Jharkhand Development Report 2010

29,353 views

Published on

The passing of the Bihar Reorganization Bill gave birth to the 28th state of the nation, Jharkhand on November 15th 2000 on the occasion of the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda. Jharkhand as a state is known as a vast reservoir of natural resources in terms of forest areas as well as minerals. However, in spite of this immense potential, it has not been able to utilize them properly and is thus counted among the backward states in the country. Its inheritance is considered to be one of the major reasons for this backwardness which is reflected in the development backlog over the years. The widespread unrest among the naxal community in recent times has further added to the problem. It thus puts a challenge before the state to provide good governance and to enable equitable growth and socio-economic progress. With a population size a third of Bihar and community-centered traditional ethos of tribal people, it will be relatively easier for the nascent state to pass on the benefits of growth to its citizens equally.

The present study makes an attempt to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the state, objectively using government's own data. Various aspects of Jharkhand's economy and the changes therein over time have been tracked to see the extent of progress in different indicators of growth and development. In each of the aspects, Jharkhand's status in comparison to other states has been discussed. Further, a comparative analysis of various districts of the state has also been presented. Given the importance of industries in engineering the growth of a region, a detailed profile of industries is done, identifying the largest and fastest growing industries in each district of Jharkhand. Latest available data from various government and semi-government sources have been used for this analysis. Since this study is the fifth in the series, data has been updated from the previous edition, where available.

The study is divided into five sections each dealing with various issues related to development. Section I is an editorial by Dr. Laveesh Bhandari examining the present socio-economic situation of Jharkhand.

The second section of the study studies the dependence of state’s economy on agriculture and the influence of NREGA especially in the year when large part of the state faced drought like situation.

The third section of the study explores the quality of governance, examines knowledge and communication base as well as the socio-economic profile of Jharkhand.

The fourth section of the Study deals with the intra state analysis where the districts of the state are compared and ranked. The fifth section lays out the industrial profile of Jharkhand identifying the key growth drivers of industrial sector in each district of the state.


The sixth section provides a comparative picture of the parliamentary constituencies in the state in terms of various socio-economic and infrastructure based parameters. T

3 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
29,353
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
551
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
740
Comments
3
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Jharkhand Development Report 2010

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Jharkhand in its Ninth Year A Study for Prabhat Khabar November 2009 www.in d icus .n et N DICUS Indicus Analytics Pvt. Ltd. Nehru House, 2nd Floor, 4 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002 India Ph: +91-11-42512400 Email: indic@indicus.net 2
  3. 3. Contents Acknowledgement.......................................................................................................................................5 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................6 Data Qualification........................................................................................................................................8 Jharkhand – A Review..................................................................................................................................9 State Profile.............................................................................................................................................9 Section I: The Past and Future of Economic Development of Jharkhand...................................................11 Section II: A review of growth and development in the state of Jharkhand..............................................15 Section III: Jharkhand in its Ninth Year......................................................................................................21 Governance in Jharkhand......................................................................................................................21 1. Law and Order...............................................................................................................................21 2. Public Finance ...............................................................................................................................29 Price Movement................................................................................................................................35 Infrastructure.....................................................................................................................................36 B. Jharkhand as a Knowledge Economy................................................................................................44 1. Communication..............................................................................................................................44 2. Educational Institutions.................................................................................................................48 C. Socio Economic Profile .....................................................................................................................53 Demography......................................................................................................................................54 2. Workforce......................................................................................................................................57 3. Basic Necessity...............................................................................................................................59 4. Health............................................................................................................................................64 6. Agriculture.....................................................................................................................................73 .................................................................................................................................................................73 7. Investment Scenario......................................................................................................................76 3
  4. 4. 8. Consumer markets.........................................................................................................................84 9. Fiscal Status...................................................................................................................................90 Section IV: The Districts of Jharkhand........................................................................................................96 1. Health and Civic Attainment .............................................................................................................97 2. Education...........................................................................................................................................99 3. Demography....................................................................................................................................102 4. Poverty.............................................................................................................................................104 ......................................................................................................................................................104 5. Economy..........................................................................................................................................107 6. Overall Performance of the Districts................................................................................................115 Section V: Industrial Profile of Jharkhand ...............................................................................................121 Section VI: Jharkhand’s best and worst constituencies ..........................................................................142 Section VII: Potential Cities – An evaluation............................................................................................145 Section VIII: Ranking of Eastern Zone States............................................................................................148 Section IX: Looking into the Future .........................................................................................................151 Appendix .................................................................................................................................................157 Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................165 4
