Software Takes Command by Manovich

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Software Takes Command by Manovich

  1. 1. SOFTWARE TAKES COMMAND By Lev ManovichPresented by Inês Rodolfo in “History and Tendencies of Media” Digital Media PhD - UT | Austin Portugal Program
  2. 2. Software Takes Command Part I: “Inventing Cultural Sofware” 1st Chapter: “Alan Kay’s Universal Machine” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  3. 3. Software Takes Command Summary1. Manovich aims to understand the present and the future of media history by analyzing the origin of new media and of the computational culture;2. Aims to understand “what is media after software” and what are the consequences of our culture after the media have been “softwarerized”;3. Is interested about the process of remediation of old media into new media;4. Evaluates what are possibilities of the Media in what concerns to languages, techniques and concepts of the XX century after computation;5. Manovich shares the vision of Alan Kay;6. This presentation of “Software Takes Command” rests in the discussion of the article published in 1977 by Alan Kay and Goldberg where is discussed the concept of “Metamedium” and the launch of Dynabook, the first personal computer. By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  4. 4. Software Takes CommandManovich focus on Alan KayFor introducing the new paradigm of computers as “personal dynamicmedia”;For stimulating different types of media in a unique personal machinethrough a remediation process which converted already existing artisticlanguages, introducing the concept of “Metamedium”;For evolving all type of users in a two way conversational systemrelationship e.g. through edition tools.For Kay facing the computers as a mean of artistic expression.For enabling free programming tools and by defending the democratizationof software development within a shared community. By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  5. 5. Software Takes Command Kay’s vision “To provide users with a programmingenvironment, examples of programs, and alreadywritten general tools so the users will be able to make their own creative tools” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  6. 6. Software Takes Command 1940 - 1980 Digital Computer was mostly used for military, scientific and business calculations as well as data processing. It was not personal. It was not Interactive By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  7. 7. Software Takes Command 1950’s Artists, Filmmakers, musicians and architects use computers since the 1950’s with computer scientists working in research labs: Bell Labs, IBM Watson Research Center... By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  8. 8. Software Takes Command 1970 - 1980 Work developed at Xerox PARC introduced the concept of computers aspersonal machines (CRUD) New Praradigm of media computing. By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  9. 9. Software Takes Command 1991 Computer as personal media + World Wide Web Computers as Cultural Mainstream By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  10. 10. Software Takes Command 2000 Expansion of computer networks and www. + Social Software Products = Digital revolution (production, distribution and access) Digital Culture By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  11. 11. Software Takes Command Sketchpad 1962 By Ivan Sutherland MIT PhD thesis First interactive media authoring Create and modify line drawings By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  12. 12. Software Takes Command Ted Nelson 1965 Hypertext concept Article “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate” “Let me introduce the word “hypertext” to mean a body of written or pictorial material interconnected in such a complex way that it could not be conveniently be presented or represented on paper” www - “Chunk Style” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  13. 13. Software Takes Command Ted Nelson 2007 Hypertext, Hiperfilm, Hypermedia “with the computer-driven display and mass memory, it has become possible to create a new, readable medium” “It (computer text) need not be treated as a simulated paper book since this is a new medium with new properties” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  14. 14. Software Takes CommandEngelbart 1968View ControlComputer Conference DemoSan Francisco@ Research Center for AugmentingHuman Intellect“Computer supported collaborativework.” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  15. 15. Software Takes CommandSuperPaint 1972 - 1973By Richard Shoup@ Xerox PARC “From a larger perspective, we realized that the development ofSuperPaint signaled the beginning of the synergy of two of the most powerful and pervasivetechnologies ever invented: digitalcomputing and video or television”“Videographic medium”Grabbed frames from video By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  16. 16. Software Takes CommandXerox PARC 1970 - 1981Research Center at Palo AltoAlan Kay - Head of ResearchBased on previous work made by:Sutherland; Nelson; Englebart, Licklider,Seymour PaperPersonal ComputersGUI (overlapping windows, icons,bitmapped display, mouse...)WYSIWYGSmalltalk languageWord Processor; File System; Drawingand Painting Program; Animation andMusic edition ProgramsParadigm of media computing By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  17. 17. Software Takes CommandXerox PARC 1970 - 1981Research Center at Palo AltoStar User Interface By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  18. 18. Software Takes CommandRemediation 2000By Jay Bolter @ Richard Grusin’s book of remediation “Understanding the Media” “GUI -based software turned digital computer into a remediation machine” “The representation of one medium in another” “What is new about digital media lies in their particular strategies for remediating television, film, photography, and painting” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  19. 19. Software Takes CommandDynabook 1977By Alan Kay @ Xerox PARC1997 Article of Alan Kayco-authored with Adele Goldberg: “To create a personal dynamic medium the size of a notebook (the Dynabook) which could be owned by everyone and could have the power to handle virtually all of its owner’s information-related needs.” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  20. 20. Software Takes CommandDynabook 1977By Alan Kay By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  21. 21. Software Takes CommandDynabook 1977By Alan Kay @ Xerox PARC Metamedium Concept A Platform for all the already existing artistic media “Simulation is the central notion of Dynabook” Mapp old media to generate new media By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  22. 22. Software Takes CommandDynabook 1977By Alan Kay @ Xerox PARC Metamedium Concept “Meta” = “Hypper” Ted Nelson Hypertext & Hipermedia Engelbart Automated external symbol manipulation Kay Metamedium By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  23. 23. Software Takes CommandDynabook 1977By Alan Kay @ Xerox PARC “A personal Computer for Children of All Ages” By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  24. 24. Software Takes CommandApple 1984First MacintoshBrought the vision of Xerox toconsumers128 KUS$2,495Included:Word Processing (Mac Write)Drawing Application (Mac Draw) By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  25. 25. Software Takes CommandApple 1979Steve Jobs visit to Xeroxwhen Steve was 24 years old By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo
  26. 26. Software Takes Command Pioneers and Personal inventors of Metamedium Dynamic Mediacomputational media Englebart Alan Kay Ted Nelson Shutherland Developers Negroponte Designers Add more Properties Architects Programmers
  27. 27. Software Takes CommandProcessing 2000By Ana Oliveira in “Generativismos” “Especulações semi-codificadas; Aleatoriedade como regra”
  28. 28. Software Takes Command ConclusionThe computer seen as a cultural tool frameworkDynabook has introduced a new paradigm in computer history by beingestablished on the “Metamedium” concept and “Universal Media Machine”;The new media are considered to be new when the add new properties toan existing one as all media live in a process of remediation;According to Manovich, the semantic of the media didn’t followed therevolution of digital development and growth;Mentions Apple as being responsible for closing the open source softwaredemocratization in the beginning of the 80’s, however allowing later thesharing of new languages to come forward. By Lev Manovich - presented by Inês Rodolfo

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