported Available software Typical use
  77. 77. Personal Computers Other names PC Microcomputer Home computer Categories Low-end functional Fully powered Workstations Net computer or net box (Web TV) Desktop Models
  78. 78. Notebook Computers Portable Lightweight Fits in a briefcase Battery operated Laptop Larger Heavier More expensive that desktop models
  79. 79. Handheld Computers Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Scheduling Addresses Handwritten input May offer wireless e-mail and fax PDA Phone More power than PDA Cellphone, GPS, MP3/MP4, Camera, Video, TV, Radio etc. Runs various type softwares, serving various applications
  80. 80. Other Types of Computers Mainframes High speed More expensive Used to process large amounts of data quickly Support multiple users Does server tasks Supercomputers Fastest speed Most expensive
  81. 81. What is a software? The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks. - Software can be categorized into two types :- Operating System and Its Function System Software Application Software
  82. 82. Application Software - program that tells a computer how to produce information examples of application software : Business, scientific, educational programs and etc. System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the computer equipments - the operating system tells computer how to perform functions such as load, store, execute application program, transfer data between I/O devices and main memory Operating System and Its Function – cont.
  83. 83. Definition of OS :- A set of programs that control and supervise a computer system’s hardware Purposes of OS :- To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of computer resources To interface between a user/an application program with the hardware Operating System and Its Function – cont.
  84. 84. OS is made up of 2 programs; Operating System and Its Function – cont. Control Program Service Program OS
  85. 85. Control program - three main functions Operating System and Its Function – cont. Resource allocation allocate processor time, primary storage, input and output devices Job management to monitor, schedule and control programs for its efficient processing Data management -managing access to data for input of information to printers, disks/displays - all hardware components activities are controlled by the supervisor program
  86. 86. 2. Service programs - provides services to the user/programmer - services include language-translator programs and utility programs - language-translator program converts instructions from English-like language to machine-language to be executed by the computer - utility program performs loading, saving, copying, keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a formatted disk Operating System and Its Function – cont.
  87. 87. Language Translator Utility Program Other Services Data Mgmt. Job Mgmt. Resource Allocation Supervisor Control Prog. Service Prog Operating System and Its Function – cont.
  88. 88. What an Operating System does? Checks the functionality of the computer’s hardware. It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if any components are found faulty. Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor program into the computer’s memory – booting 3. Once the supervisor control program in memory, the system displays the prompt sign (C:>), indicating that it is ready to work
  89. 89. MS-DOS DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings Interface to peripherals – How to interpret input, how to process data, and how to produce output Application launcher – Most programming software, games etc. use DOS prompt to run application Utility provider – Manage disks and files, prepare disks for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files, and to delete files
  90. 90. MS-DOS – cont. Using DOS prompt to get command from user Examples for DOS operation DOS version/prompt type Modify date/time File and directory contents Clearing a DOS screen Going to subdirectory and back to root directory Searching for specific files Copy files from A drive / C drive
  91. 91. TYPES OF OS Microsoft Windows (98, 2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of even thousands of distros ex: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Mandrake etc. Visit http:// distrowatch.com / for listing of Linux OS) Unix OS etc.
  92. 92. TYPES OF BROWSERS Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Konqueror Flock Firefox is gaining Popularity over IE Flock
  93. 93. Low and High Level Languages Programming Language - a set of written symbols that instruct the computer hardware to perform certain tasks - can be categorized as Low level Language and High Level Language Low Level Language Language that has the tendency towards specific, delicate machine syntax Machine Language and Assembly Language
  94. 94. - consists of entirely 1’s and 0’s that only the computer understands - depends on different, specific hardware designs - it executes very fast, but is time consuming and difficult to understand - only programmer who has the knowledge of the computer architecture is able to understand the language Low and High Level Languages – cont. Low Level Language – cont. Machine Language
  95. 95. also considered as Low Level Language because it still needs specific knowledge of hardware it differs from machine language because of it uses mnemonic in spite of 1’s and 0’s to represent the operation codes mnemonic code is an alphabetic abbreviation that is easy to remember it produce programs very efficient, less storage usage and the execution is much faster Low Level Language – cont. Assembly Language Low and High Level Languages – cont.