  5. 5. Acknowledgement First and foremost we would like to acknowledge Prabhat Khabar for initiating and supporting this project for the fifth consecutive year for the people of Jharkhand. We would also like to thank Shri Harivansh ji for providing us with insightful information and vision in putting together and backing such a project. We would like to thank the eminent contributors for taking out their valuable time and sharing their thoughts about Jharkhand. Team Members Dr. Sumita kale Swati Gupta Tarrung Kapur Indicus Analytics, New Delhi indic@indicus.net November 2009 5
  6. 6. Introduction The passing of the Bihar Reorganization Bill gave birth to the 28th state of the nation, Jharkhand on November 15th 2000 on the occasion of the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda. Jharkhand as a state is known as a vast reservoir of natural resources in terms of forest areas as well as minerals. However, in spite of this immense potential, it has not been able to utilize them properly and is thus counted among the backward states in the country. Its inheritance is considered to be one of the major reasons for this backwardness which is reflected in the development backlog over the years. The widespread unrest among the naxal community in recent times has further added to the problem. It thus puts a challenge before the state to provide good governance and to enable equitable growth and socio-economic progress. With a population size a third of Bihar and community-centered traditional ethos of tribal people, it will be relatively easier for the nascent state to pass on the benefits of growth to its citizens equally. The present study makes an attempt to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the state, objectively using government's own data. Various aspects of Jharkhand's economy and the changes therein over time have been tracked to see the extent of progress in different indicators of growth and development. In each of the aspects, Jharkhand's status in comparison to other states has been discussed. Further, a comparative analysis of various districts of the state has also been presented. Given the importance of industries in engineering the growth of a region, a detailed profile of industries is done, identifying the largest and fastest growing industries in each district of Jharkhand. Latest available data from various government and semi-government sources have been used for this analysis. Since this study is the fifth in the series, data has been updated from the previous edition, where available. The study is divided into five sections each dealing with various issues related to development. Section I is an editorial by Dr. Laveesh Bhandari examining the present socio-economic situation of Jharkhand. The second section of the study studies the dependence of state’s economy on agriculture and the influence of NREGA especially in the year when large part of the state faced drought like situation. The third section of the study explores the quality of governance, examines knowledge and communication base as well as the socio-economic profile of Jharkhand. 6
  7. 7. The fourth section of the Study deals with the intra state analysis where the districts of the state are compared and ranked. The fifth section lays out the industrial profile of Jharkhand identifying the key growth drivers of industrial sector in each district of the state. The sixth section provides a comparative picture of the parliamentary constituencies in the state in terms of various socio-economic and infrastructure based parameters. The seventh section explores the potential cities of the state and finally the eighth section gives the state rankings in the eastern zones in terms of socio-economic variables. Gross domestic product and per capita income of Jharkhand vis-a-vis other states in 2020 has been discussed in the seventh section. The states, which are being considered for comparison, are in one way or the other, related to Jharkhand. We have considered the parent state of Jharkhand, Bihar, new states that were formed at the same time as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand and the other neighbors of Jharkhand -West Bengal and Orissa. In some cases, where relevant, we have also considered states that have performed significantly well in the area being discussed. The Jharkhand Development Report is a depiction of the current scenario in Jharkhand across different socio-economic parameters, which will enable readers to understand the various elements crucial for growth and development in the state. It will also provide an indication to the policy makers to take constructive steps in those areas where the state is lagging behind. 7
  8. 8. Data Qualification Jharkhand was formed only eight years ago and generally the different government departments take an average of two years to release their data. Hence the data for the year 2007-08, and 2008-09 is not available more majority of the indictors. As a result, for most of the indicators, the latest data we have is for the period of 2006-07. Hence depending on the availability of the data the analysis has been done from 2001to 2006-07. Another point worth mentioning is that we have used the revised estimates rather than budgeted estimates for indicators related to expenditure incurred by the state government on various sectors like education, health etc. The revised estimates actually gives the estimates which has been revised and is thus an actual indicator of the amount of expenditure incurred on health and family welfare. The latest year for which the revised estimate is available is 2006-07. With a relatively short time span, the data shows a lot of fluctuations during this period. While analysis for these parameters is being done on the basis of this data, the trends will become clearer with passage of time and release of the data in forthcoming years. 8
  9. 9. Jharkhand – A Review State Profile State Jharkhand Capital Ranchi Area (sq. km.) 79,714 Population 2001 29,945,829 Density of Population per sq. km. 338 Average Annual growth rate of population 1991- 2001 (%) 2.1 Annual Per Capita Income 2008-09 (Rs.) Rs. 21,465 Percentage of Urban Population (%) 22.25 Literacy Rate (%), 2007-08 62.1 Number of Districts 24 Number of Towns 152 Number of Villages 32,616 Prominent Cities Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro Prominent Airports Ranchi Principal Crops Maize, Rice, Wheat, Pulses Major Industries Heavy Engineering, Coal Mining, Tussar Silk, Steel, IT, Tourism Gross State Domestic Product Estimates GSDP at current prices (Rs. crore) GSDP (Rs. crore) Growth (%) 9
  10. 10. States 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 4244922 5132332 5487891 6322909 6925332 11.80 20.91 6.93 15.22 9.53 Bihar 6617388 7365376 7956001 9976685 11472152 1.86 11.30 8.02 25.40 14.99 Chhattisgarh 3880209 4358904 5099884 5780640 6803595 19.42 12.34 17.00 13.35 17.70 Uttarakhand 2043878 2372001 2617194 2970934 . 10.64 16.05 10.34 13.52 . Maharashtra 34060005 38629684 43873116 50883615 59099522 13.73 13.42 13.57 15.98 16.15 Punjab 9008860 9666008 10865334 12118925 13846739 9.53 7.29 12.41 11.54 14.26 Tamil Nadu 17537080 20237357 23483693 27691723 30498868 10.89 15.40 16.04 17.92 10.14 Source: Central Statistical Organisation Note: The current series of GDP is based on the new 1999-2000 series. 10
  11. 11. Section I: The Past and Future of Economic Development of Jharkhand1 Soon after it was formed, Jharkhand decided to focus on all round economic development, this involved improving all three – primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Since then there has been significant learning. Agriculture is not really growing rapidly enough, and it is evident that the state government does not have the required depth and human and financial capital to be able to finance a rapid improvement in technology and infrastructure in agriculture. The tertiary sector has a mind of its own – some services such as telecom are growing rapidly as they are in the rest of the country. The IT and other business services sectors do not like to locate very far from the major metros and therefore there is not much that the state can do there. All of this is not to say that small islands of success have not been found, we do find instances of an entrepreneur here or a farmer there who has done something out of the ordinary and shown to the people of Jharkhand and nationally, that despite many inherent disadvantages success is possible. However, these are at-best minor examples. The economic environment in Jharkhand today is not one that can enable equitable progress in all major segments of its economy, Hence large scale manufacturing that is based upon the great