Project Introductory


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Project Introductory

  1. 1. WHAT IS A PROJECT <ul><li>A Project is a scientific or </li></ul><ul><li>systematic study </li></ul><ul><li>of a real issue or a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>It is intended to resolve the problem </li></ul><ul><li>with the application of </li></ul><ul><li>Management Concepts and Skills </li></ul>
  2. 2. Examples of a Problem: <ul><li>The problem can be from any discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be large or a small issue needing study. </li></ul><ul><li>It can even be a case study </li></ul><ul><li>where the problem has been dealt with through the process of management. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Essential requirement to call it a Project <ul><li>It should entail scientific method of </li></ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to valid conclusions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Project is necessary <ul><li>Project work is the best way to practice what you have learnt. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an opportunity given to MBA students </li></ul><ul><li>to investigate a problem </li></ul><ul><li>applying management concepts learnt, </li></ul><ul><li>in a scientific manner. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Project is necessary <ul><li>It enables you to apply your </li></ul><ul><li>conceptual knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>in a practical situation and </li></ul><ul><li>to learn </li></ul><ul><li>the art of conducting a study </li></ul><ul><li>in a systematic way and </li></ul><ul><li>presenting its findings in a coherent report. </li></ul><ul><li>How well this task can be done is shown by you by means of your Project report. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Criteria for Selection of a Project <ul><li>1. Will the implementation of the project bring about an improvement in the present status of an activity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. Can the improvement be quantified </li></ul><ul><li>by means of money saved, </li></ul><ul><li>better utilization of time and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manpower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>better sales performance </li></ul><ul><li>higher production </li></ul>
  8. 8. Criteria for Selection of a Project <ul><li>3. Does it have an underlying management principle, </li></ul><ul><li>framework or mode </li></ul><ul><li>based on which </li></ul><ul><li>the data is collected, </li></ul><ul><li>analysed and arguments developed? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Criteria for Selection of a Project <ul><li>4. Is the project idea applicable in other similar situations? </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the idea thesis, </li></ul><ul><li>the proving or disproving of a hypothesis, </li></ul><ul><li>the methodology, the framework for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>should be such that it can be applied to another problem of similar nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The project should not be so exclusive that its principles have no other application or use. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criteria for Selection of a Project <ul><li>5. Does the Project Report take into account factual data which is relevant to the particular situation? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Selecting a Topic <ul><li>This choice will be entirely personal emerging from your area of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>There can be more than one area of interest </li></ul><ul><li>There can be more than one topic in each area. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Selecting a Topic <ul><li>When faced with such a wide choice, a discussion with your colleagues, superiors or guide can help you in narrowing down your choice by the method of elimination. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Selecting a Topic <ul><li>While selecting the topic you have to take into account the organisation you work in and the opportunities you get to generate relevant data required for your Project. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Selecting an Organization <ul><li>You have to choose an organization </li></ul><ul><li>for your Project work. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Selecting an Organization <ul><li>The organization could be your own </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>any other organization </li></ul><ul><li>in the vicinity. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Selecting an Organization <ul><li>It would be one where you have access to information and an opportunity to discuss your ideas and views with the executives working there. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Selecting an Organization <ul><li>The Project outline and its formulation must be freely discussed with those who are responsible for similar activities in the organization. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DO’S AND DON’TS BEFORE YOU START. <ul><li>Be punctual during every visit. </li></ul><ul><li>Be regular time and again. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm and reconfirm your schedules, </li></ul><ul><li>visits and appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations don’t welcome time wasters. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>While discussing remember – </li></ul><ul><li>Have you found out as much as possible about the company. </li></ul><ul><li>It will make you more comfortable, if you know the environment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Carry your ID Card, </li></ul><ul><li>All bonafide papers, documents, </li></ul><ul><li>Letter from the college </li></ul><ul><li>Always show these on demand. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>What you wear </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your clothes are decent, formal and comfortable. </li></ul><ul><li>Your shoes are polished. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you don’t have body odour or bad breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your hair is combed, </li></ul><ul><li>nails cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Be well groomed </li></ul>
  23. 23. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>How you behave </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct yourself whenever you are inside the company or factory – </li></ul><ul><li>decently, honestly and </li></ul><ul><li>in a professional manner. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Value of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not waste anybody’s time. </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to your point. Be precise. </li></ul><ul><li>Quit the cabin of the Manager/Officer </li></ul><ul><li>immediately when you are finished. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t disturb others : </li></ul><ul><li>Your discussion with the concerned officer should not disturb the organization’s work. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISCUSSION : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not discuss personal matters. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>No admission without permission: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not enter into any Department without prior permission. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Commitment to the cause: </li></ul><ul><li>Get serious about the task assigned to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Show that you will give 100 per cent commitment to carry out the task. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Out of the ordinary: </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a unique project. </li></ul><ul><li>Let it look different </li></ul><ul><li>(while maintaining all other procedures laid down by the University) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get aggressive or over-ambitious. Maintain a balance . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be too polite or smile right through. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a balance. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t argue with anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Listen patiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that you are learning. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Pre-paration: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t begin talking with any employee </li></ul><ul><li>Without prior preparation or points </li></ul><ul><li>(be ready with your agenda) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t give model answers just because they sound right. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t criticize another company or person, if asked for an opinion. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t carry anything from the company , </li></ul><ul><li>such as </li></ul><ul><li>A copy of Balance Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Printed Stationery </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Journals </li></ul><ul><li>without prior permission. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t be present when Company matters are being discussed. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t try to be over smart and act knowledgeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Be humble, submissive and </li></ul><ul><li>Hungry for knowledge. