Globalization in nepali media


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Globalization in nepali media

  1. 1. Globalization induced changes in Nepali Media* Indra Dhoj KshetriDepartment of Mass Communication and Journalism Madan Bhandari Memorial College October 11, 2012 *A Presentation made at Martin Chautari on Media Discussion Series on Oct 11, 2012 Globalization induced changes in Nepali 1 media Kshetri_2012
  2. 2. Session Plan• Defining Globalization• Impacts of Globalization: Economic, Cultural and Political• Historical Perspectives in Globalization• Globalization in Nepal• Meaning of Media Globalization• Impacts on Nepali Media• Conclusion Globalization induced changes in Nepali 2 media Kshetri_2012
  3. 3. Defining GlobalizationTomlinson (1999): globalization refers to the rapidly developing and ever-densening network of interconnections and interdependences that characterize modem social life.McGrew (1992): Nowadays, goods, capital, people, knowledge, images, crime, pollutants, drugs, fashions and beliefs all readily flow across territorial boundaries. Transnational networks, social movements and relationships are extensive in virtually all areas from the academic to the sexual. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 3 media Kshetri_2012
  4. 4. Defining Globalization• It is a complex concept• It can be defined in three ways:  Economic  Cultural  Political Globalization induced changes in Nepali 4 media Kshetri_2012
  5. 5. Economic perspective• Free transnational flow of currency/capital, investment, technology, labor and goods where individual nations have less sovereignty in restricting these movements and imposing barriers including taxation.• Championed by WTO and other Trade/finance organizations i.e. IMF, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 5 media Kshetri_2012
  6. 6. Political perspective• The loss of sovereignty and the influence of foreign nations in the political decisions/developments of the recipient country• Through supra-national political institutions like UN/EU/SAARC**Saarc was initiated to resist the Globalization but as most of its member nations lost the relevance for that resistance, it turned out to be the pawn. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 6 media Kshetri_2012
  7. 7. Cultural perspective• Creation of Global hegemonic Culture and the subordination of local cultures• Creation and penetration of popular culture through globalized media• Cultural Imperialism Globalization induced changes in Nepali 7 media Kshetri_2012
  8. 8. Agents/institutions of Globalization• Migration for work• Tourism• Means of transportation and interconnectedness• Communication Technologies• Education or academic institutions• Political parties• Regional and global organizations• I/NGOs Globalization induced changes in Nepali 8 media Kshetri_2012
  9. 9. Historical Perspectives in Globalization• It started with mercantile capitalism• Paced up with industrial capitalism• Accelerated and received larger legitimacy with modernization and financial capitalism• In addition to the development of the fastest means of transportation and interconnectedness, media aided as a primary factor in this latest development. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 9 media Kshetri_2012
  10. 10. Globalization in Nepal• Globalization in Nepal started after Sugauli treaty in 1816 AD• Movement towards India started with Nepali youths’ recruitment in the British army• They brought goods, technologies and new culture.• The subordination of local culture started Globalization induced changes in Nepali 10 media Kshetri_2012
  11. 11. Role of Ranas in Globalization in Nepal• Ranas were keen to imitate the British culture.• This established the importance of speaking English, eating and clothing like the Britons and was thought to be superior to the mass.• They provided a large number of Nepali recruits to the British army, who in return brought the goods and culture as well as technologies. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 11 media Kshetri_2012
  12. 12. Meaning of Media Globalization• Media as the means of Globalization• Media as consequence of Globalization• Free transnational flow of investment, technologies (hardware), contents and formats (software), human resources• Free transnational reception of global media technologies and contents• Media also as a strong agent of political and economic globalization Globalization induced changes in Nepali 12 media Kshetri_2012
  13. 13. Impacts in Nepali MediaImpacts in Nepali media also have to be seen from the following four perspectives:• Investment,• technologies (hardware) of transmission and reception,• human resources• content (software) production and reception Globalization induced changes in Nepali 13 media Kshetri_2012
  14. 14. Impact on Structure/Organization (Investment and human resources)• Conglomeration• Corporatization• Foreign Investment• Competition with Foreign channels• Training journalists/media workers with the knowledge compatible with their interests (Thomson Reuters’ business reporting course is the best example)• Journalist exchanges and tours• Scholarships for University education• Superiority of English language press/media (a big problem in India which may soon plague Nepal too) Globalization induced changes in Nepali 14 media Kshetri_2012
  15. 15. Impact on Structure/Organization:Technologies of transmission and reception• Development of newest technologies and making it mandatory for the developing countries to adapt to them• Dependency• Profit to the producer companies which mostly in the West• Audiences forced to continuously upgrade their reception devices and technologies to be compatible with the newest technologies of transmission Globalization induced changes in Nepali 15 media Kshetri_2012
  16. 16. Impact on Content• Tabloidization• Rise of Infotainment• Show-biz• Dominance of international news in entertainment, sports and business news• Pro-liberal and pro-capitalist bias Globalization induced changes in Nepali 16 media Kshetri_2012
  17. 17. Impact on Content• Huge dependence of local/national media on foreign media products (news agencies, feature syndicates, TV networks, movie studios etc.)• Use of TV program formats developed by the Western media companies• Hybrid media contents Globalization induced changes in Nepali 17 media Kshetri_2012
  18. 18. Impact on Audience reception• Consumption of foreign media products• Trans-border reception of foreign channels• Reception/consumption of International media products• Continuous adaptation to new technology Globalization induced changes in Nepali 18 media Kshetri_2012
  19. 19. Conclusion• Even though Globalization is at pace now, it started in Nepal immediately after Sugauli Sandhi. So studies on Globalization in Nepal should not only be studied after the period of modernization.• Globalization in Nepal paced up with modernization in 1950s which also coincided with the establishment of democratic system in Nepal and with some hiccups during Panchayat, accelerated after 1990s Globalization induced changes in Nepali 19 media Kshetri_2012
  20. 20. Conclusion contd.• Globalization has impacted not only media contents but also the structures.• Study about the impact of Globalization in Nepali media should not only be limited to the cultural aspects, it should consider organizational, human resource and technological changes in national media organizations too.• Media should not only be studied as carrier of globalization but also a field of it.• Media as the agent of political and economic globalization: Some [political] economists and sociologists have studied the political and economic aspect but they have overlooked the role of media. Globalization induced changes in Nepali 20 media Kshetri_2012
  21. 21. Questions, feedback andsuggestions are welcome!!! Globalization induced changes in Nepali 21 media Kshetri_2012