mineral wealth of the state appears to be one area, in which not only can significant employment be generated for the less educated and untrained, but also generate significant tax and non-tax revenues for the state government to improve infrastructure and education and health for all. And there-in the government has a major hurdle - Land. Both large scale manufacturing and mining industries need large tracts of land. And acquisition of this land is bound to displace many people from their land that their forefathers have lived in for many centuries. Moreover, mining has the potential to significantly harm the environment in the concerned area as well as a large ‘catchments’ area. On top of it, past history of land acquisition has been extremely poor, and there have been rare cases where it has occurred in a fair manner. My guess is that in 9 out of 10 cases, the owner has received significantly less than what his due was. And so there is great opposition to land acquisition; this opposition is from all sources – tribals, civil society, many political entities, and not to mention the Naxalite groups (who are exploiting this mass concern to further their own ends). The result is that, no one really believes that large scale industrialization of Jharkhand is possible in the next decade or so. And this thought is prevalent in Ranchi, as well as the economic powerhouses in Delhi and Mumbai. 1 Laveesh Bhandari, Director, Indicus Analytics Pvt Ltd 11
  12. 12. When the problem is large, it makes sense to break it into smaller ones and to chip away at it one at a time. Let us furst address the problem of land. Jharkhand’s total land area is almost 80,000 square kilometers (79,714 sq. km to be precise). Of this about 29% (or 24 thousand sq. km) is covered by forests and woodlands. About a quarter is cultivated, and more than a third is classified as Barren land, waste land, or fallow land. Only a very small percentage is under industry and urban areas. The point is, that industrialization and urbanization do not require too much land and are able to generate employment and incomes disproportionately higher than the quantity of land. My rouguess is that in the next 4-5 decades an less than 4000 square kilometers are required additionally for all of industry and urban requirements. Spread over 50 years this translates to about 80 square kilometers that are required or about 0.1% of land per year. And this should be able to generate income growth of about 10% per annum. Where will this land come from? Should total forest cover be reduced? Absolutely not. In fact we need to aim at an increase in forest cover in Jharkhand, and the beauty is that it is possible to do so, while having rapid economic growth. Countries in Europe are already achieving this – forest cover in Europe for instance has been increasing by about 0.1% per annum. So how would this be possible? First we need to appreciate the occupational structure of Jharkhand – a very large segment of the population undertakes multiple occupations simultaneously. Incomes from forest, agriculture and other economic activities supplement each other. Conventional data collection mechanisms are unable to capture this complexity of life in Jharkhand. In other words, people use land for agriculture, use forest land for incomes derived from the forest, and may also undertake other economic activities such as livestock etc. They do this, because incomes from none of these activities are sufficient to meet their requirements. The solution is therefore to increase income potential simultaneously from forests and agriculture. Is that possible? The answer is yes. This might seem strange, but it is true – the greater the incomes from land (whether in forests or agriculture) the lower will be the dependence on land in Jharkhand! Incomes from the forest are much more than merely tendu leaf collection – which needs to be stopped anyway. These require well functioning markets that can aggregate the forest dwellers collections and transfer them to areas of consumption nationally or internationally. The government knows this but does not really have the skills to manage this, and only private enterprise will be able to manage this. Greater agriculture incomes also do not necessarily need fertilizer-pesticide-HYV seeds-irrigation combination. In fact there is enough demand for organic produce in India and abroad to consume all that agriculturists in Jharkhand can produce. And this demand is only going to increase in future years. 12
  13. 13. Jharkhand should aim at increasing its land area under forests – from 30 to 35% in the next few decades. And it should also aim at improving the ‘quality’ of its forests. Land that is uncultivable and barren can be used for manufacturing. But, some of the land under forests will need to be released for mining and related activities as the minerals are located therein. What will happen to the dwellers residing there? What about their traditions and culture? There are two parts to the answer. First, a do-nothing attitude will anyway lead to a rapid degradation of the forest area to due to the population pressure, widespread migration to distant lands, decline of traditions and an irreversible break-down of social structure. Second, increasing productivity from forest related activities can strengthen all that we want to retain. And incomes and revenues generated from mining and manufacturing can and should be devoted to improving precisely this aspect of Jharkhand’s economy. The current conditions are such that if I was dependent upon agriculture and forestry, I would wholeheartedly oppose urbanization, industrialization and commercialization. For the greater wealth that they can generate will most probably not benefit me. The solution therefore is to link wealth creation in the non-traditional (I don’t like to use the word ‘modern’ for mining and industry) economy with improvements in incomes from the forest and agriculture. To put it another way, if a mining or manufacturing job provides Rs 5000 per month, occupations related to forests and agriculture should provide 6 or 7000 per person per month at the very minimum. For governments therefore the policy objective needs to be a sincere commitment to improving incomes from traditional occupations. And this will need to be done in a credible manner. The problem here is, no one really has any faith in Jharkhand’s political and bureaucratic classes’. Hence the fight is not really a fight of modern vs traditional, or Naxalites vs state, but that of credibility and sincerity of those who have political and economic power in Jharkhand. How can this be achieved? The first step is to make a roster of all whose land has been acquired in the last 60 years. And to ensure that they are properly rehabilitated. Note the emphasis on the word proper. Providing a few thousand rupees, or a job cleaning the factory floor, is not rehabilitation. When whole communities are uprooted, they not only need resettlement, but also occupational outcomes that are in line with the set of skills they possess. Land Banks (where the acquirer buys pieces of land that are voluntarily available for sale) are one option, converting of fallow or waste land into cultivable land is another. Both require significant investment, but this is the only option that is both fair and economically efficient. Note that rehabilitation can be done by private entities as well as the government. They both need to be answerable to the people if they fail in doing so. Hence just as the Constitution provides for a Chief Election Commissioner and a Supreme Court, we need to create a Chief R&R Commissioner who can take the central or state government to task. 13
  14. 14. The next issue is that of the environment. And here as well the problem can be addressed. Mining activities the world over are known to cause tremendous damage if proper precautions are not taken. Moreover, the damage may not be remain contained within the mine’s catchments, but spread to other parts. The availability of satellite technologies, cheap telecommunications networks, and the spread of a scientifically oriented civil society have made it possible to monitor the activities of the commercial sector on a real time basis. A well informed and well empowered environmental overseeing authority can exercise the right level of control on commercial entities. Whatever be the problem, there are enough solutions. The critical constraint is absence of faith of the masses in the sincerity of those who are economically and politically powerful. If this can be addressed, and I believe it is possible to do so, economic development can go hand in hand with improving the lifestyles of the masses as well as the environment. 14
