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Virtualization is for Real
Server Virtualization Overview
    [With a Data Center Bias]

         Anand Sharma
          (...
Meeting Objectives
What’s Covered And What’s Not




  1) Understand the Trends driving Virtualization in a Data Center

 ...
Market Transitions
                                 Virtualization 101
                            Server Virtualization B...
Virtualizing the “Hardware”
From Johannes Gutenberg’s Printed Books…




                                                 ...
Virtualizing the “Hardware”
To Jeff Bezos’ Books on Amazon Kindle, Kindle on iPhone




                                  ...
Virtualizing the “Hardware”
Servers are currently indistinguishable from Physical Hardware



                            ...
Energy is Everything
Efficient Energy Consumption is an afterthought




                                                 ...
Energy is Everything
To Efficient Energy Consumption is the primary thought




                                          ...
Energy is Everything
Bits-n-Bytes are bumping up against Physical Constraints


                                          ...
Energy is Everything
What do you mean you can’t add any more Servers?


           Power, load-bearing, and cooling constr...
Drivers behind Server Virtualization
In Summary




 Hardware                Data Centers are                             ...
Market Transitions
                                 Virtualization 101
                            Server Virtualization B...
Virtualization 101                                                                                  1:N
What is Virtualiza...
Virtualization 101
Consolidation Or Isolation: Share All or Nothing



                       No Isolation
               ...
Virtualization 101
Physical Consolidation and Logical Isolation


                       Ideal Isolation
One Physical     ...
Virtualization 101
Types of Virtualization in a Data Center

Quick: What comes to your mind first when you think of
Virtua...
Market Transitions
                                 Virtualization 101
                            Server Virtualization B...
A Typical Server
Servers are currently indistinguishable from Physical Hardware



                                       ...
Server Virtualization
Enter Virtual Machines


                                                                           ...
Server Virtualization
Server Virtualization Transforms x86 Systems

       Without virtualization:                        ...
Server Virtualization
Evolution
          The Evolution of the MVS Operating System
     IBM Journal of Research and Devel...
Server Virtualization
Two Primary Implementation Types




                   Native Virtualization                       ...
Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine
Partitioning




                                                                  ...
Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine
Isolation

                Partitioning
                   – Run multiple operatin...
Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine
Encapsulation

                 Partitioning
                    – Run multiple op...
Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine
Hardware Abstraction

                        Partitioning
                       ...
Live Migration of Virtual Machines
VMware VMotion Magic




      Allows admins to transparently move running VMs from on...
Market Transitions
                                 Virtualization 101
                            Server Virtualization B...
So why should we care?
Key Categories of Benefits from Server Virtualization




          #1. Reduced Physical Infrastruc...
Financial Benefits
Capex and Opex Savings



                                                                   Insurance
...
Financial Benefits
Extend Useful Asset Life and Defer Capex




    Thermal                                               ...
Operational Efficiency
Dynamic Resource Allocation, Disaster Recovery




          • Scale without disruption
          •...
Operational Efficiency
High Availability




                                                                             ...
Final Thoughts




© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.    Cisco Confidential
Key Takeaways



 1) Virtualization is not a new technology. And neither is VMWare

 2) Virtualization as a concept applie...
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   Cisco Confidential
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Virtualization Is For Real

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Basic Intro Presentation on Server Virtualization

