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  1. 1. Perception Meaning : Perception refers to the way we try to understand the world around us. Definition: It is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.- Stephen.P.Robbins
  2. 2. The Perceptual Process
  3. 3. <ul><li>Comprehensive Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives info about his envt –seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting and smelling. The study of these perceptual processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables –the objects or events being perceived, ,the envt in which perception occurs, and the individual doing the perceiving”. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Perception is composed of six processes, viz., receiving, selecting , organizing , interpreting, checking and reacting to stimuli. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Process of Receiving Stimuli : </li></ul><ul><li>It is received through five sensory organs i.e vision, hearing, smell, touch and testing . Stimuli May be external and also internal. External – sound,video. Internal –digestive system, Secretion of hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Process of Receiving Stimuli : </li></ul><ul><li>Two factors govern the selection of stimuli : External and Internal. </li></ul><ul><li>a) External Factors Influencing Selection ; </li></ul><ul><li>1.Nature : Visual or audio. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Location : </li></ul><ul><li>3.Intensity :Higher intensity are perceived more yhan the objects with low intensity. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>4. Size :Larger size receive more attention than smaller one. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Contrast : This states that the external stimuli that stand out against the background or which are not what people are expecting. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Movement :moving objects receive more attention than an objects that is standing still. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Repetition : repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one </li></ul><ul><li>8.Novelty and Familiarity : New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new settings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>b) Internal Factors Influencing Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Learning :People tend to perceive what they want to perceive </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Needs : </li></ul><ul><li>Age Difference : </li></ul><ul><li>Interest : </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalence : Mixed feelings about the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoid perception: so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. i.e emotionally disturbed person perceptual field differs from that of most other persons. </li></ul>TURN OFF THE THE ENGINE M-A-C-T-A-V-I-S-H M-A-C-D-O-N-A-L-D M-A-C-B-E-T-H M-A-C-H-I-N-E-R-Y
  7. 7. <ul><li>Process of Organizing : </li></ul><ul><li>a) Figure Ground </li></ul><ul><li>b) Perceptual Grouping: Include similarity, proximity, closure and continuity. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Perceptual Constancy : Gives a sense of stability in a changing world. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Shape Constancy eg: Pot </li></ul><ul><li>2. Size Constancy i.e objects moved farther away we tend to see it as more or less invariant size. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Colour Constancy </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Process of Interpreting : </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Set: Previously held beliefs about objects </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution: Refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behavior he conceives. Factors such as status, intentions and consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Stereotyping : It is the process of judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that perception belongs to. It provides us a short cut to predicting behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Halo Effect : It refers to the tendency of forming a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Need not always be positive characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual may be down rated based on the negative evaluation of his or her behaviors .This process is called rusty halo or horns effect. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>e) Perceptual Context :The context in which an object is placed perception. </li></ul><ul><li>f) Perceptual Defense: an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting, unacceptable or threatening stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of defense : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Out right denial. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Modification mechanism: associating intelligence with some other trait. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Refusal to change mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Change in perception mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>g) Implicit personality theory :Extrovert means talkative. </li></ul><ul><li>h) Projection : one who is dishonest may be suspicious of others. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>4. Process of Checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Checking by introspection </li></ul><ul><li>Checking about the intrepretation with the others. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Process of Reacting : </li></ul><ul><li>Shall indulge in some action in relation to his </li></ul><ul><li>perception. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Characteristics of the perceiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the Situation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Foundations of Individual Behaviour Environmental factors Economic Social norms and cultural values Political Personal Factors Age, Gender ,Education, Abilities Marital status, No of Dependants Orgn System & Resources Physical Facilities Orgn structure an design Leadership & Reward system Psychological Personality, Perception Attitudes, Values, Learning Performanace Individual Development
  13. 13. Link B/W Perception and Individual Decision Making <ul><li>Rational Decision Making Process : Value maximising choices within specified constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Decision Making Model: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the decision criteria </li></ul><ul><li>3.Allocate weights to the criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Develop the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Evaluate the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Select the alternative. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Assumptions of the model <ul><li>Problem Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Known options </li></ul><ul><li>Clear preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>No time or cost constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Payoffs. </li></ul>