  15. 15. Section II: A review of growth and development in the state of Jharkhand2 In November 2000, the state of Jharkhand came into being as the 28th state of India. Carved out of Bihar, the new state had to deal with the burden of a huge backlog of basic development objectives, a challenge in itself. With per capita income of Rs. 21,465 in 2008-09, Jharkhand has come a long way from its inception, when per capita income was just Rs. 10,345. It has left behind its parent state Bihar whose per capita income in 2008-09 remains a mere Rs. 12,643. Though income growth has significant fluctuations on a year to year basis, the economy has moved to a higher growth path since its conception in 2000, with an annual growth rate of 7.8 percent compared to 5.9 percent in the period 1993-94 to 1999-00. There has been a decline in the poverty levels as the percentage of people living below the poverty line came down from 44 percent in 1999-00 to 33.15 percent in 2004-05, but this is still a significant proportion of population whose needs need to be addressed. The ten percentage points reduction is more than what Bihar has achieved, where poverty rates fell from 41 percent to 33.36 percent over the same period. The fastest growing sectors in the economy since 2000 have been communication – with the rise of the mobile industry, manufacturing in the registered segment mainly and railways. However, the matter of concern is that the slowest growth has been recorded in agriculture, which forms the livelihood of 80 percent of the people, and which is still predominantly dependent on rainfall. Net irrigated area forms just 9.3 percent of net sown area and the vagaries of monsoon hit the economy hard, causing volatility in the economic growth of the state. An unfortunate trend has been of declining growth in agriculture - from an annual rate of 3.87 percent in the period 1995-96 to 1999- 00 to a negative 0.6 percent for the period 2000-01 to 2008-09. 2 Sumita Kale, Chief Economist, Indicus Analytics Pvt. Ltd. 15 Sectoral Growth Annualised since 2000 Fastest Growth Slowest growth Communication 23.0%Mining & quarrying 1.5% Manufacturing 15.7% Electricity, gas and water supply 0.4% Railways 11.1%Agriculture -0.6% Economic Growth -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 1994-95 1996-97 1998-99 2000-01 2004- 2005 2006- 2007 2008-09 Jharkhand India
  16. 16. The drought in 2009 has further dealt a blow to the state. With all districts declared drought hit by July, even though there was some relief in rain later, the situation never recovered to normal. By the middle of October rice sowing was down 45 percent over the corresponding period last year, maize sowing was less by 30 percent and coarse cereals by 29 percent. Though there has been governmental help in the form of free grains for BPL families, subsidies for diesel etc. these are short term solutions. There has been hardly any increase in the irrigation facilities in the state since its inception. The need to mitigate the impact of low rainfall in the long term is growing in urgency. There are a variety of options such as dryland farming techniques, micro irrigation projects etc. that have not been exercised sufficiently. With high dependence on agriculture, which is yielding little growth in income and lack of other employment opportunities in rural areas, the disparity is alarming - annual per capita income in rural Jharkhand is estimated at Rs. 18,362 while urban areas enjoy per capita income of Rs. 52,860 in 2008-09. The Economic Census of 2005 shows Jharkhand to be the only state with negative growth in employment over the period 1998-2005. The growth in enterprises, other than those involved in crop plantation and agriculture was a meagre 3.2%, the second lowest in the country compared to Madhya Pradesh. Consequently labour has not seen a shift from agriculture to industry or the tertiary sector, resulting in low growth in rural incomes. Jharkhand’s large reserves of minerals has attracted industrial investment – Jharkhand is home to India’s largest steel plants in Bokaro and Jamshedpur. But 92% of manufacturing activity in the state is recorded in the registered sector, the highest proportion in the country. Employment opportunities are limited when manufacturing is concentrated in large-scale capital-intensive units. Schemes such as the NREGA that are meant to provide basic relief to the very poorest have also been floundering in the state. Even as official statistics (see table at end of section) list the achievements of the NREGA in great detail, media is rife with reports about the high levels of corruption in the state eg. Prof. Jean Dreze, member of the Central Employment Guarantee Council had pointed out in 2008 that the state was amongst the worst performing states in the countryi . There are mainly two reasons for the poor state of affairs: 1. Complete lack of trust between the administration and the people. In fact, the state machinery views any dissent as part of the Naxal mission complicating the matter even more as independent observers are also mistrusted. 2. Helplessness of rural people – illiteracy, poverty and ignorance of their rights make it difficult for the ordinary citizen who is the intended beneficiary to even demand the right to work from the state. Delayed wage payments were reportedii in the course of independent observations, payments for work done more than two years ago were still pending. The extreme levels of corruption also show up in the Transparency International India’s survey that reported that BPL families paid Rs. 16 crore in 2008iii to the police as well as for NREGA, land 16
  17. 17. records, banking and free services such as health, school education, water supply etc. Clearly, governance is an issue in this state requiring urgent reform, if the basic developmental and growth profile is to be raised. The lack of diversified activity and dependence on mining resources shows up in growth in other sectors also. The services sector contributes just a third of the state income, the lowest share amongst all states. This is to some extent a result of the large share of mining in the state’s income, compared to other states. Moreover, the composition of services within the sector shows large share of transportation and storage facilities, again an offshoot of the mining and industrial sector requirements, rather than catering to the needs of the people. This lopsided sectoral pattern is also reflected in other statistics; for example, rail connectivity is much higher than in other states – a result of the need to organize freight traffic. But the share of habitations that remain to be linked by pucca roads is almost 41 percent. Again it is ironic that only 32 percent of the households have electricity in a state that has a third of India’s coal reserves and abundant water resources, and also hosts India’s first multipurpose hydro project, Damodar Valley Corporation. The provision of electricity, road and telecom connectivity can give the required impetus to growth in the villages that will reduce inequality by boosting traditional livelihoods in the small-scale sector. There are significant challenges to overcome here since forests occupy almost 30 percent of the total state area, making accessibility a difficult task. However infrastructure provision and connectivity in particular are essentials for growth and development to be truly inclusive. Access to basic facilities like piped drinking water and sanitation services is much below the national average, an indication that the citizens of the state are still to lead a life with basic modern amenities. Just 5 percent of rural household have access to toilet facilities, while the corresponding figure for urban households is 74 percent, the national median levels are 39 and 89 respectively. Bihar meanwhile shows better, albeit marginally, coverage in rural areas where 16 percent of households have access to toilet facilities. The National Family Health Survey III revealed that not even one percent of rural households in Jharkhand had access to piped drinking water, the safest source of water. Urban households had a better coverage of 44.4 percent. The situation in Bihar is not very much better – 1.2 percent in rural areas and 19.8 percent of urban households have access to piped drinking water. In the social sector, the state has been making inroads into its poor performance of the past. While literacy rates have risen from less than 40 percent in 1991 to 54 percent in 2001, this level is still 17