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Virtualization Is For Real

  1. 1. Virtualization is for Real Server Virtualization Overview [With a Data Center Bias] Anand Sharma (03/11/2009) © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  2. 2. Meeting Objectives What’s Covered And What’s Not 1) Understand the Trends driving Virtualization in a Data Center 2) Define Virtualization and understand the landscape 3) Server Virtualization Basics 4) Benefits of Server Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  3. 3. Market Transitions Virtualization 101 Server Virtualization Basics Benefits of Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  4. 4. Virtualizing the “Hardware” From Johannes Gutenberg’s Printed Books… “Gutenberg Bible” (In 1450s) The first book printed on a printing press with movable type Source: Wikipedia © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  5. 5. Virtualizing the “Hardware” To Jeff Bezos’ Books on Amazon Kindle, Kindle on iPhone Over 240,000 books plus U.S. and international newspapers, magazines, and blogs available © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  6. 6. Virtualizing the “Hardware” Servers are currently indistinguishable from Physical Hardware One App+OS Pedestal/Tower Servers One App+OS Rack Optimized Servers One Application+OS Per Hardware Hardware Software - Compute - Application - Memory - Operating System - Disk - Network Interface Card Blade Servers Typical Utilization – 10% to 15% One App+OS © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  7. 7. Energy is Everything Efficient Energy Consumption is an afterthought HUMMER © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  8. 8. Energy is Everything To Efficient Energy Consumption is the primary thought C H E V Y VO LT © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  9. 9. Energy is Everything Bits-n-Bytes are bumping up against Physical Constraints % of WW electricity usage 0.8 – 3% for Data Centers (estimates vary) Fewer power supplies to support a service = reduced conversion losses Total electricity consumption Worldwide (2007) 15,746 Billion kWH US (2008) 4,581 Cost of powering Data Centers $2.9 –10.9B Estimated, US only Sources: US DoE, APC, Cisco IT, Network World Each watt consumed by IT infrastructure carries a “burden 50 35 15 factor” of 1.2 to 2.5 for power consumption associated with cooling, conversion/distribution and lighting % % % Source: US, DoE, Cisco IT, NetworkWorld © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  10. 10. Energy is Everything What do you mean you can’t add any more Servers? Power, load-bearing, and cooling constraints are limiting the ability to utilize existing data center space 42U (Size) 42 Weight 39.5 Power 11.9 Cooling 2.9 Source: Cisco’s Next Big Bet (Forbes Magazine, Issue dated 09/29/2008) © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  11. 11. Drivers behind Server Virtualization In Summary Hardware Data Centers are Rising Energy Administration Resources running out of Costs Costs are Underutilized space Increasing • As much as 50% of the IT budget • Number of • CPU utilizations ~ • Last 10+ years of • In the realm of operators going 10% - 25% major server sprawl the CFO and up • One server – One • Exponential data Facilities Mgr. • Number of Application growth now! Management • Multi-core even • Server consolidation Applications more under-utilized projects just a start going up Operational Flexibility © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  12. 12. Market Transitions Virtualization 101 Server Virtualization Basics Benefits of Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  13. 13. Virtualization 101 1:N What is Virtualization? N:1 1:1 “[Virtualization is] a technique for hiding the physical characteristics of computing resources from the way in which other systems, applications, or end users interact with those resources. This includes making a single physical resource (such as a server, an operating system, an application, or storage device) appear to function as multiple logical resources; or it can include making multiple physical resources (such as storage devices or servers) appear as a single logical resource.” Source: Mann, Andi, “Virtualization 101” Enterprise Management Associates (EMA) © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  14. 14. Virtualization 101 Consolidation Or Isolation: Share All or Nothing No Isolation  Applications compete Device 1 for resources Application 1 One Physical  Changes to one application Device Application 2 can impact others Application 3  Security and compliance can be complex Or Inefficient Isolation Device 1 Application 1  Device sprawl  Underutilized resources Many Physical Device 2 Devices Application 2  Complex to upgrade Device 3  Complex service chaining Application 3 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  15. 15. Virtualization 101 Physical Consolidation and Logical Isolation Ideal Isolation One Physical  Partitioning enables Device Virtual Device 1 segmentation of traffic Security Admin and/or resources Sys Admin  Abstraction hides Apps Admin physical resources Network Admin  Ideally per partition RBAC enables Virtual Device 2 customized, Virtual Device 3 autonomous policies Virtual Device 4 Multiple Virtual Devices . Virtual Device 5 . Virtual Device n © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  16. 16. Virtualization 101 Types of Virtualization in a Data Center Quick: What comes to your mind first when you think of Virtualization? * Network Virtualization * Server Virtualization * Storage Virtualization * Application Networking Services Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  17. 17. Market Transitions Virtualization 101 Server Virtualization Basics Benefits of Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  18. 18. A Typical Server Servers are currently indistinguishable from Physical Hardware One App+OS Pedestal/Tower Servers One App+OS Rack Optimized Servers One Application+OS Per Hardware Hardware Software - Compute - Application - Memory - Operating System - Disk - Network Interface Card Blade Servers One App+OS © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  19. 19. Server Virtualization Enter Virtual Machines Many App+OS (Virtual Machines) Pedestal/Tower Servers Many App+OS (Virtual Machines) Rack Optimized Servers Many Application+OS Per Hardware Hardware Software - Compute - Application - Memory - Operating System - Disk - Hypervisor - Network Interface Card Blade Servers Many App+OS © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential (Virtual Machines)
