Summary Overview This slide introduces the two basic issues that are associated with the advertising creative process… creative strategy and creative tactics. A creative strategy that determines what the message will say or communicate Creative tactics for how the message strategy will be executed.
Summary Overview This slide presents a popular Old Spice ad and a couple of tag lines. Ideally, ads and commercials will appeal to, and often create or shape, consumers ’: Problems Desires Goals
Summary Overview This slide presents some ads that are considered the best of all time. Striking a balance between creative advertising and effective advertising is difficult. For example, the ads shown on this slide all won awards for creativity, but failed to increase product sales. Many advertising and marketing people have now become ambivalent toward, and even critical of, advertising awards. They argue that agency creative people are more concerned with creating ads that win awards than ads that sell their clients ’ products.
Summary Overview This slide presents two opposing viewpoints related to creativity. At one extreme, advertising is viewed as creative only if it sells product… innovation and awards are by-products. At the other extreme, ads are “creative” if they are original and innovative… things that can break through the competitive clutter. What constitutes creativity in advertising exists somewhere in between.
Summary Overview This slide presents two primary factors of creativity… divergence and relevance. Divergence is the extent to which an ad is novel, different, or unusual. Relevance is the degree to which the ad is meaningful, useful, or valuable to the consumer. Divergence factors: Originality… ad elements are rare, surprising, or move away from the obvious and commonplace. Flexibility… ad contains different ideas or switches from one perspective to another. Elaboration… ad has unexpected details or finish and extends basic ideas so they become more intricate, complicated, or sophisticated. Synthesis… ads combine, connect, or blend normally unrelated objects or ideas. Artistic value… ad has artistic verbal impressions or attractive shapes/colors. Relevance: Ad-to-consumer relevance… the ad contains execution elements that are meaningful to consumers. Advertisers may use celebrities with whom consumers identify with, music that they like, or visual images and execution techniques that capture their interest and attention. Brand-to-consumer relevance … the advertised brand of a product or service is of personal interest to consumers. Relevance or appropriateness can also be viewed in terms of the degree to which an ad provides information or an image that is pertinent to the brand.
Summary Overview This slide presents an example of the creative advertising that helped make Absolut vodka an iconic brand. This ad on this slide is a good example of creative advertising that relies primarily on thought-provoking imagery. The ad is part of the integrated global campaign, which uses the tagline “In an Absolut World.” It plays off the brand name to illustrate a whimsical, imagined world where everything is as ideal as Absolut vodka. This ad features New York ’s Times Square adorned with famous works of art, rather than billboards.
Summary Overview This slide presents the perpetual struggle between the “suits” and “poets.” Suits are rationalists who argue that advertising must sell the product or service, and that the more selling points there are in the ad, the greater the chance of moving the consumer to purchase. Poets (proponents of creativity) argue that advertising must build an emotional bond between consumers and brands or companies that goes beyond mere product advertising.
Summary Overview This slide presents some of the adjectives often used to describe creative types, such as artists and copywriters. Creative people tend to be more abstract and less structured, organized, or conventional in their approach to a problem, often relying more in intuition than logic to solve it. Marketing or brand managers (suits), on the other hand, tend to be more conventional and have a business background. These differences between creative and managerial personalities and perspectives must be recognized and tolerated so that creative people can do their best work and all those involved in the advertising process can cooperate.
Summary Overview One of the most popular approaches to creativity in advertising was developed by James Webb Young, a former creative vice president at the J. Walter Thompson agency. This slide shows and describes the various steps in Young ’s model of the creative process.
Summary Overview This slide shows another approach to the creative process, which was developed by English sociologist Graham Wallas.
Summary Overview This slide shows various forms of background information that can be provided to creative specialists during the preparation, incubation, and illumination stages of the creative process. In addition, many agencies provide creative people with general preplanning input: Books and periodicals (Advertising Age, Adweek, Brandweek) Trade publications and scholarly journals Pictures and clippings Ads from the competition Other information sources: Local, state, and federal governments Secondary research suppliers Various industry trade associations Advertising and media organizations
Summary Overview Young & Rubicam developed a proprietary tool for building and managing a brand. Known as the BrandAsset Valuator, it produces the type of output shown in this slide. The product or service The target audience A combination of the two Young & Rubicam developed a proprietary tool for building and managing a brand. Known as the BrandAsset Valuator, it measures five factors, including brand differentiation, energy, relevance, esteem, and knowledge to identify core issues for the brand and to evaluate current performance and potential.