  18. 18. lower than the national 65 percent. The gender gap in literacy is another indicator that shows that much needs to be done to raise the basic levels of development in the state. Less than 40 percent of the females were literate in the 2001 Census recording, the second lowest rate just above parent state Bihar. Moreover, even in 2004-05, just 34.84 percent of children had completed primary school. In Bihar, the state of affairs is even worse at 28.04 percent of the children having completed primary schooling. Without a basic level in education, it is useless to expect employability in the labour force. More than 70 percent of the children dropped out of schooling according to the 2004-05 government data. The reasons for dropouts are many. Apart from providing basic facilities in schools, what is needed is a complete overhaul of the school syllabus and exam system to make schooling more appropriate for children from diverse backgrounds. On the health front, there are mixed signals. There has been considerable progress in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, in treating tuberculosis and in child immunization. For instance, in 1998-99, just 8.8 percent of children below the age of 2 years received full immunization, by 2005-06 this share went up to cover 34 percent of the children. But the primary health centres, meant to deliver health facilities to the poor people are not in a good shape; only 9.8 percent have adequate infrastructure, compared to 31.8 percent all India. Though the situation in Jharkhand is worse than Uttarakhand where this share is 27.8 percent, it is far better than Chattisgarh where just 2.8 percent of the facilities pass muster. Unfortunately the low access to medical care shows up in the infant mortality rate falling marginally from 54 per 1000 live births to 49 over the same period. The percentage of births attended to by trained personnel has gone up from 17.5 in 1998-99 to 29 percent in 2005-06, much lower than the national average of 48.3 percent. There has been slower progress in Bihar where this indicator has risen from 24.8 percent to 30.9 percent over the same period. Malnutrition in children has increased which is a serious cause of concern. However, for sustainable and inclusive growth, the precondition is provision of security of life and property. With more than 60% of its districts under threat from the Naxalites, it is here that the state faces its biggest challenge today. With police force adjusted for population and for area less than the national average, it is clear that the state lacks adequate policing strength to deal with the problem. However, the main issue at stake is the complete withering away of the state and lack of trust in the government in various districts. The political leadership in the state was in complete turmoil leading to President’s Rule being imposed on the state in January 2009. While elections are due, it is unclear whether a clean verdict and government will take charge. Meanwhile, unless the web of corruption is broken, Jharkhand will not be able to move into a high sustainable and balanced growth trajectory. The state should shake away its legacy from Bihar and benchmark its progress with other states that have moved ahead, 18
  19. 19. adopt, for instance, the Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh models for bringing the fruits of growth to the people. The problem of governance and law and order is of prime importance, in building a state where the needs of all groups of citizens are addressed effectively. NREGA status as on October 2009 District Cumulative No. of HH issued job cards (Till the reporting month) Cumulativ e No. of HH demanded employme nt (Till the reporting month) Cumulativ e No. of HH provided employme nt (Till the reporting month) No. of HH workin g under NREG A during the reporti ng month Total BOKARO 143078 19712 19707 17736 CHATRA 152272 26179 26267 25314 DHANBAD 133655 41961 42093 33650 DUMKA 176940 57420 58704 51500 GARHWA 180520 28929 28944 27072 GIRIDIH 174124 27355 27430 22388 GODDA 185931 34850 34525 33213 GUMLA 178484 44304 44181 38148 HAZARIBAGH 166149 31588 31511 30230 JAMTARA 101037 15324 15301 10051 KODERMA 48446 8465 8428 6710 LATEHAR 110640 11303 11292 10484 LOHARDAGA 67334 21035 21829 17104 PAKUR 140317 55224 65884 63592 PALAMU 203739 28474 28448 24369 RANCHI 262538 33382 33268 30758 SAHEBGANJ 145574 53635 53608 52162 SARAIKELA 124870 32538 32429 30976 19
  20. 20. KHARSAWAN SIMDEGA 97446 22053 21908 17384 WEST SINGHBHUM 220973 44901 44639 42887 DEOGHAR 172003 66663 66562 52241 EAST SINGHBUM 196879 52279 52259 47426 KHUNTI 82820 12027 11973 10458 RAMGARH 65501 14911 14958 14392 TOTAL 3531270 784512 796148 710245 Source: nrega.nic.in 20
  21. 21. Section III: Jharkhand in its Ninth Year Governance in Jharkhand This section explores the effectiveness of governance in Jharkhand. Good governance is the prerequisite for the overall development of a region. Good governance can be gauged from various angles like maintenance of law and order, management of finances of the government, control in the movement in prices and development in infrastructure. 1. Law and Order a. Value of property stolen & recovered The manner through which property is secured in a particular region depicts the efficiency of the state in securing the basic needs of its citizens. Table A.1 (a): Percentage of stolen property recovered States 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jharkhand 20.6 16.2 18.3 16.3 16.2 Bihar 15 15.9 16.5 16 16.2 Uttarakhand 32 27.6 29 29.4 32.1 Chhattisgarh 28.9 33.2 50.7 22.8 41.3 West Bengal 23.7 22.9 22 20.7 16.4 Orissa 39 38.1 39.9 33.4 25.9 India 25.8 19.9 23.9 25.3 26 Source: Crime In India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • In Jharkhand, the percentage of stolen property recovered has reduced from 2006 to 2007. This points to a volatile law and order situation in the state; the government has not been able to curb this problem effectively. • However, the percentage recovery of stolen property in Jharkhand is similar to its parent state, Bihar. 21
  22. 22. • Among the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has been the most efficient in recovering stolen property followed by Uttarakhand. • Neighboring states like Orissa and West Bengal also fare well on this front compared to Jharkhand. 22
  23. 23. b. Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts committed by children below 18 years of age. Since these criminal acts are related to children who are future citizens of India, juvenile delinquency has become a major social problem and thus a major concern for the state government. The crimes committed by the juveniles fall under two categories – under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Under Special Laws (SL). Table A.1 (b): Incidence of crimes committed by Juveniles States 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jharkhand 821 821 189 881 475 Bihar 260 214 286 210 1469 Uttarakhand 28 36 23 106 129 Chhattisgarh 1,179 1,819 2,924 2053 2025 West Bengal 106 75 131 99 133 Orissa 219 261 430 430 652 India 25,686 24,985 25,601 25817 33934 Source: Crime In India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • Jharkhand has shown considerable fall in the incidence of crimes committed by the juveniles between 2006 and 2007. After reaching an extremely high rate of juvenile delinquencies in the year 2006, the rate has come down to almost half in the year 2007. The government of Jharkhand needs to maintain this rate of improvement to match up with rest of the states. • Compared to its parent state, the incidence of juvenile crimes in Jharkhand has reduced in the year 2007. Bihar has more than three times higher crime rate than that of Jharkhand. • Among the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has the highest incidence of juvenile delinquency followed by Jharkhand. 23
  24. 24. c. Incidence of Murder Under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) murders come under the category of violent crimes. The measure of murder used here includes all reported cases of murder. The incidence of murder in a particular region indicates the effectiveness of police administration prevalent in that particular region. Table A.1 (c): Incidence of Murder Can you annualize the rate of change in these tables to make it per annum change? State 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Per Annum Change 2001-07 (%) Jharkhand 1,507 1,482 1,488 1,523 1,492 1617 1.18 Bihar 3,643 3,772 3,948 3,471 3,249 3034 -3.00 Uttarakhand 316 293 262 279 274 268 -2.71 Chhattisgarh 880 797 927 1,013 1,098 1097 3.74 West Bengal 1,594 1,464 1,425 1,453 1,425 1652 0.60 Orissa 987 1,102 1,066 1,079 1,159 1210 3.45 India 36,202 33,821 33,608 32,200 32,481 32318 -1.87 Source: Crime in India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • In Jharkhand the number of reported murders has increased in 2007 compared to the previous year. Continued efforts to improve policing are needed to bring in good law & order situation in the state. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has fared well compared to the other two states. • Among the neighboring states, Orissa has shown considerable rise in murders since 2001. 24
  25. 25. d. Incidence of Rape Rape is one of the major crimes against women and incidence of rape in a particular region is an indicator of the extent of safety provided to them. Over the years the punishment of committing rape has become stricter with an aim to check this heinous crime. While it is true that crimes against women are under-reported, the changes over time do reflect the trends. For the present analysis the number of reported cases of rape in respective years has been considered. Table A.1 (d): Incidence of Rape State 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Per Annual Change 2001-07 (%) Jharkhand 567 1,482 797 753 799 855 7.09 Bihar 888 3,772 1,390 1,147 1,232 1555 9.79 Uttarakhand 74 293 115 133 147 117 7.93 Chhattisgarh 959 797 969 990 995 982 0.40 Orissa 790 1,102 770 799 985 939 2.92 India 16,075 33,821 18,233 17,651 19,348 20737 4.34 Source: Crime In India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • Jharkhand reported an increase of about 50.8 percent in the number of rapes in a time span of six years (2001 to 2007). • Together Bihar and Jharkhand make this part of eastern India increasingly unsafe for women in terms of incidence of rape. • Jharkhand has fared well compared to Uttarakhand where the rate of growth in incidence is very high. However, it is far behind Chhattisgarh where the rate of growth in incidence of rape is quite low. e. Incidence of Crime against Women and Child 25
