Physical activity levels, early life events & the         nutritional status of Maya childrenInês Varela-Silva, PhDCentre ...
Background  AAPA 2013 Charles Darwin Award Recipient           Prof Roberto Frisancho                       Nutritional du...
The Maya in Mérida, Mexico
Developed              Immigrants in             Developing                countries           developed countries        ...
Varela-Silva et al (2009). AJHB, 21: 657-663                       • N=206, 4-6 year old Maya                             ...
Objective measurement of PA - Actiheart                   Wilson et al (2011). AJHB, 23: 426-428             • Actiheart®...
Sample (urban Maya – Merida, Mexico)           Whole sampleChildren    N      Age       Min-Max                  M±SDBoys ...
Varela-Silva et al (2012). Coll. Antropol, 36: 39-45                    Children                             Mothers      ...
Body composition, energy expenditure & PAWilson et al (2012). AHB, Vol. 39 (5): 432-439• Lean mass (muscle): strongest pre...
Developed              Immigrants in                Maya in                countries           developed countries        ...
Impact and dissemination of results          mayaproject.org.uk
Impact and dissemination
Impact and dissemination
Impact and dissemination
Funding•   Wenner-Gren Foundation (#ICRG-93)•   Santander Universities•   CONACYT, Mexico•   Loughborough University
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Physical activity, early life events and the nutritional status of Maya children

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Physical activity, early life events and the nutritional status of Maya children

  1. 1. Physical activity levels, early life events & the nutritional status of Maya childrenInês Varela-Silva, PhDCentre for Global Health & Human Dev.Loughborough University, UK © Photo by Teresa Castillo, 2011m.i.o.varela-silva@lboro.ac.ukTwitter: @inesvarelasilva mayaproject.org.uk
  2. 2. Background AAPA 2013 Charles Darwin Award Recipient Prof Roberto Frisancho Nutritional dual-burden Under-and-overnutrition Coexistence of stunting & overweight/obesity Intergenerational factors The Maya in Mexico
  3. 3. The Maya in Mérida, Mexico
  4. 4. Developed Immigrants in Developing countries developed countries countriesGrowth Normal/tall Normal/short Stuntedstatus Fat Fatter FatCommon Excessive intake of dietary fatfactors Excessive caloric comsumptionEE / P. Act Very Probably Notlevels low low knownMetabolic High fat Probably reduced fat Discordantpathways oxidation & low oxidation information carb oxidation Energy conserving mechanisms Positive growthInter-generational of mothers &and early grandmothers: (Probably)...Negative growth of mothers &life effects positive lasting grandmothers: negative lasting effect on effect on current current generation generation
  5. 5. Varela-Silva et al (2009). AJHB, 21: 657-663 • N=206, 4-6 year old Maya 21.8% stunted 33.0% overweight/obese • N= 201, Maya mothers 70% below the 5th perc/height <150cm • Birthweight < 3,000 gr less likely to be OW/OB more likely to be stunted as children • Mother < 150 cm 3.6 times more likely of having stunted childrenPhysical activity/energy expenditure?
  6. 6. Objective measurement of PA - Actiheart Wilson et al (2011). AJHB, 23: 426-428 • Actiheart® very accurate in estimating EE and PAL • Well tolerated by children (7days, free-living) • EKG pads didn’t hold under hot & humid conditions • Fieldwork conditions more demanding than lab’s • Several Actihearts damaged/lost
  7. 7. Sample (urban Maya – Merida, Mexico) Whole sampleChildren N Age Min-Max M±SDBoys 31 8.29±.84 6.82-9.95Girls 27 8.56±.72 6.95-9.95Total 58 8.42±.79 6.88-9.95 Actiheart sampleMothers 58 34.30±6.3 22.52-49.42 N % % stunting OW/OB Children 33 33.3% 24.2% (17 boys) Moms 33 84.8% 93.9%
  8. 8. Varela-Silva et al (2012). Coll. Antropol, 36: 39-45 Children Mothers WHO CDC IOTF p-value WHO CDC p-valueStunting 15.5 31.0 N/A <0.001 55.2 81.0 <0.001Underweight 1.7 5.2 6.9 Ns 0.0 N/AOverweight 8.6 12.1 17.2 <0.001 91.4 N/AObesity 0.0 15.5 10.3 <0.001 39.7 N/A
  9. 9. Body composition, energy expenditure & PAWilson et al (2012). AHB, Vol. 39 (5): 432-439• Lean mass (muscle): strongest predictor of energy expenditure• The shorter the stature, the lower the levels of activity energy expenditure------------------------------------------------------• Children: overall highly active, above the guidelines (60 min/day MVPA)• Girls and stunted children: lowest level of PA• PA independent of nutritional status
  10. 10. Developed Immigrants in Maya in countries developed countries MeridaGrowth Normal/tall Normal/short Dual-burdenstatus Fat FatterCommon Excessive intake of dietary fatfactors Excessive caloric comsumptionEE / P. Act Very Probably Highlevels low lowMetabolic High fat Probably reduced fat Discordantpathways oxidation & low oxidation information carb oxidation Energy conserving mechanisms Positive growth (Probably)...Negative NegativeInter-generational of mothers & growth of mothers & growth ofand early grandmothers: grandmothers: negative mothers &life effects positive lasting lasting effect on current grandmothers: effect on negative effect generation children on children
  11. 11. Impact and dissemination of results mayaproject.org.uk
  12. 12. Impact and dissemination
  13. 13. Impact and dissemination
  14. 14. Impact and dissemination
  15. 15. Funding• Wenner-Gren Foundation (#ICRG-93)• Santander Universities• CONACYT, Mexico• Loughborough University

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