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  1. 1. SYSTEMS FROM A FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE Introduction; IT in business as there are business activities to be Performed, business problems to be solved, & business opportunities to be pursued. As a business professionals, you have a specific understanding of how ISs affects a business functions & Appreciation of the major ways. ISs are used to support each of the functions of the business that must be Accomplished.
  3. 3. Marketing & Sale IS Marketing is concerned with the planning, promotion, & sale of existing products in existing market. Business firms have increasingly tuned to IT to help them to perform vital marketing functions in the face of the rapid changes of today’s environment. Marketing IS Interactive marketing Sales force Automation CRM Sale Management Marketing Research & forecasting Advertisement & Promotion Product Management
  4. 4. <ul><li>Input Transaction Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Customer order </li></ul><ul><li>Order acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery note </li></ul><ul><li>Invoice, credit note, debit note </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Product sale </li></ul><ul><li>Sales value </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Dealer & distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Zone & customer </li></ul><ul><li>Excise duty &export market, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Information update </li></ul><ul><li>Decision analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Action update </li></ul><ul><li>Operation update (customer complaints, order book, despatch report) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Manufacturing IS IS used for operations of mgt & transaction processing Support of all firms that must plan, monitor, & control inventories, purchases & flow of goods & services. IS helping them to plan & control their operations. Mfg IS help companies to simplify, automate, & integrate the many activities which are needed to produce Products. Examples; CAD & CAE, CAM
  6. 6. Mfg resource planning Mfg execution Engineering Systems system system E R P Computer Integrated Mfg Quality control Pro. Cost control Capacity planning Material Requirement planning Production scheduling Production forecasting Process control Robotics control Machine control Shop floor control Shop floor scheduling Product simulation & prototyping Com. Aided Process planning CAE CAD
  7. 7. <ul><li>Input Transaction Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Production programme </li></ul><ul><li>Production schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Process planning sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance rating form </li></ul><ul><li>Finished goods advice </li></ul><ul><li>Material requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Customer order </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of production with respect to a time period </li></ul><ul><li>Material requirement & its usage </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown incidence </li></ul><ul><li>Use of power, fuel & consumables </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory complaisance </li></ul><ul><li>Information update </li></ul><ul><li>Decision analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Action update </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accounting IS <ul><li>A/C ISs are the oldest & mostly widely used IS in business </li></ul><ul><li>Computer based A/C systems produce records & reports, </li></ul><ul><li>the flow of funds through an org & produce important financial </li></ul><ul><li>statements such as balance sheet & income statements </li></ul><ul><li>Operational A/C systems emphasize legal & historical records </li></ul><ul><li>keeping & the production of accurate financial </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, these systems includes TPS such as order processing, </li></ul><ul><li>inventory control, accounts receivable, A/C payable, payroll & </li></ul><ul><li>general ledger systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mgt A/C systems focus on the planning & control of business </li></ul><ul><li>operations, & analytical reports comparing forecasted to </li></ul><ul><li>actual performance </li></ul>
  9. 9. HRM IS Systems maintain E’yees records, track E’yee skills, job performance, training, E’yee compensation & carrier development information by support planning. HR Systems Mgt Report Online queries E’yees Master file E’yees data (from various Dept ) To pay roll
  10. 10. Input Transaction Documents <ul><li>Personnel application form </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment letter </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal form </li></ul><ul><li>Wage/salary agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Record of complaints, grievances, accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Biodata, self & family </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manpower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loans & deductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable absence versus workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection of personnel cost against manpower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action update </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Financial IS Computer based financial IS supports business m’gers & Professionals in decisions. 1. The financing of a business 2. The allocation & control of financial resources Cash Mgt Investment Mgt Capital budgeting Financial planning Financial IS Reports
  13. 13. Model of Information Processing OLTP Systems RDBMS Application Development Systems A/C Application Query Application DBMS Analysis Application Control Application Statutory Compliance Knowledge Update Print Reports Operation Update Decision Analysis Screen Display Action Update
  14. 14. IS in Banking <ul><li>Banking is generally understood as a place where the financial </li></ul><ul><li>services are offered, viz checking, savings, & providing credit to </li></ul><ul><li>the customers. </li></ul><ul><li>The customers choose the bank mainly on the following 3 factors; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ease of doing business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of personnel & service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of the financial service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The MIS in banking industry revolves around this aspect. The </li></ul><ul><li>customer of the bank would like to know the status of the A/C </li></ul><ul><li>very fast to make decision on withdrawals or payments. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the MIS is to be designed to identify, decide & </li></ul><ul><li>design a service strategy for offering a distinctive service to the </li></ul><ul><li>wide range of customers seeking a variety of service demand. </li></ul><ul><li>the following points should be taken care of while </li></ul><ul><li>designing an MIS for a bank </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Customer DB </li></ul><ul><li>1. Customer </li></ul><ul><li>2. Operator </li></ul><ul><li>3. Range of Service </li></ul><ul><li>4. Class of customers </li></ul><ul><li>5. Working Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Service to the A/C holders </li></ul><ul><li>Service for business promotions </li></ul><ul><li>The index monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource upgrade </li></ul>
