Module 7


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Module 7

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior Module-7
  2. 2. Foundations of Individual Behaviour <ul><li>Individual Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ability-Job Fit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Biographical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tenure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PERSONALITY <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>“ Personality may be understood as the characteristics patterns of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Personality can be described as how a person affects others, how he understands and views </li></ul><ul><li>himself, and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution from the family </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization Process </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Traits </li></ul><ul><li>The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)- Its a 100 question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Based on the answers individuals give to the test they are classified as- </li></ul><ul><li>-Extroverted v/s Introverted(E or I) </li></ul><ul><li>-Sensing v/s Intuitive (S or N) </li></ul><ul><li>-Thinking v/s Feeling (T or F) </li></ul><ul><li>-Judging v/s Perceiving (J or P) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Big Five Model-This test was described by John Bearden where he explained five basic dimensions or factors like- </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theories of Personality <ul><li>Type Theories- Kretschmer and Sheldon came out this type theory where relationship was established between features of face or body and personality. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Trait Theories- A personality trait is understood as an enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently in a variety of situations .e.g.. Shy, aggressive, ambitious,submessive,lazy etc.. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Psychoanalytic theory: ( By Sigmund Freud):is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. </li></ul><ul><li>- He structured personality into Three: id, ego, and super ego. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning theory </li></ul>
  8. 8. Measuring Personality <ul><li>Three main ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-report surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer-rating surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective measures (Rorschach Inkblot test and Thematic appreciation test) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Major Attributes influencing OB <ul><li>Core Self-Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self esteem and Locus of Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism: refers to individual’s propensity to manipulate people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Mach- Highly pragmatic, maintains emotional distance etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Mach- Less logical, emotional. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcissism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of self importance, excessive admiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of entitlement, arrogant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring: it measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external, situational factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Type A and Type B personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Personality </li></ul>
  10. 10. Perception-Definitions <ul><li>Stephen P.Robbins: The process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of receiving, slecting, organsing interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data. ---by Udai Pareek. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors influencing Perception Factors in the situation: Time Work setting Social setting Factors in the Perceiver Attitudes Motives Interest experience Expectations Perception Factors in the target Novelty Motion, sounds, size Background Similarity
  12. 12. <ul><li>Attribution theory: at attempt when individuals observe behaviour to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Interpretation Attribution of causes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Error: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning <ul><li>Learning: Def : is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a change in behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning: is a simple form of learning in which conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest model of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Psychologist, Ivan Pavlov experiment: </li></ul><ul><li>Food ----- salivation </li></ul><ul><li>(Unconditioned stimulus) ------ (unconditioned response) </li></ul><ul><li>Bell with Food -------- Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus ------ unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Ringing of the Bell ------ Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>(Conditioned stimulus) ------- (conditioned Response) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning/Instrumental learning </li></ul><ul><li>B.F.Skinner: Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive re-inforcement ( desirable behaviour if rewarded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement ( undesirable behaviour will not be repeated if punished). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn both through observation and direct experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The influence of Model is central to the social-learning. Four processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Attentional Process : people learn from a model only when they recognise and pay attention to its critical features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Retention : a Models influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the if the model is no longer available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Motor Reproduction : after observation watching converts into actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Reinforcement : individuals will be motivated to exhibit the models behaviour if positive rewards are provided. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Orgl applications : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Pay vs Sick pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing training programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitude is described as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are evaluative statements- either favorable or unfavorable- concerning objects or events. They reflect how one feels about something. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Components of Attitudes Negative attitude towards supervisor Cognitive = evaluation ex;: my supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair Affective = Feeling I dislike my supervisor Behavioral = action Iam looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen Cognitive,affect, behavior are
  19. 19. Types of Job Attitudes <ul><li>Job related attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction : how one feels about one’s job. Positive attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Involvement : this refer to the extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his or her job and will try to perform the job to the his/ her ability. Positive disposition towards his colleagues/subordinates. Derive a pleasure in performing duties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational Commitment : this can be visible in how an employee has identified with an orgn, its goals, vision and is also proud to be a part of the orgn. High degree of Orgl commitment will posses a sense of belonging towards the orgn. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Changing Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes change faster that the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes with new knowledge developed based on research. </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to Attitudinal Change : </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Commitments: </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Inadequate information. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of Changing Attitudes : </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional information </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving discrepancies </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of friends and peers </li></ul><ul><li>The co-opting Approach: means involving people who are dissatisfied with a situation to understand the things and change their attitude. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Leon Festinger- to explain the linkage between attitudes and behaviour. It refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive two or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonance means inconsistency. </li></ul><ul><li>Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. </li></ul>