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  • Motivation

    1. 1. Motivation <ul><li>Berelson and Steiner- Motive as “ an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and that directs or channels behavior towards goals.” </li></ul><ul><li>Robbins- Motivation in an orgn’l sense as to reach Orgn’l goals, conditioned by the efforts , ability to satisfy some individual needs”. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Motivation defined <ul><li>The word Motivation derived from ‘motive’ means an idea, need or emotion that prompts a person into action . </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of a person is the response to a stimulus is dependent upon the motive. Motive depends on the need and desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Different motives operate in different times among different people and influence their behaviour. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Features and Importance of Motivation <ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is an internal feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>It can be either positive or negative </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Productive use of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Increased efficiency and output </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Development of cordial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Stability in workforce </li></ul>
    4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Content Vs Process Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Content theories: are based on human needs and peoples efforts to satisfy them. </li></ul><ul><li>Process- assume that behavioral choices are made more rationally, based on the expected outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Content- emphasizes more on “ What” motivates a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Process- emphasizes on “ How” motivation occurs. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Content Vs Process <ul><li>Content theories : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow's need heirarcy theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzbergs Two factor theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mc Clellands trio needs theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process theories : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams Equity thoery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vrooms Expectancy theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Porters-Lawler theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory-Skinner </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. MC Gregors Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Philosophy of Human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the importance of understanding the relationship between motivation and the managers philosophy of human nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on certain set of assumptions about employees </li></ul>
    7. 7. MC Gregors Theory X & Theory Y <ul><li>Traditional view was names as: Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>“ The assumptions that people dislike work and responsibility and creative ability and mainly want security and money”. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate theory: Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>“ the assumption that expending physical and mental effort is natural, that people can be self-directed if achievement brings rewards, and that most can exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity and learn to seek responsibility”. </li></ul>
    8. 8. MC Gregors Theory X & Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>The average person inherently dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Most employees must be coerced, directed, closely supervised and threatened with punishment to get them perform effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The average person lacks ambition, avoids responsibility and seeks job security and economic rewards about everything else. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people lack creativity ability and are resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Since most people are self-centred, they are not concerned with the objective of th organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>The Expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people prefer to exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the achievement of objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>People learn, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>People want job security but also have other needs such as esteem or ego-satisfaction and also the need for self-actualisation. </li></ul><ul><li>People are interested in displaying imagination, ingenuity, and creativity to solve organisational problems. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1. Maslows Need –Hierarchy Theory Self Actualization needs Esteem/Status/Ego- Satisfction needs Belonging/Love/affection/social needs Safety and Security Needs Physiological needs/Basic needs
    10. 10. Maslows Need –Hierarchy Theory <ul><li>Physiological Needs : These needs are most basic physical needs of human beings such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sexual satisfaction and other physical requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and security needs : When physical needs are adequately met, the next higher level of needs assume importance. Safety and security needs include needs for security and proetection from Physical and emotional harm. Need for safe and secure environment in work place. </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs : These are also known as “ belongingness” needs they include need for love, affection. </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem needs : represent a persons needs for intrnal factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achivement. External factors like staus, power, recognition, and attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualisation : desire to bcome more and more what one is, to become everything one is capable of becoming. This means individual will realise fully the potentialities of his or her talents and capabilities. These needs include self fulfillment and competency. Personal growth, development and self-respect. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 2. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory/Two-Factor theory <ul><li>In this study, Herzberg and his associates asked the group of professional to think of times both when they felt especially good and when they felt especially bad about their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Two distinct classes of factors which were important to behavior. These classes were called as : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Hygienic factors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Motivators </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hygiene theory/Two-Factor theory <ul><li>Hygienic factors : (also called as maintenance factors ) are capable of creating dissatisfaction but not Positive motivation. These are conditions of a job which operate primarily to cause dissatisfaction to the employee when they(conditions) are not present. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators : Motivators produce high levels of satisfaction. These are job conditions or factors which build high levels of motivation. These include challenging work, recognition for accomplishment and feeling of achievement. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hygiene theory/Two-Factor <ul><li>Hygiene factors(the environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators ( The Job itself) </li></ul>Job Dis -Satisfaction No job Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Company policy and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision(technical) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with superiors, peers, subordinates, </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary, </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul>No Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Meaningful and challenging work </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition for accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of achivementopportunities for growth and advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Increased responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>The job itself </li></ul>