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t commit errors in your Draft Report </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical or </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Introduction 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Profile 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Company Profile with reference </li></ul><ul><li> to McKenzie’s 7S Model 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Structure 15 Product and Service Profile 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Swot analysis 31 </li></ul>TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  41. 41. McKinsey 7-S framework model <ul><li>In 1981 Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos were finding out how Japanese Industry had been so successful and published the article “The Art of Japanese Management”. Around the same time Tom Peters and Robert Waterman were exploring what made a company excellent. At a meeting of the four authors the 7S model was born and it appeared in “In search of Excellence” by Peters and Waterman. </li></ul><ul><li>This model was adopted as the basic tool by the Global Consultancy firm McKinsey successfully in more than 70 cases. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Meaning of 7S <ul><li>1. Shared Values (Super-ordinate Goals) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>4. Systems </li></ul><ul><li>5. Style </li></ul><ul><li>6. Staff </li></ul><ul><li>7. Skill </li></ul>
  43. 43. Shared Values (Super Ordinate Goals) <ul><li>The interconnecting center of McKinsey’s Model is : Shared Values. What does the Organization stand for and what it believes in. </li></ul><ul><li>Central beliefs and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the values shared by the members of the Organisation. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Strategy <ul><li>Systematic action and allocation of a firm’s scarce resources to achieve the company’s aims </li></ul>
  45. 45. Strategy <ul><li>Determine </li></ul><ul><li>the purpose or mission </li></ul><ul><li>The basic long-term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Of the enterprise </li></ul>
  46. 46. Strategy <ul><li>Adopt a course of action </li></ul>
  47. 47. Strategy <ul><li>Allocate resources necessary </li></ul><ul><li>for achieving these aims. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Strategies and Policies <ul><li>Policies are general statements or understandings that guide manager’s thinking in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies and policies give directions to plans. And serve as a basis for developing tactics and other managerial activities. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Strategy <ul><li>Tools for analysing and allocating resources: </li></ul><ul><li>TOWS Matrix is used to analyse the Threats Opportunities in the external environment and the relationships to the Organization’s internal weaknesses and strengths. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Portfolio Matrix is a tool for allocating resources linking the business growth rate with market share. </li></ul><ul><li>McKinsey’s matrix (GE Matrix) is a model to perform Portfolio analysis. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Portfolio is a collection of Strategic Business Units. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Business Units (SBU) can be a medium size company of the Group or a Division of a large Corporation. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSE portfolio and decide which SBUs should get less and which SBU should get more resources. </li></ul><ul><li>ADD new Products and Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSTRACT – Decide which Products or businesses are no longer required </li></ul>
  53. 53. Structure <ul><li>Organization Structure and Authority- </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility and Relationships </li></ul>
  54. 54. Structure <ul><li>Strategy and Structure are closely linked. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure should follow strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>If the organization changes its strategy, the structure will have to be altered. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Structure <ul><li>Organizational structure can be broadly of two models: </li></ul><ul><li>The Mechanistic Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Organic Model. </li></ul>
  56. 56. The Mechanistic Structure <ul><li>High Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow spans of control </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul><ul><li>High formalization </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Organic Model <ul><li>Similar to </li></ul><ul><li>McKenzie’s 7-S Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross functional teams </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-hierarchical teams </li></ul><ul><li>Free-flow of information </li></ul><ul><li>Wide spans of control </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Low formalization </li></ul>
  59. 59. Systems <ul><li>Procedures and Processes such as </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting and control processes </li></ul><ul><li>Financial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring, Promotion and </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal systems </li></ul>
  60. 60. System <ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>HR Policies and Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Culture </li></ul>
  61. 61. Style <ul><li>The way management behaves and collectively spends its time to achieve organizational goals. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Style <ul><li>Styles based on use of authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic – leader commands and expects compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic or Participative: consults with subordinates on proposed action. </li></ul><ul><li>Free-rein: Subordinates given high degree of independence in their operations. Leader’s powers rarely and very little used. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Style <ul><li>Likert’s four systems: </li></ul><ul><li>System 1 – exploitive-authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>System 2 – benevolent-authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>System 3 – consultative </li></ul><ul><li>System 4 – participative-group. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Staff <ul><li>People in the enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Well trained Managers create an environment in which people working together in groups, can achieve enterprise objectives and at the same time accomplish personal goals. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Staff <ul><li>Socialization in the Organizational culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Three aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>a) acquisition of work skills and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Adoption of appropriate role behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>c) Adjustment to the norms and values of the work group. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Skills <ul><li>It is not the individual skill. </li></ul><ul><li>What is referred in the 7S model is the </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive capabilities of an enterprise </li></ul>
  67. 67. SWOT ANALYSIS <ul><li>STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>WEAKNESS </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES </li></ul><ul><li>THREATS </li></ul>
  68. 68. The Project Report <ul><li>The report will be word processed either on MS-Word or any other equivalent software. </li></ul><ul><li>All reports will be printed on A4 size paper with 1” margin on all sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The report will be between 60 to 80 pages (excluding annexures). </li></ul>
  69. 69. The Project Report <ul><li>The report will be hard bound with the title page indicating </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> Student’s Name </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.No. </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the College </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Month and Year </li></ul>
  70. 70. The Project Report <ul><li>The following Certificates must be included as Annexures </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate from the College </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate from the Organisation where the Project work was undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration by the Student </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul>
  71. 71. The Project Report <ul><li>Other enclosures: </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Charts and Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul>
  72. 72. Marks for the Project Report <ul><li>Total Marks : 150 </li></ul><ul><li>100 for Preparing the Project Report </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded at the College. </li></ul><ul><li>50 Marks for Viva </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded at the University. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Last Date: <ul><li>The last date for giving the Project </li></ul><ul><li>Report complete in all respects </li></ul><ul><li>is 15 th August 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Project Report must be ready </li></ul><ul><li>by 10 th August 2005. </li></ul>