Galileo galilei


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Galileo galilei

  1. 1. “The Life of Galileo,” is the greatest play by Brecht. It beautifully captures a brilliant discovery that changed the world. Armed with a telescope and a questioning mind, Galileo incites a war between reason and faith that challenges his own integrity. The play raises a very difficult question: Was Galileo a hero or an anti-hero? It’s a non-profit academic project for B.A 5th Semester under GU. It’s an assigned text to the presenter. The Life of Galileo by Berthold Brecht 1
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  3. 3. Brecht in a nut-shell:- i. The full name of Berthold Brecht was Eugene Berthold Friedrich Brecht. ii. He was a German playwright,poet,theatre director and Marxist thinker iii. His specialization was in the field of Epic Theatre & Three Penny Opera. The Life of Galileo 3
  4. 4. The Life of Galileo *Brecht invented a dramatic technique known as "verfremdungseffekt. *It is translated as "defamiliarization effect", "distancing effect", or "estrangement effect“ or "alienation effect“. *It was designed to encourage the audience to retain their critical detachment quite contrary to the Aristotelian demand of total involvement. *His plays were called ‘Epic Theatre’. 4
  5. 5. The Life of Galileo *Brecht began his theatre activity with the experimentation of Dada and Expressionism but soon created a unique style suited for his own vision. *He detested the ‘Aristotelian’ drama and advocated ‘the Epic’ drama. *Where as an Aristotelian drama demanded ‘total involvement’. Brecht’s ‘Epic’ drama proposed ‘total alienation’. *He also worked for ‘three penny opera’ in the last stage of his5
  6. 6. 6 Who was Galileo Galilei ? Galileo Galilei (1564–1642),was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. He played a decisive role in the Scientific Revolution. He is mainly revered for his achievements in the improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy, the "father of modern Physics”, the "father of science", and also "the Father of Modern Science".
  7. 7. The Life of Galileo Publication History:- Brecht’s Life of Galileo had three different publications. It occupied Brecht for the last twenty years of his life. *The first version appeared during his Danish exile in 1938. *The second, completed in 1947, was written largely with and for Charles Laughton. *A final version combined elements of the previous two was prepared for Brecht‘s West German publisher, Suhrkamp. This ultimately served as the text for the 1956 Berliner Ensemble production in East Berlin. * Brecht’s old friend Ernst Busch acted in the title role. 7
  8. 8. The Life of Galileo Key Facts: Life of Galileo (German: Leben des Galilei), is also known as Galileo. It is a play of 15 Scenes (‘Stages’) by the twentieth-century German Dramatist Berthold Brecht. Critics call it a Historical Play.Social responsibilities of the scientists( wikipedia) 8
  9. 9. The Life of Galileo The play begins in Padua. It was 1609. Galileo Galilei is a teacher of mathematics. He sets out to demonstrate the new Copernican system. In a modest house in Padua Galileo Galilei set out to prove his theory that the sun is still and the earth is on the move. It is morning. A boy, Andrea, the housekeeper's son, brings in a glass of milk and a roll. Galileo starts discussion with the boy. 9
  10. 10. The Life of Galileo *Brecht’s ‘Life of Galileo’ is not like traditional dramas divided into Acts and Scenes. It is a play of 15 Scenes called ‘Stages’. *Each ‘Stage’ is a separate little drama in itself. *Brecht’s method is ‘epic’ .Here, we are not to wonder “What will happen next or Where is this scene leading?” but “What is happening now & What is this scene doing?“ *One scene does not lead to another, but exists as a separate entity. Every scene is a ‘demonstration’ in itself. It is simply to be looked at and understood like a ‘lesson’. *We listen to what Galileo says and watch what he does as observers who must judge. 10
  11. 11. The Life of Galileo Synopsis::Galileo is short of money. A prospective student tells Galileo about a novel invention, the telescope ("a queer tube thing"), being sold in Amsterdam. Galileo replicates it, but then sells it to the Venetian Republic as his own creation. Galileo uses the telescope to substantiate Copernicus’ heliocentric model of our Solar system. It goes against both popular belief and church doctrine. He publishes his opinion in vernacular Italian, rather than traditional scientific Latin. He wants it accessible to the common people. His daughter's marriage to a well-off young man (with whom she is genuinely in love) fails because of Galileo's reluctance to distance himself from his unorthodox teachings. 11
