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  1. 1. Organizational Behavior
  2. 2. Nature and Definition of OB <ul><li>Organisation can be created on the basis that more can be achieved when people work in harmony for a particular purpose than by individual acting alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Behaviour is defined as a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures in an orgn. </li></ul><ul><li>OB is the study and application of knowledge of about how people as individuals and as groups act within the organisation. It strives to identify various ways in which people can act more effectiveley. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>To describe systematically how people under a variety of conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand why people behave as they do </li></ul><ul><li>To predict future employee behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>To control and develop some human activity at work. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historical evolution of OB <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific management </li></ul><ul><li>Human relations movement </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour science/OB </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fundamental concepts <ul><li>Nature of people </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>The whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Value of the person </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Social systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual interest </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Contributing disciplines to the OB field <ul><li>Orgl Behaviour is an applied behavioural science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology : is the science seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. It’s a study of understanding individual behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Psychology : blends concepts from both psychology and sociology, though it is generally considered a branch of psychology. It focuses on how people’s influence on one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology : while psychology focuses on the individual, sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture. Study of group behavior in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology : is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Study on cultures, environment in understanding differences in fundamental values, attitudes and behaviour between people in diff countries and within organizations. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basic OB model Individual Level Group level Organisation system level
  8. 8. <ul><li>OB model </li></ul>Personality, Perception, Learning, Attitudes and values & motivation. Group dynamics, Leadership,Power& politics,Communication,Conflict Organsational Culture, HR Policies and practices, Work stress,Org’l change and development Individual Behaviour OrganisationalBehaviour Group Behaviour Org’l Effectiveness
  9. 9. Challenges/opportunities for OB field <ul><li>1. Responding to Globalisation : Organisations are no longer constrained by national borders.world has become a global village. In the process, the manager’s job is changing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with people from diff cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Managing workforce diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Responding to Outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Improving customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Improving people skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Empowering people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. stimulating innovation and change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Coping with temporaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Helping employees Balance work-Life conflicts/balancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Improving ethical behavior </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Foundations of Individual Behaviour <ul><li>Individual Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ability-Job Fit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> _ Biographical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tenure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Learning <ul><li>Learning: Def : is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a change in behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning: is a simple form of learning in which conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest model of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Psychologist, Ivan Pavlov experiment: </li></ul><ul><li>Food ----- salivation </li></ul><ul><li>(Unconditioned stimulus) ------ (unconditioned response) </li></ul><ul><li>Bell with Food -------- Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus ------ unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Ringing of the Bell ------ Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>(Conditioned stimulus) ------- (conditioned Response) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning/Instrumental learning </li></ul><ul><li>B.F.Skinner: Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive re-inforcement ( desirable behaviour if rewarded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement ( undesirable behaviour will not be repeated if punished). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn both through observation and direct experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The influence of Model is central to the social-learning. Four processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Attentional Process : people learn from a model only when they recognise and pay attention to its critical features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Retention : a Models influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the if the model is no longer available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Motor Reproduction : after observation watching converts into actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Reinforcement : individuals will be motivated to exhibit the models behaviour if positive rewards are provided. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Shaping Behaviour <ul><li>Four ways of shaping behaviour: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement – Four ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules of Reinforcement: Major Two types of Reinforncement: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Continuous reinforcement: schedule reinforces the desired behaviour each and every time it is demonstrated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. intermittent reinforcement: rationinterval type: Fixed / variable interval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour Modification: OB Mod: The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orgl applications : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Pay vs Sick pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing training programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Attitudes and Job satisfaction <ul><li>Attitude is described as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are evaluative statements- either favorable or unfavorable- concerning objects or events. They reflect how one feels about something. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Components of Attitudes Negative attitude towards supervisor Cognitive = evaluation ex;: my supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair Affective = Feeling I dislike my supervisor Behavioral = action Iam looking for other work; I’ve compained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen Cognitive,affect, behavior are
  17. 17. Types of Job Attitudes <ul><li>Job related attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction : how one feels about one’s job. Positive attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Involvement : this refer to the extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his or her job and will try to perform the job to the his/ her ability. Positive disposition towards his colleagues/subordinates. Derive a pleasure in performing duties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational Commitment : this can be visible in how an employee has identified with an orgn, its goals, vision and is also proud to be a part of the orgn. High degree of Orgl commitment will posses a sense of belonging towards the orgn. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Attitudes and Behaviour <ul><li>Behavior always follow from attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes affect Behavior – research continues… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of Attitudes :According to Koontz; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The adjustemnt function: Employees form posiive attitudes towards their superiors when their expressed and unexpressed problems are solved by superiors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ego-Defensive : when subordinate gives innovative ideas superiors doesn’t accept. And Ego clashes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Value-Empressive : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The knowledge function: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Changing Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes change faster that the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes with new knowledge developed based on research. </li></ul><ul><li>Barries to Attitudinal Change : </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Commitments: </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Inadequate information. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of Changing Attitudes : </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional information </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving discrepancies </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of friends and peers </li></ul><ul><li>The co-opting Approach: means involving people who are dissatisfied with a situation to understand the things and change their attitude. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Leon Festinger- to explain the linkage between attitudes and behaviour. It refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive two or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Personality <ul><li>Personality: a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. </li></ul><ul><li>A dynamic orgn within an individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is a sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. It is most oftwen described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Definitions <ul><li>Stephen P.Robbins: The process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of receiving, slecting, organsing interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data. ---by Udai Pareek. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Factors influencing Perception Factors in the situation: Time Work setting Social setting Factors in the Perceiver Attitudes Motives Interest experience Expectations Perception Factors in the target Novelty Motion, sounds, size Background Similarity
  24. 24. Definitions <ul><li>Stephen P.Robbins: The process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of receiving, slecting, organsing interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data. ---by Udai Pareek. </li></ul>