Discuss how students form their existing eating patterns and food habits. Discuss how each of these influences impact on individual students’ food choices and habits.
Examine the situations in which one is most likely to overeat or make certain food choices. How does education and knowledge about nutrition influence one’s choices?
Typical foods include blintzes, borscht, bagels, challah, gefilte fish, kasha, knishes, matzo. (These are foods common to European countries from which many Jews emigrated.) Discuss the origins of the dietary laws. What makes food kosher? Where can one obtain kosher food?
Typical foods include bulgur, falafel, fatayeh, kibbeh, pilaf, pita, tabouli. (These are foods common to countries in the Eastern Mediterranean.) Discuss the origins of the Islamic food laws. Consider how hard it would be for a person in America to follow Jewish or Islamic dietary laws.
In the Puerto Rican diet, milk, meat, yellow/green vegetables, and other fruits are used in limited quantities. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Americanization of native diets. How did Mexican and Puerto Rican diets change under the influence of the American diet?
Discuss changes in the Native American diet, including the addition of alcohol, high-fat foods, and high-sodium foods.
The popular term for African-American cooking is “soul food.” Eggs and some cheese are used Little milk is used (except for baking) Many of these foods are rich in nutrients, as found in collard greens and other leafy green and yellow vegetables, legumes, beans, rice, and potatoes. Other parts of the diet, however, are low in fiber, calcium, and potassium, and high in fat. Common ways for African-Americans to prepare food include frying, barbecuing, and serving foods with gravy and sauces. Home-baked cakes and pies are also common.
Typical dishes include seafood or chicken gumbo, jambalaya, red beans and rice, blackened fish. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of Cajun cuisine.
Most Asians living in America adhere to a traditional Asian diet interspersed with American foods, particularly breads and cereals. Dairy products are not consumed in sufficient quantity, except for ice cream. Calcium is consumed through tofu and small fish. Asian food preparation techniques include stir-frying, barbecuing, deep-frying, boiling, and steaming. All ingredients are carefully prepared (chopped, sliced, etc.) prior to starting the cooking process.
Nuts and legumes are the primary sources of protein. Stir-frying in a wok with a small amount of lard or peanut oil is a common method of cooking.
Discuss the origins of the diet of Italy and Greece. Discuss the benefits of the Mediterranean diet; why is it considered heart-healthy?
Discuss how social structure, religion, education, social status influence food habits. People accept food advice from family, friends, or trusted authorities Does your culture have any food taboos? What are your culture’s table manners? Food and gender (who purchases, prepares, distributes food in the family?)
Discuss comfort foods. What kinds of foods are more likely to be comfort foods? Certain foods stimulate endorphins. The ambivalent relationship with food—wanting to enjoy it, but being conscious of weight gain—is a struggle experienced by many. Attempts to restrict intake of certain foods can increase the desire for these particular foods, leading to food cravings. Women more commonly report food cravings than do men. Depressed mood appears to influence the severity of these cravings.
Cost and accessibility, education and knowledge are the socioeconomic influences on food choices. Low-income groups have a greater tendency to consume unbalanced diets. In particular, low-income groups have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. However, access to more money does not automatically translate into a better quality diet. Why?
Discuss food fad claims. How do they affect dietary intake during and after the person has been on the diet? Do they help lose and maintain weight? How? Why are there so many weight-loss diet fads?
Food quackery is exploitative and entrepreneurial. Health fraud shares many of the characteristics of food faddism and food quackery. According to the ADA’s Complete Food and Nutrition Guide , “Health fraud means promoting, for financial gain, a health remedy that doesn’t work—or hasn’t yet been proven to work.” Consumers are taking greater responsibility for self-care. Nutrition products are among the most commonly misused.
Americans spend $33 billion annually on weight-loss foods, products, and services. Fewer than half of obese patients have reported receiving any advice from health care professionals to lose weight. Qualified professionals need to be more proactive in providing sound information about appropriate weight-loss methods. Herbal, botanical, and sports supplements and other products now comprise over half the dietary supplement industry. Consumer spending on supplements, natural/organic food and personal care products totaled $128 billion in 2000.
The health consequences of food quackery, faddism, misinformation, or the misuse or misinterpretation of emerging science may include: Delay or failure to seek legitimate medical care or continue essential treatment Undesirable drug-nutrient interactions Effects of nutrient toxicities or toxic components of products Interference with sound nutrition education and practices
How should the nurse educate a patient who wants to adopt a fad diet?
What is the primary method by which a nurse can affect food choices in these situations? Where do you obtain information about dietary restrictions for an illness?
Discuss eating disorders and their relation to psychological factors influencing food choices.