  20. 20. Server Virtualization Server Virtualization Transforms x86 Systems Without virtualization: With Hypervisor virtualization: Single OS image per machine Break dependencies between OS and hardware Software and hardware tightly coupled Manage OS and application as single unit by encapsulating them into VMs Running multiple applications on same machine often creates conflict Strong fault and security isolation 5-15% utilization VMs are hardware-independent: they can be provisioned anywhere © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  21. 21. Server Virtualization Evolution The Evolution of the MVS Operating System IBM Journal of Research and Development, Sept 1981 VMM/Hpervisor on IBM Mainframe Many Apps on very costly hardware Stanford Research DISCO Project VMM on cheap x86 HW VMware in 1999 Commodity Hardware became powerful enough to support a Virtual Machine Manager (Hypervisor) – so it’s back to the future with proven technology Source: The Hardware © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Revolution in Server Virtualization (ACM Compute 2009 Tutorial) Cisco Confidential
  22. 22. Server Virtualization Two Primary Implementation Types Native Virtualization ParaVirtualization (Full Virtualization) The full virtualization hypervisor presents the actual physical ParaVirtualization hypervisors are similar to native/full hardware “P” to each Guest so that operating systems virtualization but use modified guest operating systems to intended for the underlying architecture may run unmodified optimize virtual executions and unaware that they’re being run virtualized Example: VMware ESX Example: Xen > 90% share of the market Source: Running Xen © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  23. 23. Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine Partitioning Running multiple operating systems on one physical machine Allocate system resources between virtual machines ESX is the special, thin OS that abstracts the HW from the Guest OS/Application Industry term – “Hypervisor” © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  24. 24. Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine Isolation  Partitioning – Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine – Divide system resources between virtual machines Fault and security isolation at the hardware level One VM does not know of another VM’s presence Advanced resource controls preserve performance Failure of one VM does not effect other VMs in same box © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  25. 25. Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine Encapsulation  Partitioning – Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine – Divide system resources between virtual machines  Isolation – Fault and security isolation at the hardware level – Advanced resource controls preserve performance Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved to files Move and copy virtual machines as easily as moving and copying files © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  26. 26. Four Key Properties of Virtual Machine Hardware Abstraction  Partitioning – Run multiple operating systems on one physical machine – Divide system resources between virtual machines  Isolation – Fault and security isolation at the hardware level – Advanced resource controls preserve performance  Encapsulation – Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved to files – Move and copy virtual machines as easily as moving and copying files Provision or migrate any virtual machine to any other similar physical server Multiple OSs – Windows, Linux © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  27. 27. Live Migration of Virtual Machines VMware VMotion Magic  Allows admins to transparently move running VMs from one physical server to another physical server across the L2 network  Enhances DR and BC strategies  Servers suddenly become fluid objects that traverse the network like an ordinary file. The potential of this capability is enormous VMotion ESX ESX Server 1 Server 2 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  28. 28. Market Transitions Virtualization 101 Server Virtualization Basics Benefits of Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  29. 29. So why should we care? Key Categories of Benefits from Server Virtualization #1. Reduced Physical Infrastructure Costs Capex Savings #2. Reduced Data Center Operating Costs Opex Savings (Management, Power & Cooling) #3. Operational Benefits Operational (Automated Resource Allocation, High Availability, Disaster Recovery) Efficiency © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  30. 30. Financial Benefits Capex and Opex Savings Insurance $1,100,000 $1,000,000 HW & SW Operations $900,000 Source: VMware, 2006 $800,000 $432,630 $700,000 $600,000 Healthcare Transportation $500,000 $68,157 $690,000 $77,726 $400,000 $477,500 $377,000 $129,971 $300,000 $200,000 $258,005 $38,966 $100,000 $9,341 $101,263 $73,500 $0 After After After Before Before Before Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  31. 31. Financial Benefits Extend Useful Asset Life and Defer Capex Thermal Thermal Ceiling Standard DC Virtualized Ceiling DC Now Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Now Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 20% Efficiency 60% Efficiency Total Capacity Utilized Capacity Source: Cisco Estimates © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  32. 32. Operational Efficiency Dynamic Resource Allocation, Disaster Recovery • Scale without disruption • DR - Business Continuity • Rapid server recovery after outage • Meeting unexpected or cyclical resource demand • Greatly improved time-to-market for application deployment © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  33. 33. Operational Efficiency High Availability Recover Rapidly Reduce • Automated Unplanned restart of VMs Downtime • Improve Business • Network and Continuity Slash Planned Storage multi- pathing Downtime • Flexible Data • Perform Protection maintenance at • DR any time • HA • VMotion © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  34. 34. Final Thoughts © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  35. 35. Key Takeaways 1) Virtualization is not a new technology. And neither is VMWare 2) Virtualization as a concept applies to more than just Servers. That said, Server Virtualization has really laid the foundation for a market transition - Unified Computing! 3) Terms like Virtual Machine, Hypervisor, Guest OS and VMWare VMotion, VMWare ESX should more than ring a bell now 4) When you think Server, think Virtual Machines – Fluid Objects that can traverse the network © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
  36. 36. © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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