Science and Technology Development in the Sharia-based Economic System
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTIN THE SHARIA-BASED ECONOMIC SYSTEMHadi SusantoSchool of Mathematical Sciences, University of NottinghamSecond Plenary SessionSharia Economics Conference 2013Hannover, Germany – February 9, 2013
Outline• History of S&T development• Relevance of the sharia economics system• S&T policy under the sharia economic system09/02/2013 2Second Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 3History of science andtechnologySecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susantoعلمالرياضيات الطبيعة الكيمياء االحياء علم
09/02/2013 4History of science andtechnologySecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susantoتطبيقي علمapplied
09/02/2013 5History of science andtechnologySecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoEarly cultures: Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, Persia, India, ChinaClassical Antiquity: Greco-Roman worldMiddle Ages (~476–~1500): Early, high, late middle agesRenaissance (14th–17th century)H.S. Williams, A History of Science (New York, HarperCollins, 1904)W.B. Paley, http://scimaps.org/maps/map/textarc_visualizatio_53/Scientific revolution (~1543–18th century)Age of Enlightenment/Age of Reason (17th–18th century)Romanticism in science (~1800–18th century)Positivism (18th–19th century)…
09/02/2013 6History of science andtechnologySecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoMiddle Ages (~476–~1500): Early, high, late middle agesScience in the medieval Islamic world/Islamic science/Arabic scienceD.R. Hill, Islamic Science and Engineering (Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1993)
09/02/2013 7History of science andtechnologySecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoS.T.S. Al-Hassani, E. Woodcock, and R. Saoud (Eds.), 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World (2011).S.T.S. Al-Hassani (Ed.), 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization (National Geographic,Washington DC, 2012)
09/02/2013 8Mathematics and artsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoProblem: Construct a square in a given circle.
09/02/2013 9Mathematics and artsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 10Mathematics and artsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoKashan, Iran, 13th-14th century
09/02/2013 11Mathematics and artsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoA.A. Al-Daffa, The Muslim Contribution to Mathematics (Croom Helm, London, 1977).J.L. Berggren, Episodes in the Mathematics of Medieval Islam (Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1986).J.L. Berggren, “Mathematics in Medieval Islam,” in The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India,and Islam: A Sourcebook. Victor J. Katz (Ed.) (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2007).
09/02/2013 12Penrose tilings andquasicrystalsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoR. Penrose, The role of aesthetics in pure and applied mathematical research, Bulletin of the Institute ofMathematics and its Applications 10, 266-271 (1974).D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Gratias, and J. Cahn, Metallic Phase with Long-Range Orientational Order and NoTranslational Symmetry, Physical Review Letters 53 (20) 1951-1953 (1984).P.J. Lu and P.J. Steinhardt, Decagonal and quasi-crystalline tilings in medieval Islamic architecture, Science 315,1106-1110 (2007).L. Bindi, P.J. Steinhardt, N. Yao, and P.J. Lu, Natural Quasicrystals, Science 324, 1306-1309 (2009).
09/02/2013 13Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto• Muslim scientists were very concerned with the practical applications of their work."I have 17 camels, and I have three sons. Divide my camels in such a way that my eldest son gets half of them,the second one gets 1/3rd of the total and my youngest son gets 1/9th of the total number of camels.“[The Chinese Remainder theorem]• The economic system drove the development of science and technology: the house of wisdom.”Under the sponsorship of caliph al-Mamun, economic support of the Houseof Wisdom and scholarship in general was greatly increased. Moreover,Abbasid society itself came to understand and appreciate the value ofknowledge, and support also came from merchants and the military. It waseasy for scholars and translators to make a living and an academic life was asymbol of status. Wisdom was so valuable that books and ancient texts weresometimes preferred as war booty instead of other riches. Indeed, PtolemysAlmagest was claimed as a condition for peace after between the Abbasids and the Byzantine Empire.”
09/02/2013 14Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 15Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 16Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 17Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoWorld economic forum
09/02/2013 18Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto
09/02/2013 19Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoEPSRC Budgets 2008/9 – 2014/15
09/02/2013 20Relevance of shariaeconomicsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoNew Scientist, 06 June 2009
09/02/2013 21Science and technologypolicySecond Plenary Session: Hadi SusantoThe Byzantine embassy of John the Grammarian in 829 to Mamun from Theophilos
09/02/2013 22Science and technologypolicySecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto• Science and technology have been studied and developed in such a waythat resulted in a materialistic civilization.• Development of science and technology that directed exclusively forpractical purposes (pragmatism/utilitarianism) obviously has createddestruction and global crisis.• The practice is still open for discussions (with aqidah and shariah as thefundamental guidance)
09/02/2013 23ConclusionsSecond Plenary Session: Hadi Susanto