    14. 14. 3. David McClellands Trio needs / Acquired needs theory <ul><li>Three-needs theory is concerned with how individual needs and environmental factors combine to form three basic human motives (needs) viz., the need for achivement(n-Ach), the need for power (n- Pow), and the need for affiliation ( n- aff). </li></ul><ul><li>According to Mcclelland, these are called as “ Acquired needs” because these needs are acquired through experience over the time. </li></ul>
    15. 15. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
    16. 16. David McClellands Trio needs / Acquired needs theory <ul><li>According to Mcclelland, the characteristics of persons having high need for achievement, high need for power, and high need for affiliation are as given below: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Achievement : A person with a high need for achievement is one who </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is objective oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks challenging jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish moderate, realistic and attainable objectives that involve risk but are not impossible to attain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desires concrete feedback on performance and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has high level of energy and is willing to work hard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for Power : A person with high need for power seeks to influence or control others. Such an individual tends to be one who: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is concerned with acquiring, exercising, or retaining power or influence over others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likes to compete with others in situations that allow him or her to dominant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys confrontation with others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. David McClellands Trio needs / Acquired needs theory- contd… <ul><li>Need for Affiliation : A high need for Affiliation is </li></ul><ul><li>related to the desire for affection and for establishing </li></ul><ul><li>friendly relationships. A person with a high need for affiliation tends to be one: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to establish and maintain friendships and close emotional relationships with others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to be liked by others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys parties and social activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks a sense of belonging by joining groups or organizations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Process Theories <ul><li>Equity theory : </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by J Stacy Adams, this theory is based on simple belief that people want to be treated fairly relative to others. </li></ul><ul><li>He describes this comparison in terms of input/output ratios. </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs : contributions to orgn in terms of education,experience, ability, effort and loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs : are the obvious rewards of pay and promotion, recognition and social relationships. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Equity Theory: A Summary and Example INEQUITABLE RELATIONSHIP Andy is overpaid compared to Bill Bill is underpaid compared to Andy Bill’s outcomes ($25,000/year) Bill’s inputs (40 hours/week) Andy’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Andy’s inputs (40 hour/week) Andy feels guilty Bill feels angry EQUITABLE RELATIONSHIP Andy’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Andy’s inputs (40 hour/week) Andy is equitably paid compared to Bill Bill’s outcomes ($30,000/year) Bill’s inputs (40 hours/week) Bill is equitably paid compared to Andy Bill feels satisfied Andy feels satisfied
    20. 20. Overview of Expectancy Theory Effort Expectancy Instrumentality Valence of reward Performance Reward MOTIVATION Role perceptions and opportunities Abilities and traits JOB PERFORMANCE X X
    21. 21. 2. Expectancy theory <ul><li>Formulated by victor Vroom relates the effort a person puts forth to the expectation of achieving some desired goals. This involves combination of three expectancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Effort-to-performance expectancy(E) which is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Valence (V) or attractiveness of reward: it is the importance that the person places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance-to-outcome expectancy(I) , also known as instrumentality, is the degree to which the person’s believes that performing at a particular level is instrumental in attaining the desired outcome.Attaining the performance described above will lead to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards (second-order outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic : are intangibles such as feeling of accomplishment or sense of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic : are tangibles results like pay or promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>This model states that motivation is a function of Expectancy, Valence and Instrumentality. ie M = E * V * I </li></ul>
    22. 22. 3. The porter-Lawler extension <ul><li>Lyman,W Porter and Edward E Lawler proposed and extension of the expectancy model involving employee satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Implication to managers : </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing managers should attempt to measure variables such as values of possible rewards, the perceptions of effort – reward probabilities and role perceptions which will help them better iunderstand about the employees effort and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation must critically re-evaluate their current reward policies and should make concentrated effort to measure how closely levels of satisfaction are related to levels of performance. </li></ul>
    23. 23. 4. Behavior modification or Reinforcement theory <ul><li>B F Skinner- is a motivational approach that attempts to explain the role of rewards in motivational process. </li></ul><ul><li>It says that “ behavior is a function of its consequences”. </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses only on what happens to a person when he or she takes some actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Four major types of reinforcements : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Positive reinforcement : increase the probability that desired behavior will be repeated by providing a reward(praise,recognitions,raise.promotion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Negative reinforcement : or avoidance, seeks to increase the probability that desired behavior will be repeated by letting the employee escape from undesired consequences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Punishment ; seeks to decrease the probability that undesired behavior will be repeated by imposing penalties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Extinction : seeks to decrease the probability that undesired behavior will be repeated by ignoring it and withholding positive reinforcement. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Leadership <ul><li>Leading or Leadership : is the art of influencing others what the leader wants them to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is the ability of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to awaken or inspire in others . </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to shape the attitudes and behaviours of others. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Leadership- Traits <ul><li>Characteristics/Traits : By peterson and Plowman- 18 attributes desirable in leader. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical qualities of health, vitality and endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal attributes of personal magnetism, cooperativeness, enthusiasm, ability to inspire, persuasiveness, forcefulness and tact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character attributes of integrity, humanism, self-discipline, stability, and industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual qualities of mental capacity, abuility to teach others, and a scientific approach to problems. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Ralp Stogdill- successful leaders tend to have the following qualities: </li></ul><ul><li>A strong desire for accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent pursuit of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and intelligence used to solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assumed personality </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to accept behavioral consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>High tolerance of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to structure social interactions. </li></ul>Trait Theory
