Rf technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Tim Cutlers seminarie om trådlösa sensornätverk från Scanautomaticmässan 2010 i Göteborg.

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Rf technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks

  1. 1. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. RF Technologies forRF Technologies for Wireless Sensor NetworksWireless Sensor Networks ScanautomaticScanautomatic Tim Cutler – Dir. Mktg.Tim Cutler – Dir. Mktg. October 28, 2010October 28, 2010
  2. 2. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Agenda l Introduction l Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks l Bluetooth l ZigBee l 802.15.4/6LoWPAN l WiFi l WirelessHART l DASH7 l EnOcean l Proprietary
  3. 3. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Introduction l Who is RFM? – Over 22 years experience in license-free module design and development – Wide array of license-free wireless modules • 802.11g/WiFi • 802.15.4 • ZigBee • WirelessHART • Proprietary Frequency Hopping • 900MHz and 2.4GHz
  4. 4. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Introduction l Wireless Sensor Networks – More sensors than there are people – Application in a wide variety of markets – Huge growth potential l RF Technologies – There are almost as many technologies as there are applications – Which technology is best suited for which application?
  5. 5. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. WSN Characteristics l Key market drivers for WSN acceptance – Low cost – Simple to deploy – Low maintenance – Secure – Reliable
  6. 6. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. WSN Characteristics l WSN solutions must: – Consume small amounts of power – Cover varying ranges - <10m to several 100s of meters – Support large number of nodes – Require little, if any, commissioning – Not require mains power – Be robust in noisy environments – Be secure
  7. 7. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Bluetooth l Standard, high data rate, frequency hopping technology – Optimized for voice applications l Frequency Hopping Technology – Class I – 100mW ~ 100M – Class II – 2.5mW ~ 10M l Limited to 8 active nodes at a time l Battery lifetimes range from a few hours to a few days
  8. 8. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Bluetooth Cost Good Power Consumption Fair Deployment Ease Good Network Size Poor Security Good Range Fair Robustness Good
  9. 9. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Bluetooth Low Energy l New standard, low data rate, frequency hopping technology – Optimized for wireless sensing applications l 260Kbps versus 3Mbps for Bluetooth l Large number of periodically transmitting nodes l Lower power consumption than Bluetooth l New standard whose performance will need to be demonstrated in the field
  10. 10. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Bluetooth Low Energy Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Good Security Good Range Fair Robustness Good
  11. 11. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. ZigBee l Standard, low data rate, direct sequence technology – Utilizes 802.15.4 MAC and PHY layers with mesh networking layer l Direct Sequence Technology – ~8dB processing gain – 16 channels – 1mW and 100mW products available l 250Kbps RF Data Rate – Throughput is substantially less
  12. 12. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. ZigBee l Designed as low power, low data rate sensing technology – Sleeping end nodes run for years on battery – Routing nodes cannot sleep l Extends coverage area through mesh technology
  13. 13. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. ZigBee Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Fair Security Good Range Good* Robustness Fair
  14. 14. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 802.15.4 l Standards-based, low data rate, direct sequence technology – Proprietary solutions, basically ZigBee without the mesh l Direct Sequence Technology – ~8dB processing gain – 16 channels – 1mW and 100mW products available l 250Kbps RF Data Rate – Throughput is less but better than ZigBee due to reduced overhead
  15. 15. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 802.15.4 Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Fair Security Good Range Fair Robustness Fair
  16. 16. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 6LoWPAN l IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks l Can use various transport mechanisms but early work has focused on 802.15.4 l Each node is natively addressable using IP l Challenge is routing IP over lossy links – IETF RoLL – Header compression l Allows larger networks l To date, wireless performance is 802.15.4
  17. 17. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi l Standard, high data rate, direct sequence technology – RF data rates from 1Mbps to 54Mbps in best effort approach l Direct Sequence Technology – Processing gain from 0 – 10dB – 3-4 Non-overlapping channels – RF Power typically up to 100mW l Range enhanced by ubiquity of access points
  18. 18. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi l New technology has reduced power consumption – Years of battery operation now possible l Systems are inherently IP-based – Well understood by IT departments – Straightforward Internet access
  19. 19. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. 802.11g WiFi Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Good Security Good Range Good Robustness Fair