  26. 26. Crimes against women include rape, kidnapping & abduction, molestation, sexual harassment, forced prostitution, dowry deaths and importation of girls (NCRB, 2003). Under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) punishable crimes against children include infanticide, rape, kidnapping & abduction, foeticide, exposure and abandonment, procuration, selling and buying of girls, forced domestic and economic duties, and other unnatural duties. For the present discussion, all reported cases of crimes against women and children in the respective year have been considered. Table A.1(e): Incidence of Crime against Women and Children State 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Per Annum Change 2001-07 (%) Jharkhand 2,270 2,601 2,132 1,887 2,641 3,091 3391 6.92 Bihar 5,439 5,800 4,563 6,107 6,134 6,806 8223 7.13 Chhattisgarh 4,574 8,915 4,935 2,307 4,596 4,995 4799 0.80 Uttarakhand 795 897 745 750 862 1,089 1198 7.07 West Bengal 6,737 7,017 4,199 9,244 12,123 13,217 16905 16.57 Orissa 5,425 4,835 4,383 2,744 6,335 6,979 7505 5.56 India 154,609 158,147 144,353 102,504 170,528 183,732 205722 4.88 Source: Crime In India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • Jharkhand registered a decline in the incidence of crime committed against women and children in 2004 since 2001 but the numbers increased thereafter. • Among the newer states, Uttarakhand has recorded the lowest incidence of crime committed against women and children followed by Jharkhand in 2007. • Jharkhand lies far below its neighbouring states, West Bengal and Orissa as well as mother state Bihar where the incidence of crime committed against women and children is considerably high. 26
  27. 27. f. Incidence of Crime against Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes The Constitution of India provides that the state shall promote the social and economic upliftment of the weaker sections like Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. Since Independence, various laws have been passed to protect them from injustice and exploitation. As per Census 2001, SC & ST constitute around 40% of the total population of Jharkhand and thus crimes committed against these sections indicates the lack of equality in the state and ineffectiveness of governance. The crimes against Schedule Castes/ Schedule Tribes are broadly categorized under two categories 1. Under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) It includes crimes like murder, hurt, rape, kidnapping & abduction, dacoity, robbery, arson, others (other classified IPC crimes) 2. Under Special Laws (SL) It includes the crimes which come under Protection of Civil Rights Acts, 1955, Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989. For the following discussion, all the reported cases of crimes against Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes in the respective years have been taken. Table A.1 (f): Incidence of Crime against SC and ST State 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Per Annum Change 2001-07 (%) Jharkhand 440 184 249 760 665 538 3.41 Bihar 1,350 1,799 2,691 1,906 2,099 2786 12.83 Uttarakhand 186 134 140 100 69 71 -14.83 Chhattisgarh 987 1,483 1,374 951 1,027 511 -10.39 Orissa 2,468 1,641 1,917 2,041 1,502 1355 -9.51 India 39,718 32,141 32,422 31,840 32,861 30031 -4.55 Source: Crime in India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • Crimes committed against SCs and STs have decreased in 2007 compared to 2006 although the incidence had increased in previous years. • Jharkhand has far less incidence of crime against SC/ST as compared to its parent state, Bihar. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has performed well compared to others. • Crime against SC/ST has decreased at all India level marginally in 2007. 27
  28. 28. g. Civil and Armed Police Strength Police force is essential for maintaining law and order, combating crime and regulating traffic. It is important for a state to have adequate police force, which should keep on increasing with the increase in population. Development and growth are feasible only when there is peace and order in the civil life of a state and the presence of a strong police force is essential for enforcing the law of the land and combating crime. Table A.1(g) Civil and Armed Police strength States 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Per Annum Change 2001- 07(%) Jharkhand 8,930 17,659 20,992 24,563 25,730 29,198 21.83 Bihar 48,968 42,707 49,590 51,046 43,273 45,670 -1.16 Uttarakhand 9,092 10,373 12,173 11,947 9,518 9,920 1.46 Chhattisgarh 10,909 12,715 20,350 23,350 18,147 18,710 9.41 West Bengal 61,727 62,343 81,749 80,039 61,393 50,381 -3.33 Orissa 27,392 27,044 35,265 34,911 27,913 27,408 0.01 India 1,015,416 1,025,777 1,337,183 1,342,858 1,091,899 1,095,818 1.28 Source: Crime In India, National Crime Record Bureau, 2007 • The strength of police has increased in Jharkhand in 2007 compared to 2006. This may be attributed to increased Naxalite movement in the state. • Other states like West Bengal and Orissa have experienced reduction in the civil and armed police strengths. • An important insight derived from the table is that in Jharkhand the strength of police is high. In spite of this high presence of police personnel in Jharkhand, the crime committed is not low. This calls for the police strength to be more efficient in maintaining law and order in the state. 28
  29. 29. 2. Public Finance a. Expenditure on Health, and Family Welfare Health and Family Welfare are crucial inputs into the well being of the population and the expenditure by the government in this sector indicates how seriously this commitment is taken. Public health & family welfare are some of the public services provided by the government. Expenditure in this sector reflects the proportion of total expenditure that the state invests in these public service. Table A.2 (a): Share of expenditure on Health and Family Welfare in total disbursements (%) States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 4.9 4.2 3.3 2.9 5.8 6.3 5 Bihar 4.9 4.2 2.9 2.6 2.6 4.4 3.9 Chhattisgarh 4.3 4 0.9 1.3 1.4 3.9 3.8 Madhya Pradesh 4.1 4.1 1.4 1.4 1.5 4 3.7 Orissa 3.7 3.8 1.6 2.2 2.8 3.4 3.5 Uttar Pradesh 3.6 3.8 0.9 2.1 2.6 6.4 5.2 Uttarakhand 4.4 3.8 0.7 2.3 2.4 4.6 5.5 West Bengal 5 4.9 1.1 1.3 1.6 4.4 4.4 India 4.4 4.1 1.4 1.8 2.1 4.1 4 Source : Reserve Bank of India; Budget Documents of State Governments • The percentage share of expenditure on health & family welfare in total expenditure has been higher in Jharkhand than that of other states except Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh where it is slightly higher. A possible reason might be that as a new state, Jharkhand is in the process of developing its overall infrastructural facilities for improving human resource potential which includes setting up hospitals, primary healthcare centres etc. 29
  30. 30. c. Share of expenditure on education to total disbursements A major priority of governments in developing economies is to build on human capital by improving access to and the quality of educational facilities to all sections of the society. The share of expenditure on education in total expenditure of the state budgets is just one indicator of the commitment of the state to fulfilling this objective. Table A.2 (b): Share of expenditure on education to total disbursements (%) States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 16.2 19 11.5 11.7 13.5 15.2 15.1 Bihar 20.7 18.4 14.3 13.9 14.2 17.5 16.7 Madhya Pradesh 12.5 12.2 4.2 3.9 4.2 11.9 11.6 Chhattisgarh 12.4 11 3.1 4.5 4.8 13.2 13.5 Orissa 12.4 11 3.1 4.5 4.8 12.6 13.5 Uttar Pradesh 16 14.6 2.9 6.5 8 15.2 14.1 Uttarakhand 21.1 20 3.6 9.2 9 16.9 16.7 India 16.1 15 5 6.3 7.2 14.2 14 Source : Reserve Bank of India; Budget Documents of State Governments • The share of educational expenditure out of total budget expenditure in Jharkhand is slightly higher than the All India figure. • Expenditure on education out of total expenditure in Jharkhand is also comparatively higher than the newly formed state of Chhattisgarh. However, it is lower than the proportionate spending on education by the parent state, Bihar. • Jharkhand also spends larger share of its budget on education compared to its neighbouring states like Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. 30