    27. 27. Behaviour theories: <ul><li>1. Ohio State university studies :The main objective of the studies was to identify the major dimensions of leadership and to investigate the effect of leader behavior on employee performance and satisfaction. Two dimensions were identified: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The initiating structure : which refers to leader behavior that defines and organizes the group tasks, assigns the tasks to employee and supervisors their activities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Consideration : refers to leader behavior that can be characterized by friendliness, respect, supportiveness, openness, trust, and concern for welfare of the employees. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Behaviour theories <ul><li>2. The university of Michigan studies : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Production- centred : leaders set rigid work standards, organized tasks down to the last detail, prescribed work methods, close supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Employee – centred : encouraged employee participation in goal setting and in other work related decisions, and helped ensure high performance by inspiring respect and trust. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Behaviour theories <ul><li>3. The managerial Grid: Blake and mouton </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial based on the styles of ‘concern for people’ and ‘ concern for production’. </li></ul><ul><li>The grid identified 5 basic styles of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>9,1(task mgmt ), 1,9( country club management), 9,9(Team management), 5,5(middle of the road management), 1,1( Impoverished management.) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Behaviour theories <ul><li>3. The managerial Grid: </li></ul><ul><li>9,1(task mgmt ): Efficiency in operation results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interference to a minimum degree (high concern for production and low for people) </li></ul><ul><li>1,9( country club management): Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying leads to a comfortable, friendly orgn atmosphere and work temperature ( low concern for prodn, high for people) </li></ul><ul><li>9,9(Team management): work accomplishment is form committed people interdependence through a common purpose leads to trust and respect. </li></ul><ul><li>5,5(middle of the road management): Adequate organizational performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work with maintaining moral of people at a satisfactory level. ( medium concern for production and medium in people) </li></ul><ul><li>1,1( Impoverished management.): Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain orgl membership (low concern for prodn and people) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Leadership Styles( Tannenbaum and Schmidt- continuum of Leadership styles) <ul><li>1. Autocratic (“Telling”): Manager makes decisions with little or no involvement of non-managers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Diplomatic (“ Selling”): Managers makes decisions without consultation but tries to persuade non-managers to accept hem(and even modify them if they strongly object) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consultative ( “ Consulting”): Manager obtains non-managers ideas and uses them in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Participative (“Joining”): Manager involves non-managers heavily in the decision (and may even delegate it to them completely) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Tannenbaum and Schmidt- continuum of Leadership styles <ul><li>Proposed that a manager should consider three types of forces deciding what management style to employ: </li></ul><ul><li>Forces in the manager </li></ul><ul><li>Forces in the subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Forces in the situation </li></ul>
    33. 33. Motivating and Leading Technical Professionals: <ul><li>General Nature of the Technical Professional(characteristics of technical professional- Kerr et al and Rosenbaum): </li></ul><ul><li>Having a high need for achievement and deriving their motivation primarily from the work itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Desiring autonomy (independence) over the conditions, pace and content of their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Tending to identify first with their profession and secondarily with their company. As professionals, they look to their peers (whether inside or outside the Orgn) for recognition, ethical standards and collegial support and stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking to maintain their expertise , gained through long and arduous study, and stave off obsolescence throuhg continuing education,reading the literature, professional society activity etc.. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Motivating and Leading Technical Professionals: <ul><li>Leading technical people: </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of technical leadership : Rosenbaum belived that to facilitate achievement of technical and group goals, successful technical leaders should master “ five strategic dimensions”. </li></ul><ul><li>Coach for peak performance : listen , ask, facilitate, integrate, provide administrative support”, help the professional manage change. </li></ul><ul><li>Run orgl interference : obtain resources, act as a advocate for the professional an his/her ideas, and minimize the demands of the bureaucracy(time and paperwork) </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestrate professional development : facilitate career development through challenging assignments, find sources where new areas of knowledge are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand individual productivity through team work : make sure teams are well oriented regarding goals and roles, and that they get the resources and support they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate self-management : assure that technical professionals are empowered to make their own decision by encouraging free two-way information flow, delegating enough authority, and providing material psychological support. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Motivating and Leading Technical Professionals: <ul><li>Dimensions of Technical Leadership: Rosenbaum- “ Five strategic dimensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Coach for peak performance:- “Listen, ask, facilitate, integrate, provide administrative support”; act a a sounding board and supportive critic; help the professional manage change. </li></ul><ul><li>Run orgl interference : obtain resources, act a advocate for the professional and his/her ideas, and minimize the demands of the bureaucracy on the professional. </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestrate professional development - Facilitate career development through challenging assignments, find sources where new areas of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand individual productivity through team work : make sure teams are well oriented regarding goals and roles, and that they get the resources and support they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate self-management - assure that technical professionals are empowered to make their own decisions by encouraging free two-way information flow, delegating enough authority, and providing psychological support. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Motivating and Leading Technical Professionals: <ul><li>Leading as Orchestration: </li></ul><ul><li>McCall: “ effective supervisory leadership is more orchestration than direct application of authority” </li></ul><ul><li>Four general areas where leader can make a difference: </li></ul><ul><li>Technical competence </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Leader as metronome: </li></ul><ul><li>Work challenge </li></ul>