  16. 16. IS in Hospital <ul><li>The role of a hospital in today’s world has changed from the medical and clinical assistance to health care with a concern for the people who need it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a missionary organisation established to provide health care services to the needy with the motto – don’t make them sick while they are trying to get well . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The hospitals may handle a person who is not a patient and hence we call a preson visiting a hospital a ‘customer’ and not a ‘Patient’. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the customer profile would includes besides a patient, an associate of a patient, a consultant, a para medical personnel, a medicine suppplier and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The customer can easily discriminate between the quality of care and quality of caring, between treated medically and being treated personally, between being served at least cost and served with efficiency an effectiveness. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The customer can easily discriminate between the quality of care and quality of caring, between treated medically and being treated personally, between being served at least cost and served with efficiency an effectiveness. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Today’s hospitls use a lot of medical hardware and software in health care activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Health care based on diagnostic aids and assistance through an X – ray, scanning, pathological tests, and knowledge base of case history etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The role played by these aids is so vital and important that is is called Medical Engneering </li></ul><ul><li>The medical engineering has helped the medical professionals to reduce the drudgery of health care and concentrate on diagnosis, prescriptions and treatment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Front end applications <ul><li>Patient database – to handle the queries on the existing patients and the patients treated and discharged. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical server database – name, addresses,telephones , etc. of all medical staff including doctors, nurses, technicians. Holidays work times, and locations on weekdays for contact. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Resource planning and control – an online query facility to answer the number of queries on the availability, scheduling and rescheduling of the resourses and the facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>For judging the usage of the facilities and to put them in proper use. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Medical case history database – knowledge on the case history for the guidance and research. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring the effect of the drugs to judge the efficiency in terms of the patient’s response. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the health care demand and make planning for the health service. </li></ul>
  23. 23. BACK OFFICE APPLICATION <ul><li>Core application </li></ul><ul><li>Man power and personnel planning </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital billing and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory contol, planning and expiry date management </li></ul><ul><li>Resource utilisation and analysis </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Critical control applications </li></ul><ul><li>Evolve the basic stndards for control and provide exception reports to the management for forward planning and control </li></ul>
  25. 25. MIS IN SERVICE SECTOR <ul><li>The mission in a service industry is of providing the most satisfying service to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>IS IN HOTEL INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally hotels are meant as place for convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition has taken place from convenience to comfort, to enjoyment to total service. </li></ul><ul><li>The hotel management always faces the problem of providing the best distinctive service to the customers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The MIS for the hotel management addresses the issues of assessing the customer expectations and their perceptions and fulfilling hem in the est possible manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The MIS, therefore, has the following the responsibilities to provide the best information support. </li></ul><ul><li>1.keep track of customers profile. </li></ul><ul><li>2.monitoring occupancy level. </li></ul><ul><li>3.project future needs. </li></ul><ul><li>4.monitor the level of expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>5.monitor the communication needs. </li></ul><ul><li>6.customer data base. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1.Keep track of customer profile <ul><li>The following information is to be kept in the customer data base. </li></ul><ul><li>1.type of the customer </li></ul><ul><li>2.the nature or purpose of visit </li></ul><ul><li>3.the service demanded </li></ul><ul><li>4.the duration of stay </li></ul><ul><li>5.the socio-economic class of the customer </li></ul><ul><li>6.the religion,language, and culture of customer </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>This information will helps to anticipate the expectations about the service and the process of offering the service and its output. </li></ul><ul><li>This will enable the hotel management to make the investment decisions to offer different service based infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:swimming pool, travel related information counters, transport facilities…etc </li></ul>
  29. 29. 2.monitoring occupancy level <ul><li>It is necessary to control the occupancy at high level. </li></ul><ul><li>The MIS provide the information on a high or low level. </li></ul><ul><li>This would help the management to take action by evolving different tariff schemes, personalized service and so which make the difference to the customer. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3.PROJECT FUTURE NEEDS <ul><li>The MIS should provide information on new needs which are emerging in the foreseeable future. </li></ul><ul><li>for eg : the hotels where originally conceptualized as a place of stay,but the role has now changed. It is now a place for business meetings, conference, marriage parties and entertainment source also. </li></ul><ul><li>The management than has to provide the necessary infrastructure at all levels to meet such needs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 4.MONITOR THE LEVEL OF EXPECTATIONS <ul><li>The customer expectations on the service level norm differs from class to class and service to service. </li></ul><ul><li>The efficient and effective process is a function of training, understanding and knowledge of man power. </li></ul><ul><li>It is therefore, necessary to built a proper man power grid to take care of the quality of service. </li></ul><ul><li>If the service level expectations have changed,the norm should be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>The MIS should certainly monitor the expectations and the man power needs.This would help the hotel management in the HRD function. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 5. Monitor the communication needs <ul><li>The communication makes interaction with the customer a comfortable exercise. It is necessary to upgrade the knowledge and skills of all employees to fulfill the needs of customer. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: the employees at the reception should be well informed to answer the queries from the tariff to the facilitates in the hotel, the service offered by various hotel agencies, the information on sight seeing places, the other hotels,important locations, a different way of greeting to the different customers and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The MIS should monitor such communication needs helping the management to improve the knowledge and skills of employees. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 6.customer data base <ul><li>Most of the hotels create a customer data base for handling a variety of applications. Such as data base handles a personal information about the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>The data base is used by the management to build a good organization relationship, to create a sense of care and concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the MIS systems in an hotel or managed as front end back office systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Front end system handle customer interaction and back office systems handle processing of commercial data such as billing,accounting, correspondence, inventory and general admissions. </li></ul>