  12. 12. The Life of Galileo Galileo is brought to the Vatican for interrogation. Upon being threatened with torture, he recants his teachings. His students are shocked by his surrender in the face of pressure from the church authorities. Galileo, old and broken, living under house arrest, is visited by one of his former pupils, Andrea. Galileo gives him a book (Two New Sciences) containing all his scientific discoveries, asking him to smuggle it out of Italy for dissemination abroad. Andrea now believes Galileo's actions were heroic and that he just recanted to fool the ecclesiastical authorities. However, Galileo insists his actions had nothing to do with heroism but were merely the result of self- interest. NB. An Excerpt from Wikipedia. 12
  13. 13. The Life of Galileo Brecht suggested a key to interpreting the text of ‘Galileo’ in the following words: "Galileo enriched astronomy and physics, while contemporaries erroneously stripped them for much of their social significance. These sciences had for a certain time manned the barricades in defense of all progress just because they proved contradictory to the Church and the Bible. Ref. Galileo web portal. 13
  14. 14. The Life of Galileo In spite of this, however, a radical change took place in the following centuries; but it was a radical change, not a revolution. The scandal degenerated, it might be said, into a dispute among specialists. The Church, with all of her reactionary forces, was able to retreat in good order, conserving her strength virtually intact. As concerns the sciences themselves, they never reacquired that function so important for society, never again returned to positions so close to the people. Link.[Galileo web portal] 14
  15. 15. The Life of Galileo Galileo’s capacity for hope and commitment to constructive doubt put him in conflict with the Church. But Galileo is undeterred. He boldly proclaims “Our lifetime will see astronomy being discussed in the marketplaces,” in his compelling “hymn to reason” in ‘Stage’one. He continues “Even the fish-wives’ sons will hasten off to school…And the earth is rolling cheerfully around the sun, and the fishwives, merchants, princes, cardinals, and even the Pope are rolling with it.” 15
  16. 16. The Life of Galileo He further proclaims that human gullibility and deliberate, self-serving unreason are no bulwarks against intelligent thought. . According to Galileo ‘Thinking is one of the chief pleasures of the human race, and even the Politicians, religious figures and revered teachers might also become the subjects of skeptical inquiry.” Likewise, “There’s happiness in doubting,”. 16
  17. 17. The Life of Galileo “That most solemn truths are being familiarly nudged; what was never doubted before is doubted now,” Galileo tells Andrea. However, it is not difficult to see the precise threat of Galileo’s critical attitude from the comment of the balled singer in scene 9. 17
  18. 18. Scene-1: The New Age ::Padua in 1609 i. The play begins with Galileo Galilei, a teacher of mathematics in Padua who sets out to demonstrate the new Copernican system. ii. At Padua city, in a modest house Galileo Galilei set out to prove that the sun is still, the earth is on the move iii.It is morning. A boy, Andrea, the housekeeper's son, brings in a glass of milk and a roll. Galileo starts discussion with the boy. Life of Galileo 18
  19. 19. Life of Galileo Scene-2:Presenting a Telescope [Venice in 1609] ‘Galileo is unveiling a new telescope’ (photo by Ruth Berlau in 1947)19
  20. 20. Life of Galileo Scene-3: Copernicus Confirmed [padua-1610] Galileo proves Copernican theory to be correct in an experiment in Padua with the help of his Telescope in 1610. 20
  21. 21. Life of Galileo Scene4;The University Debate [Florence 1610] Having moved to Florence ,Galileo prepares a demonstration for the Grand Duke Casimo de medici ,his chamberlain and two scholars. But Galileo is dismayed when the philosopher and the mathematician were seen uninterested in any discussion that would challenge the earth-centric concept of the world. They were even unable to watch through the lens and suggested that they would not consider any new opinion that contradicts Aristotle. They even call the whole Telescope episode a hoax. How pathatic! 21
  22. 22. Life of Galileo Scene5: Clavius’s Judgment [Rome1616] Galileo was then summoned to the Vetican to prove his ‘New Theory’. Christopher Clavious ,the chief astronomer of the church examines through Galileo’s Telescope while Galileo had to stay in another room. Two Monks ridicules Galileo through their ignorant comments and bias adherence to orthodox opinion. A lesser astronomer and Cardinal calls Galileo’s Telescope as ‘Devil’s own tube’. He became so excited in seeing the truth that he faints. Father Clavious declares Galileo correct. But the scene ends ominously with the coming of a Cardinal Inquisitor. 22
  23. 23. Life of Galileo Scene6:The Ball in Rome [Rome1616] Galileo attends a ball with his daughter Virginia and her fiance Ludovico. Galileo discusses his new idea with two cardinals Bellarmine and Barbirini.Clerks recorded their discussion. Cardinals told that the problem of Galileo’s teaching was that it contradicts Church doctrines.So Galileo should keep his findings secret. The Cardinal Inquisitor investigates the record and feels satisfied. The Cardinal asks Virginia about Galileo’s teaching but Virginia tells nothing and shows more interest in her approaching marriage. 23