Summary Overview This slide shows the objectives for the verification and revision stages of the creative process, as well as the research techniques that can be used. The purpose of these steps is to evaluate the ideas that were generated and then refine them. At this stage of the creative process, members of the target audience may be asked to Evaluate rough creative layouts Indicate the meaning they get from the ad Indicate what they think of its execution Verbalize their reaction to a slogan or theme
Summary Overview This slide shows the various components of an advertising campaign, which is a series of interrelated, integrated, and coordinated marketing communication activities that center on a central theme or idea, in different media, across a specified time period. Most ads are part of a series of messages that make up an IMC or advertising campaign. Determining the unifying theme or idea around which the campaign will be built is a critical part of the creative process, as it sets the tone for the individual ads and other IMC tools that will be used. A campaign theme should be a strong idea, as it is the central message that will be communicated in all advertising and promotion activities. The theme is usually expressed through a slogan or tagline that reduces the key idea into a few words or a brief statement.
Summary Overview This slide shows successful themes employed by a number of major companies. The slogans/themes shown here are from some very successful advertising campaigns. Per Steve Cone, there are four basic guidelines for creating a compelling tagline: Say why the company or brand is different without using common words Display real attitude and bypass wishy-washy phrases Appear at all customer touch points, and headline every marketing promotion Recognize that creating a good tagline is an art… the best ones come from flashes of inspiration by great copywriters who see clear and compelling brand promises, then make them come to life.
Summary Overview This slide shows the outline from a creative brief. The brief may also be called a creative platform , work plan , creative blueprint , or creative contract . Just as there are different names for the creative brief, there are variations in the outline and format used, and in the level of detail included. Many creative briefs also include supporting information and requirements, such as brand identifications and disclaimers that should appear in all advertising messages. The creative brief is usually developed by an account representative or an account planner.
Summary Overview This slide shows the major communication interfaces and decision points where gatekeepers on both the agency and client side can impede the flow of information. The marketing information flow depicted here was developed by Jon Sutherland, Lisa Duke, and Avery Abernethy. It shows 5 major decision points at which gatekeepers can impede the flow of information. In addition, there are 4 other potential communication interface failure points: The client or client gatekeeper lacking knowledge of some or all of the information needed The client deciding not to share information with the agency Agency gatekeepers deciding not to share information with creative staffers Internal agency communication failures, which may result in the creative staff not receiving all of the relevant information received from the client.
Summary Overview This slide shows various approaches that can be used to develop the major selling idea of an advertising campaign. This “big idea” should attract the consumer’s attention, get a reaction, and set the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competition. There are myriad ways to approach the search for big ideas and how to execute them. However, these are among the best-known approaches: Using a unique selling proposition Creating a brand image Finding the inherent drama Positioning
Summary Overview This slide presents the USP approach to developing the major selling idea. Each advertisement must make a proposition to the consumer… buy this product and you will get this benefit. The proposition must be something one that the competition either cannot or does not offer. It must be unique either in the brand or in the claim. The proposition must be strong enough to move the mass millions. That is, it must pull consumers to your brand. This approach can be very effective when a particular brand possesses a unique attribute that is important to consumers. However, the advertiser must make sure that they can substantiate the uniqueness claim or they may face legal challenges.
Summary Overview This slide contains a Colgate Total ad that offers a unique selling proposition. Colgate Total ’s unique selling proposition… that there is a connection between the health of your mouth and the health of your body.
Summary Overview This slide shows a bebe ad, which uses image advertising. As shown here, bebe uses advertising to build an image as a sexy and stylish brand.
Summary Overview This slide illustrates the use of inherent drama as an approach to the development of a major selling idea. The inherent drama approach is used often used in advertising for companies/brands such as McDonald ’s, Maytag appliances, Kellogg cereals, and Hallmark cards. A good example of this approach is the new campaign for Hallmark cards… “The biggest little thing you can do.” The ads emphasize the gratitude and appreciation that can come from the small gesture of sending a greeting card, and promotes the 99-cent line of greeting cards that Hallmark has been selling for years. A unique aspect of this campaign was giving consumers the ability to go to a website, choose the card that is given to the person in the ad, then watching the reaction of the person who receives it.
Summary Overview This slide shows the basis of positioning as an approach to the development of a major selling idea. Many of the top brands in various product and service categories have retained their market leadership because they have established and maintained a strong position or identity in the minds of consumers. Quaker State/Q uses a performance positioning strategy (shown here) and targets the “Enthusiast” segment that is involved in maintaining their car, and will most likely purchase their own oil and install it themselves.