  96. 96. - instructions resemble human language and mathematical notation - no detail knowledge of computer hardware and internal operation of a computer - easier to learn because of the English-like language rather than understanding machine codes and instructions - E.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C/C++ Low and High Level Languages – cont. High Level Language
  97. 97. Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter Assembly Language Assembler Machine Language Compiler/Interpreter High-Level Language Machine Language (Source code) (Object code)
  98. 98. - the source code will remain unchanged after the conversion but can be updated and changed, then compiled again - after it is compiled, then the object code can be executed example of HLL program uses compiler is the C and C++ - the interpreter will translate a program one line at a time, executing each line of the program after it is translated - if an error should occur during execution, the error must be rectified or solved before it can proceed to the next line - example of HLL program uses interpreter is the BASIC Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter – cont. Compiler Interpreter
  99. 99. Importance of Backup – cont. Data is exposed to several threats. Software Hardware Human Environment Power Supply Causes of data loss
  100. 100. Importance of Backup – cont. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) How does UPS works? - it is connected in series with the computer system - when power is interrupted, this result the UPS to function as a backup supply of power to the computer system - depends on the type of UPS, it will operate in 20 minutes or more - it is advisable to backup important data within the time limit to prevent any lost of data
  101. 101. Components of UPS - one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge the battery - one battery to supply DC power to the inverter and the supported time are based on the number and size of batteries - one inverter to convert DC to AC - one static bypass switch to control the load from/to the power source to/from the battery and allows certain load to transfer tolerances needed by the computer and its peripherals Importance of Backup – cont.
  102. 102. The Computer Virus Crisis The elements of a computer virus : 1. A set of instructions - a program being made to disrupt or interfere other programs 2. Deliberately created - purposely created by humans or by itself 3. Actively propagates - reproducing itself 4. Infects other programs - contaminate or polluting different types of programs 5. Able to do harm - can cause damage to others 6. Able to evolve - developing, growing and changing in programs or systems
  103. 103. The Computer Virus Crisis – cont. What are the damages of the virus to a computer system : 1. Creates garbage in your computer system that takes up space in the memory and into your diskettes 2. Messing up files in their normal standard and altering some of the files 3. Messing up the FAT (File Allocation Table) which contains information of where are the other data's stored on your disk 4. Messing up the boot sector that can restrict your computer from being able to execute at all
  104. 104. The Computer Virus Crisis– cont. Types of anti-virus software   The Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in the USA has developed three basic categories of anti-virus software. To prevent initial infection To detect infection To identify and remove viruses Class I Software Class III Software Class II Software
  105. 105. COMPUTER NETWORKING Network : Computers connected together to communicate among themselves. Resource Sharing File Sharing Communication PCs’ Administration and Security Why Network?
  106. 106. - Computer network technology can be classified by the distance the network technology is designed to span - There are three types of networking : Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.
  107. 107. Local Area Network (LAN) - Relatively small refers to the transmission media and computer hardware - The area is not exceeding 10 KM - It only uses one type of transmission medium - It share resources within building or campus COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.
  108. 108. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - The network is larger compared to LAN - The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM - It requires efficient hardware and transmission media to cover these areas COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.
  109. 109. Wide Area Network (WAN) - The network is larger than MAN and LAN - It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around the world - It covers huge geographical area in the world COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.
  110. 110. Local Area Network Local Area Network Router Multiplexer Multiplexer Modem Modem Front end Processor Host Computer
  111. 111. LAN COMPONENTS Every LAN is made up of a standard set of components: Network Cable Server Workstation NIC I/Connecting Device NOS
  112. 112. Topology: The physical connection among computers within a network - the topology is the configuration of the hardware and shows which pairs of nodes can communicate -there are three common types of topologies :- LAN TOPOLOGIES Star topology Ring topology Bus topology
  113. 113. Star Ring Bus
  114. 114. LAN PROTOCOLS Protocol : A set of rules to access the network to send data. Two common LAN protocols Token Ring Ethernet
  115. 115. TRANSMISSION MEDIA Transmission Media : The physical medium used for transmission. Types of TM Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair Cable Fiber Optic Cable Satellite Transmission Microwave Transmission
  116. 116. TRANSMISSION MEDIA - Twisted Pair Cable Colour-coded insulation Jacket Copper wire conductor
  117. 117. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Coaxial Cable Inner conductor Insulation Outer plastic covering
  118. 118. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Fiber Optic Cable Optical fiber Protective outer sheath Glass covering Strength wires
  119. 119. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Microwave
  120. 120. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Satellite