  31. 31. c. Expenditure on Administration Expenditure on administration includes the revenue expenditure of the state government in the administration of the state in the respective year. Administrative activities include activities like Secretariat-General Services, District Administration Services, Police, Public Works etc. It is an important measure of the importance given to administrative activities, relative to other budgetary items. Table A.2 (c): Percentage of Total Expenditure on Administration States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 10.7 9 7.2 6.7 9.7 9 8.4 Bihar 9.6 8.1 5.3 5.7 5.5 6.8 7.3 Chhattisgarh 6.4 6.4 1.3 1.7 2.4 2.2 1.5 Uttarakhand 9.5 7.4 1.4 4.1 3.7 2.8 3.1 West Bengal 6.5 6.3 1.4 1.8 2 1.4 1.2 Orissa 6.7 4.2 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.1 4.6 India 7.1 6.5 2.2 2.7 3.2 2.2 2.1 Source: Reserve Bank of India , Respective Years • Jharkhand spends a considerable share of almost 8.4 percent of its total expenditure on administrative activities. • Jharkhand spends a larger share of expenditure on administration compared to other newly formed states and other neighbouring states. • The percentage share of all India expenditure on administrative activities is also much lower than Jharkhand’s percentage share. 31
  32. 32. d. Expenditure on the Welfare of SC and ST The Constitution of India classifies Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) as socially and economically weaker sections of the society. The state is required to take constructive actions to empower them. The amount spent on them can indicate how much the state invests in the upliftment of this section. It includes total actual expenditure made by the government for the welfare of Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. Table A.2 (d): Percentage of Total Expenditure on Welfare of SC and ST States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 5.3 3.2 2.5 3 2.3 2.2 2.0 Bihar 1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 Chhattisgarh 9.6 8.4 1.7 2.2 2.6 2.3 1.4 Madhya Pradesh 4.4 4.9 1.7 1.7 1.9 0.8 0.7 Orissa 2.2 2 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.6 2.4 Uttar Pradesh 1.8 2.3 0.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.9 Uttarakhand 1.2 0.9 0.2 1 1.1 0.8 0.9 West Bengal 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 India 1.9 1.8 0.6 0.9 1 0.8 0.8 Source: Reserve Bank of India, Respective Years • Jharkhand spends around 2 percent of the total expenditure on the welfare of SCs and STs which is much higher than the corresponding All-India average figure. • It should be mentioned that Jharkhand has a significant tribal population and this could be the reason behind greater expenditure on the welfare of SC/STs. • Among new states, Chhattisgarh spends a higher proportion of total expenditure on the welfare of the deprived sections. e. Expenditure on Development 32
  33. 33. Some of the major heads under development expenditure include social services such as education, medical and public health. Table A.2 (e): Percentage of Total Expenditure on Developmental Expenditure States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 63.1 65.5 47.8 50 50.7 55 53.5 Bihar 49.2 47.7 34.3 35.2 36.9 49.4 54.9 Chhattisgarh 62.6 63.5 16.7 22.4 23.6 28.7 20.6 Madhya Pradesh 61.3 58.6 25.3 22.3 23.1 15.7 13.1 Orissa 46.5 46.1 20 22.7 28.1 33 53.3 Uttar Pradesh 47.5 46.7 17.9 23.3 27.1 35.5 19.2 Uttarakhand 61.6 55.8 10.5 32.7 34.7 30.1 33.7 West Bengal 46.7 40 9.6 13.1 14 10.8 11.1 India 54.2 51.2 19.2 24.1 27.1 20.7 21.3 Source: Reserve Bank of India, Respective Years • In Jharkhand almost 53 percent of the total expenditure is being incurred on development activities in the year 2007-08. • When we compare the development expenditure of the new states with the older states we find that generally new states have to make greater expenditure on development. However, Jharkhand spending towards development is far higher than the other new states. • In 2007-08 India spent just 21.3 percent of its total expenditure on development compared to states like Jharkhand and Bihar, where the proportions crossed 50% 33
  34. 34. f. Grants from the Centre This indicator looks at the grants received in the year from the Central Government. It shows how dependent the state is on the Centre for its revenues. Table A.2 (f): Percentage of Total Revenue Receipts from Grants States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 14.3 25.2 25.1 16.5 20.6 17.4 14.4 Bihar 12.2 15.2 16.2 23.2 21.1 23.6 24.7 Chhattisgarh 11.1 14.5 11.4 17.1 14.9 18.1 22.1 Madhya Pradesh 13.3 13.9 12.4 13.8 14.5 19.1 19.5 Orissa 17.6 21.3 18.2 23.6 27.3 21.7 24.8 Uttar Pradesh 12.9 8.3 7.8 12.7 11.9 13.9 15.6 Uttarakhand 48.4 45.1 43.6 54.9 48.2 39.9 44.7 West Bengal 20.2 15.4 11.4 13.5 13.6 17.7 16.8 India 16.9 16.3 16.2 17.5 18.3 19.2 19.8 Source: Reserve Bank of India, Respective Years • The percentage of grants received by Jharkhand from the Centre has decreased in 2007-08 compared to 2006-07 though it had increased the previous year. • Among new states, Uttarakhand has the highest dependence on grants compared to the other two. Being a hilly state, Uttarakhand has topographical and climatic constraints and needs more investment for achieving the same level of development. • Jharkhand receives lower grants compared to neighbouring states like Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. 34
  35. 35. Price Movement The Consumer Price Index is one of the widely used indicators for assessing the movement of prices or inflation. b. Movement of Prices for Industrial Workers It is based on the Consumer Price Index of industrial workers (CPI – IW). The CPI – IW which also includes selected services and is measured on the basis of retail prices, and is used to used to determine the dearness allowance of employees in both the public and private sectors, is the appropriate indicator of general inflation.3 CPI for industrial workers is released by labour bureau, Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Table A.3 (b): Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (District-wise weighted average) State Percentage Change (April 2007 to March 2008) Percentage Change (April 2008 to March 2009) Jharkhand 6.66 8.67 Bihar 6.86 8.68 Delhi 4.85 7.65 Maharashtra 6.19 8.57 Source: Labour bureau Base: 2001=100 • The percentage change in CPI for industrial workers in Jharkhand is higher than developed states like Delhi and Maharashtra. Jharkhand is almost identical to its mother state Bihar in terms of percentage change in CPI for industrial workers. 3 Economic Survey, 2004-05 35
  36. 36. Infrastructure a. Road Connectivity Rural road connectivity is not only a key component of rural development but also an ingredient in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction. It promotes access to economic and social services by generating increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities. The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched in the year 2000-01 by the Government of India to provide all weather road connectivity to unconnected rural habitations. It aimed to provide connectivity to all unconnected habitations having population above 1000 by 2003 and for population above 500 by the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan (2007). Table A.4 (a): Percentage of Habitations connected by pucca roads State 2000 2009 Jharkhand 50 59.6 Bihar 30.8 44.0 Chhattisgarh 27.5 76.2 Uttarakhand 48.8 57.7 Orissa 42.1 66.5 West Bengal 30.5 58.5 All India 59.2 72.8 Source: PMGSY, Ministry of Rural Development • Among newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has witnessed the maximum rise in habitations being connected by rural roads, followed by Jharkhand. • A marginal rise in connectivity has been experienced in Jharkhand as well as its parent state Bihar over a span of eight years. Still more than 40 percent of habitations remain to be connected by good roads. • The habitations connected by rural roads in the state is higher than the parent state Bihar. • Jharkhand has better connectivity than West Bengal among the neighboring states. 36
  37. 37. b. Transport Vehicles Transport vehicles include all the registered transport vehicles in the state across the given years. The major transport vehicles include buses, trucks, and taxis among others. It depicts the status of infrastructure of transportation in the state. Table A.4 (b): Registered Buses, Trucks, Taxis and Other Vehicles (Per lakh People) States 2001 2002 2003 2004 Buses/ trucks/ taxis Others Buses/ trucks/ taxis Others Buses/ trucks/ taxis Others Buses/ trucks/ taxis Others Jharkhand 416 601 424 87 441 101 325 125 Bihar 134 69 138 210 101 110 62 47 Chhattisgarh 278 277 295 305 366 344 288 108 Uttarakhand 348 359 371 366 405 378 300 134 West Bengal 316 43 312 43 463 90 415 45 Orissa 283 156 308 170 339 183 234 151 INDIA 573 400 580 418 660 445 354 324 Source: Department of Road Transport and Highways, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways • The penetration of transport vehicles in Jharkhand is more than four times that of Bihar. • In Jharkhand the ratio of transport vehicles per million population is better than other newly formed states. 37