Creative Strategy: Planning and Development
Creative Strategy:Planning and Development Chapter 8 Advertising And Promotion, 6/E - BelchGroup 8 Integrated Marketing Communications 8-1 Aditya | Indrajit | Krishna | Niraj | Prateek | Silpa
Advertising Creativity Determining what the Determining what theCreativeCreative advertising message will say advertising message will sayStrategyStrategy or communicate or communicate Determining how the Determining how theCreativeCreative message strategy will be message strategy will be Tactics Tactics executed executed 8-2
Creative Advertising for Shangri-La Hotels It’s in our Nature There’s no greater act of hospitality than to embrace a stranger as one’s own. 8-3
The Importance of Creativity Best ads of all time? • Alka-Seltzer… Mama Mia! That’s a spicy meatball! • Nissan … Enjoy the ride. • Altoids… Curiously strong. 8-4
Different Perspectives on Creativity? It isn’t creative Only artistic if it doesn’t sell value and originality countStick with Try what something works new Managers Creatives 8-5
Determinants of CreativityDivergence Relevance Originality Ad-to-consumer Flexibility Brand-to-consumerElaboration SynthesisArtistic Value 8-6
Creative vs. Hard-Sell Advertising“Suits” are “Poets” arerationalist proponents salesmen of creativity 8-8
Creative Personnel Unconventional Abstract Less structured Less organized Intuitive 8-9
Young’s Creative Process Get raw material and data, andImmersion immerse yourself in the problem Take the information, work it over, Digestion wrestle with it in your mind Turn the information over to the Incubation subconscious to do the work Illumination “Eureka! I have it!” phenomenon Study the idea, evaluate it, Verification reshape it for practical usefulness 8-10
Wallas’ Creative Process Model Illumination Preparation Seeing the Gathering Solution Information The Creative Process Verification Incubation Refining Setting the Idea Problem Aside 8-11
Getting Creative Input Use theRead anything product to Listen to whatrelated to the become people are product or familiar talking about market with it Conduct studies of Ask everyone Work in and product, involved for learn about the service, information client’s audience business 8-12
Input Verification and Revision •Evaluate ideas •Evaluate ideas •Reject the inappropriate •Reject the inappropriateObjectiveObjective •Refine the remaining •Refine the remaining •Give ideas final expression •Give ideas final expression •Directed focus groups •Directed focus groups •Message communication studies •Message communication studiesTechniquesTechniques •Portfolio tests •Portfolio tests •Viewer reaction profiles •Viewer reaction profiles 8-14
An Advertising Campaign Integrated IntegratedInterrelatedInterrelated Marketing Coordinated Marketing Coordinated Communication Communication Activities ActivitiesIn Different Centered on a Centered on a Over a TimeIn Different Over a Time Media Theme or Idea Theme or Idea Period Media Period 8-15
Campaign Themes Company or Brand Campaign ThemeMarlboro Marlboro CountryWheaties Breakfast of ChampionsBMW The ultimate driving machineNike Just do itMcDonald’s I’m lovin’ itKey Jewelers Every kiss begins with KayAllstate You’re in good hands with Allstate 8-16
The Creative Brief• Basic problem or issue the advertising must address• Advertising and communications objectives• Target audience• Major selling idea or key benefits to communicate• Creative strategy statement• Supporting information and requirements 8-17
Marketing Information Flow Knowledge of vital marketing information Client/agency Internal agency communication communicationClient gatekeepers Agency gatekeeper Creative staff (Brand manager) (Account manager) Internal client decision Agency gatekeeper Art is created to share decision on sharing information client info with staff with agency 8-18
Search for a Major Selling Idea Finding the Finding the Use a Unique Use a Uniqueinherent drama inherent drama Selling Position Selling Position Seeking the Seeking the Major Idea Major Idea Positioning Create a Brand Create a Brand Positioning Image Image 8-19
The Unique Selling Proposition (USP) Benefit Benefit Unique Unique Potent PotentBuy this Buy this Must be Must be Promise Promiseproduct/serv product/serv unique to unique to must be must beice and you ice and you this brand or this brand or strong strongget this get this claim; rivals claim; rivals enough to enough tobenefit benefit cant or dont cant or dont move mass move mass offer it offer it millions millions 8-20
Inherent Drama Messages generally presented in a warm, emotional way Focuses on consumer benefits with an emphasis on the dramatic element 8-23
Positioning Establish a particular place in the customer’s mind for the product or service Based on product attributes/benefits, price/quality, use or application, type of user, or problem solved 8-24