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Joseph Needham (1900－1995)
… the philosophia perennis of China was an organic materialism.
This can be illustrated from the pronouncements of philosophers
and scientific thinkers of every epoch. The mechanical view of the
world simply didn’t develop in Chinese thought, and the organicist
view in which every phenomenon was connected with every other
according to hierarchical order was universal among Chinese
Needham, Poverties and Triumphs of the Chinese Scientific Tradition
“development of Western science is based on two great
achievements: the invention of the formal logical system (in
Euclidean geometry) by the Greek philosophers and the discovery
of the possibility to find out causal relationship by systematic
experiment (Renaissance). In my opinion one has not to be
astonished that the Chinese sages have not made these steps.
The astonishing thing is that these discoveries were made at all.”
1) 視覺的幾何化 (開普勒);
2) 運動的幾何化 (伽利略);
3) 實驗的定義 (波義爾、牛頓)
If this point of which we dispute were some part of law, or other
part of the studies called the humanities, wherein there is neither
truth nor falsehood, we might give sufficient credit to the
acuteness of wits readiness of answers, and the greater
accomplishment of writers, and hope that who is most proficient in
these will make his reason more probably and plausible. But the
conclusions of natural science as true and necessary, and the
judgement of man has nothing to do with them.
Galileo, Dialogue in the Great World Systems