Food HabitsAll rights reserved t Vinayak Mehetre Slide 1
Key Concepts• Personal food habits develop as part of one’s social and cultural heritage, as well as individual lifestyle and environment. Slide 2
Cultural Development of Food Habits • Food habits grow from many influences Personal Cultural Religious Social Economic Psychological (Contd…)All rights reserved to Vinayak Mehetre Slide 3
Cultural Development of Food Habits (…Cont’d) • Food habits are learned through everyday living and family relationships. • Food habits are primarily based on food availability, economics, personal food beliefs • Cultural background and customs largely determine what is eaten. • Foods may take on symbolic meaning.All rights reserved to Vinayak Mehetre Slide 4
Religious Dietary Laws • Jewish Different dietary laws depending on orthodox/conservative/reform beliefs Dietary laws are called Rules of Kashruth; foods prepared according to these laws are kosher Meat should come only from animals that chew their cud and have cloven hooves; no pork or birds of prey Meat and milk products are not mixed Shellfish and crustaceans are avoidedAll rights (Contd…) reserved to Vinayak Mehetre Slide 5
Religious Dietary Laws (…Cont’d)• Muslim Dietary laws dependent on restriction or prohibition of some foods, promotion of other foods Ramadan: 30-day period of daylight fasting Milk products are permitted at all times Fruits, vegetables are permitted unless fermented Breads, cereals are permitted unless contaminated Seafood, land animals are permitted Pork and alcohol are prohibited Slide 6
Spanish Influences• Mexican Basic foods include dried beans, chili peppers, corn. Only small amounts of meat and eggs are used. Fruit consumption depends on availability and price.• Puerto Rican Food pattern is similar to Mexican Tropical fruits and vegetables are added. Basic foods include viandas (starchy vegetables and fruits), rice, beans Slide 7
Native American Influences• Indian and Alaska Natives Many diverse groups Groups all have a spiritual devotion to the land. Food has great religious and social significance. Food differs according to what can be grown locally, harvested or hunted on the land, or fished from local waters. Slide 8
Southern U.S. Influences• African-Americans Food patterns developed through creative ability to turn basic staples into memorable food Traditional breads include hot breads (biscuits, spoonbread, cornbread) Wide variety of vegetables and leafy greens (turnip, collard, mustard) are used Pork is a common meat (Contd…) Slide 9
Southern U.S. Influences (…Cont’d)• French Americans Cajuns in southern Louisiana are descendents of the French colonists of Arcadia (now Nova Scotia). French culinary background blended with Creole cooking around New Orleans Foods are strongly flavored, spicy Seafood is abundant. Slide 10
Asian Food Patterns• Chinese Use a wok for quick stir-frying with little fat Vegetables and rice are staples Meat, eggs, tofu are sources of protein• Japanese Rice is basic grain Many varieties of fish and shellfish are used. Vegetables are usually steamed. Diet is high in sodium, low in milk (Contd…) Slide 11
Asian Food Patterns (…Cont’d)• Southeast Asian: Vietnamese, Indonesian, Cambodian, Laotian Rice is a staple. Soups are common. Fish, shellfish, pork, chicken, and duck are common. Red meat is eaten only once or twice a month. Slide 12
Mediterranean Influences• Italian Bread and pasta are basic ingredients. Cheese, meats, poultry, fish, sausages, cold cuts, and vegetables are commonly used. Olive oil, garlic, herbs, and wine used in cooking• Greek Bread is the center of every meal. Cheese, yogurt, vegetables, rice, lamb, and fish are commonly used. Slide 13
Key Concepts• Social and economic change usually results in alterations in food patterns.• Short-term food patterns, or fads, often stem from food misinformation that appeals to some human need. All rights reserved to Vinayak Mehetre Slide 14
Social Influences• Social structure Groups may be formed by economic status, education, residence, occupation, family Group affiliation influences food attitudes and choices.• Food and social factors Food symbolizes acceptance and warmth in social relationships. Certain foods trigger childhood memories. Slide 15
Psychological Influences• Diet patterns Food has many personal meanings. Many psychological factors rooted in childhood• Food and psychosocial development Food relates closely to psychosocial development. • Toddlers may become “picky eaters” in order to control parents. Food neophobia (fear of unfamiliar foods) is normal developmental factor Slide 16
Economic Influences• Family income Low-income families suffer extreme needs. Illness, hunger, and malnutrition are more common in this group. Food habits more likely to be manipulated by media Food assistance programs can help low- income families develop better food habits. Slide 17
Food Misinformation and Fads• Fad: any popular fashion or pursuit without substantial basis that is embraced fervently• Food fads: scientifically unsubstantiated beliefs about certain foods that may persist in a given time or community• Unscientific statements may mislead consumers and contribute to poor food habits. Slide 18
Food Fad Claims• Food fad claims may center on Food cures for specific conditions/illnesses “Harmful” foods to be omitted from the diet Certain food combinations may promote health, weight loss “Natural” foods can prevent disease• Food fad claims tend to focus on foods, not the specific nutrients in food Slide 19
Dangers of Food Fads• Danger to health/failure to seek appropriate medical care• Money wasted on fad supplements• Lack of sound knowledge that counteracts scientifically based health information• Distrust of the food market/unwarranted rejection of all modern food production Slide 20
Vulnerable Groups• Elderly persons• Young persons• Obese persons• Athletes and coaches• Entertainers All rights reserved to Vinayak Mehetre Slide 21