  20. 20. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. WirelessHART/ISA100 l HART standard has existed as a wired standard – HART designed for process industries – Version 7.0 of the HART standard added wireless – Based on Dust’s TSMP – TSMP uses 802.15.4 16 channels to create a 16-channel frequency hopping radio – Sleeping routers can be battery powered – Adds path diversity to frequency diversity to deliver very high reliable wireless performance – Provides seamless connectivity of wireless devices to existing wired HART systems
  21. 21. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. WirelessHART/ISA100 l ISA100 is the family of standards for wireless networks in industrial automation – ISA100.11a is the first standard finalized and is focused at process industrial automation – Based on Dust’s TSMP technology – Very similar to WirelessHART – Does not interoperate with WirelessHART even though the hardware platform is the same
  22. 22. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. WirelessHART/ISA100 Cost Fair Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Good Security Good Range Good Robustness Good
  23. 23. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. DASH7 Mode 2 l ISO 18000-7 – Active RFID standard – Recently announced Mode 2 Draft • Targeting wireless sensing applications – 433MHz • 8 Channels – FSK modulation • 1mW Transmit power (4500m LOS) • 28K or 200K boost mode • End node latency ~2 sec max – Support for mobile end points
  24. 24. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. DASH7 Mode 2 l Various profiles – Supported through database approach – Profile support for IPv6 l New proposed standard – Mode 2 – Some silicon available that can support Mode 2, more on the way l Untested in the field – Narrowband FSK technology – Relies on infrequent transmissions to avoid interference • Presumably by allowing a lot of time for retries
  25. 25. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. DASH7 Mode 2 Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Fair Security Good Range Good* Robustness Fair
  26. 26. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. EnOcean l Originally developed for energy harvesting light switches – 315MHz – 868MHz – Amplitude Shift Keying (AM Radio) – 3mW RF Power; -95dBm receive sensitivity – Overseen by EnOcean Alliance – ZigBee organization model l Extended as Bi-directional transceivers for application in sensing applications
  27. 27. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. EnOcean l Field proven for lighting applications, bi-directional operation newer l Standard profiles for variety of applications – Development environment for custom applications l Transmission rate dependent on energy available – Support for energy harvesting – Transceivers consume 25 – 40mA when operating l Support for powered repeaters l Simple protocol – Well suited to simple applications
  28. 28. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. EnOcean Cost Good Power Consumption Good Deployment Ease Good Network Size Fair Security Fair Range Good* Robustness Poor
  29. 29. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Proprietary l Proprietary = Single Sourced l Most proprietary solutions use Frequency Hopping technology – Provides best immunity to interference and fading – Allows longer ranges to be obtained l Available in 900MHz and 2.4GHz l Wide range of RF data rates – 9600 to 1Mbps+ l Frequency synchronization needed – Increases time nodes must be awake
  30. 30. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Proprietary l Wide variety of solutions available – Increases the likelihood of finding a solution that is closer fit to your application l Battery life very dependent on reporting duty cycle – Radio is off when not transmitting instead of low power sleep mode – Sleep modes are supported in many products but typically in excess of 10uA
  31. 31. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Proprietary Cost - Power Consumption Fair Deployment Ease - Network Size Good Security Good Range Good Robustness Good
  32. 32. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Conclusions Cost Good Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good - Power Consumption Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Deployment Ease Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good - Network Size Poor Good Fair Fair Good Good Fair Fair Good Security Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Good Range Fair Good Good* Fair Good Good Good* Good* Good Robustness Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Poor Poor Good Bluetooth BluetoothLEZigBee 802.15.4 802.11g/WiFi Proprietary DASH7Mode2 WirelessHART EnOcean * Range extended through the use of mains powered routers/repeaters
  33. 33. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Conclusions l Each technology has its own strengths and weaknesses – Specific application requirements must be measured against each technology l One size does not fit all – Depending on the application, one technology will emerge as the best solution – Market acceptance of technologies can be a guide to technology selection l Do not attempt to force fit a technology to an application
  34. 34. Confidential & Proprietary RF Monolithics, Inc. Thank You! Questions?

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