  24. 24. Life of Galileo Scene7 : The Little Monk [Home 1616] The Little Monk who was with Clavious when he found Galileo correct, arrives at the palace of Florentine Ambassador to Rome. He expresses that every body should stick to Church doctrine and give up interest in new astronomical findings. Galileo warns that there is no virtue in ignorance. Galileo scolds him saying that one who knows the truth and denies it is a criminal. Finally ,Galileo is seen recalling the tree of knowledge to have another bite. 24
  25. 25. Life of Galileo 25  Eight years elapsed. Virginia is still preparing for her marriage. Andrea has become a Youngman. Galileo shifts the attention of the Young scholars to a new direction. He shows why Ice floats on water and thus proves Aristotle wrong. Scene8: Galileo Resumes his Research [Florence1624]
  26. 26. Life of Galileo Scene8: Galileo Resumes his Research [Florence1624] [cont.] It was reported that Barbarini, a mathematician is going to be the new Pope. Galileo’s mood brightens and he agrees to discuss on ‘Sunspots’. Ludovico says that he delayed marrying Virginia because of Galileo’s ill reputation. Sanora Sarti also admonishes Galileo for causing unhappiness to Virginia. Galileo guessed the meaning of their charges and asks Ludovico to bring the Telescope back. At this, Ludovico calls the wedding off and departs without even saying good bye to Virginia. His real character and motif becomes exposed. 26
  27. 27. Life of Galileo Scene9:The Carnival (An Italian City in1632) A puppet show on a wagon portrays Galileo crossing out whole pages of the Bible and finally tossing the Bible out altogether. 27
  28. 28. Life of Galileo Scene10: Galileo’s Arrest (Florence 1632) Galileo and Virginia had gone to Florence to meet the Grand Duke. An Iron worker warned them that Galileo might be arrested. Galileo did not believe. Eventually Galileo meets the Grand Duke in the Hall. But the Grand Duke feel embarrassed in the encounter and hurriedly leaves the Hall after a little pleasantry. Galileo was then arrested by an official sent to Rome to be interrogated by the Holy Inquisitor. 28
  29. 29. Life of Galileo Scene11:The Dressing of the Pope (Rome1633) Cardinal Barbarini has become the new Pope, Pope Urban VIII. He has been seen dressing. He argues with the Holy Inquisitor regarding the fate of Galileo. The Inquisitor is in favour of putting Galileo to silence. But, the pope wants a measured response. He does not like to show Church against Reason. He tries to defend Galileo but the Inquisitor remains unmoved and he ultimately has to permit him to show the instruments of torture. He thinks Galileo would be under control in seeing those instruments. 29
  30. 30. Life of Galileo Scene12:Recantation:Rome-1633 Three of Galileo’s pupils The Little Monk, Federzoni and Andrea were anxiously waiting to know the fate of Galileo. Galileo was arrested 23 days ago and was supposed to be imprisoned for ever. They speculated that they would never see Galileo again. However, they hoped that Galileo would not surrender to the pressure from the Vatican. At 5 o’clock the Recantation took place. Anguished Andrea proclaims, “Unhappy is the land that has no heroes”. A few minutes latter physically defeated Galileo enters and says, “ No, Unhappy is the land that needs heroes”. 30
  31. 31. Life of Galileo SCENE13: The Prisoner(The Countryside near Florence 1637) Galileo is now an old man. He is nearly blind and can not write . So, he dictates Virginia to write his scripts. He is seen trying to interpret a page from the Bible at the request of the archbishop.(Ephesians-iii,19) Andrea appears after a long period and reports that the frustrated Little Monk and Federzoni had given up their scientific pursuits and returned to their old Vocations. He is also going to Holland for Research and Publishing purpose. 31
  32. 32. Life of Galileo Scene13:The Prisoner Galileo secretly gives a manuscript of his latest thought to Andrea which he had written at late nights. It is ‘on motion’. Andrea reads and feels elated. He comments, “The only commandment of science is to , ‘Contribute to Science’. He tells Andrea that the sole purpose of science is to make man’s life happier and brighter. He also regrets for not been able to challenge the Church verdicts properly. 32
  33. 33. Life of Galileo Scene14 (The Word goes out:: Italian Frontier-1637) Andrea approaches the guard. Galileo’s paper written in Italian is discovered among Andrea’s personal possessions. The Guard is unfamiliar with the language and as such cannot understand the meaning .So he allows Andrea to take it with him. He lifts the gate and allows Andrea to pass on. Thus Galileo’s word goes out. 33
  34. 34. The Life Of Galileo Scene:15 A Villa near Florence: 1633-1642 A large Room with a table ,a leather chair and a Globe.Here, Galileo lives as a prisoner of the Inquisition. A ballad singer narrates that Galileo has been staying in that Villa since 1633 and he is doomed to stay here till his death. And it actually happened on the 8th January,1642. 34
  35. 35. References & Links:- iii. www.galileo v. ‘Life of Galileo’ a web article by quisar Iqbal Janjua 35 Life of Galileo