  38. 38. d. Railway Lines Railways form one of the most widely used transport services in India. It is an extremely efficient mode of transportation which unites the country economically, politically and culturally. The increase in route of railway lines within a state reflects how well its cities and villages are internally connected and also depicts its connectivity with other states. For the present discussion total rail length in kilometers has been used. Table A.4 (c): Length of Railway Lines (Kms) States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 2006-07 Change (2001- 07) (%) Jharkhand 1,797 1,798 1,943 1,941 1,955 1,941 7.43 Bihar 3,429 3,224 3,377 3,379 3,330 3,411 -0.53 Madhya Pradesh 4,845 4,825 4,849 4,905 4,903 4,884 0.80 Chhattisgarh 1,180 1,180 1,159 1,159 1,186 1,185 0.46 Uttarakhand 356 345 345 345 345 345 -3.22 Uttar Pradesh 8,578 8,799 8,566 8,545 8,546 8,575 -0.04 India 63,140 63,122 63,221 63,465 63,332 63,327 0.29 Source: Rajya Sabha Starred Question No. 103, dated 24.10.2008 ; Ministry of Railways, Government of India • Jharkhand has shown an increasing trend in the growth of length of railway lines over the years. • In some states like Bihar, Uttarakhand railway lengths have reduced marginally over the years. . 38
  39. 39. d. Movement through Aviation This indicator includes the number of passengers traveling per year and number of outbound flight movement per year from the state in the respective years. Development of aviation shows how fast the state is adapting to the rapid increase in economic growth. Passengers per outbound movement is the ratio of total number of passengers traveling in a day to the total number of flights going out in a day. Table A.4 (d): Passengers per Outbound Movement State 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Jharkhand 28 38 35 Bihar 52 53 60 Madhya Pradesh 31 43 35 Orissa 46 52 54 Chhattisgarh 44 51 52 West Bengal 84 86 91 India 86 88 88 Source: Airport Authority of India • The average numbers of passengers traveling in Jharkhand is generally low (less than 40 passengers per flight per day), reflecting on the low levels of economic growth and development in the state. Compared to Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh fares much better. • Among the neighbouring states, West Bengal has much more passengers per outbound movement than Jharkhand. This reflects the presence of Kolkata, the hub for transport in the region. 39
  40. 40. e. Households with Electricity and LPG It includes the total percentage of households having electricity and LPG connections. Along with economic growth, electricity consumption increases as power has become an integral part of improved and modernized infrastructure for production as well as consumption. The per capita consumption of electricity therefore reflects upon the level of such improvement and modernization, in short, of development. Table A.4 (e): Percentage of households having LPG connection and Electricity connections across states State LPG Electricity 2006 2007 2002-04 2007-08 Jharkhand 17.2 17.1 31.9 32.5 Bihar 13.4 12.7 14.1 21.7 Chhattisgarh 20.1 20.8 63.7 71.2 Uttarakhand 77.7 72.0 66.6 83.4 Maharashtra 54.1 51.8 83.6 77.6 Punjab 87.5 80.9 96.2 98.4 Tamil Nadu 51.1 49.5 87 91.2 INDIA 41.5 39.1 71.6 69.4 Source: District level Household Survey –III, II, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas • Households in Jharkhand are more likely to have LPG and electricity connections than Bihar. However, there is significant scope for increasing the coverage of both LPG and electricity as the all India average stands at 39.1 percent and 69.4 percent respectively. • Amongst the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has the highest percentage of households having electricity and LPG connections, followed by Chhattisgarh. • The higher-ranking states like Maharashtra and Punjab are much better off than Jharkhand as in Punjab has more than 98 percent of households have electricity. 40
  41. 41. f. Electricity Electricity has become basic necessity of our daily lives. For the present discussion the percentage deficit or surplus of electricity supply in relation to its demand has been used. It explains how effectively the demand of electricity is being met in the state. Table A.4 (f): Surplus/deficit of Electricity across different States (%) States 2002- 2003 2003- 2004 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 2006- 2007 2007-08 2008-09 Jharkhand -0.6 -4.2 -2.2 -6.9 -2.4 -10.9 -4.7 Uttarakhand -2.8 -2.1 -3.4 -13.5 -4.3 0 -1 Chhattisgarh -3.3 -2.7 -1.7 -12.9 -18.2 -14.8 -2.6 Punjab -6.3 -2.9 -9 -20.3 -1.2 -12.9 -10.6 Maharashtra -13.6 -10.2 -12.1 -23.1 -30.4 -24.9 -21.4 Bihar -7.8 -22.5 10.1 -15.1 -12.2 -27.8 -16.4 Orissa -2.1 -1.7 -0.8 -1.7 -3.4 -2.3 -1.5 West Bengal -1.4 -2.2 -1.6 -3 -0.7 -6 -3.2 India -9 -7.1 -7.3 -12.3 -13.5 -14.4 -11.1 Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA) • Jharkhand was able to meet almost 95 percent of the demand of electricity in the state during 2008-09. The figures were more impressive in the initial years where they met almost entire demand. • Jharkhand has shown much better performance in meeting power demands than India as a whole. • Interestingly, Jharkhand’s performance is better than some of the developed states like Punjab and Maharashtra. • The neighbouring state of West Bengal has however performed better than Jharkhand in meeting the demands of electricity. • Among the new states, Uttarakhand leads in meeting the power demand while Chhattisgarh has taken over Jharkhand in terms of meeting the electricity requirement in the state. 41
  42. 42. g. Banks Banks have always been intermediaries of money in an economy. Most of the major transactions in the economy are done through banks. Higher number of banks in any state reflects the growth in the financial sector of the state and also its effort made in the direction of achieving financial inclusion among the society. For this discussion all the banks registered with RBI in the respective years have been taken. Table A.4 (g): Per capita bank branches across different states State 2007 2008 Jharkhand 0.5 0.54 Punjab 1.1 1.20 Bihar 0.4 0.40 Tamil Nadu 0.8 0.86 Chhattisgarh 0.5 0.50 Uttarakhand 1 1.02 Maharashtra 0.7 0.70 India 0.6 0.68 Source: RBI • Economically developed states like Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have better banking coverage than Jharkhand. • Among the new states, Uttarakhand has comparatively higher per capita bank branches compared to the other two states. • Low number of bank branches will impede the flow of investments and therefore the government should take constructive steps to address this problem. 42
  43. 43. h. Post Offices According to the Economic Survey 2003-04 ‘ The Indian postal network is among the largest networks in the world in terms of areas covered or population served..’ Besides providing access to affordable means of communication anywhere in the country, it also provides financial services such as savings accounts, money order transactions, Postal Life Insurance etc. It is actually the largest bank in India in terms of network, accounts and annual deposits. The number of post offices in the state is a good measure of the communication and financial services infrastructure . Table A.4 (h): Post Offices per ten thousand population across states, 2007 State 2005 2007 Jharkhand 1.0 1.0 Bihar 1.0 1.0 Chhattisgarh 1.4 1.4 Uttarakhand 2.9 2.8 Maharashtra 1.3 1.2 Punjab 1.5 1.5 Tamil Nadu 1.9 1.9 West Bengal 1.1 1.0 Orissa 2.1 2.1 INDIA 1.4 1.4 Source: India Posts, Ministry of communications & IT, Registrar General of India • The number of post offices per thousand population in Jharkhand is less than that of the all India average. • Though the density of post offices in Jharkhand is slightly better than Bihar, it still lags behind the other new states. • Uttarakhand, in fact, has the highest post office density, almost two times of the all India average. 43
  44. 44. B. Jharkhand as a Knowledge Economy Information is the foundation of any economy. Factors such as the method of provision of information, its spread and the extent of technical development in an economy, in terms of accepting and spreading information are crucial in determining the pace of development. This section assesses Jharkhand’s information base. 1. Communication Good communication is a key input in the development of any economy. Today telephones, cellular phones and internet are connecting the country with farthest parts of world. Increasingly various business and services are being provided through these communication modes. a. Telephone Connections Telephone lines play a major role in the communication of any state. It is one of the most easily accessible and cheap modes of communication. Almost the entire nation today has been covered by telecommunication network. The present analysis reports the number of telephones per 100 persons. Table B.1 (a): Telephone Density (%) across states State 2006 -07 2007-08 2008-09 Jharkhand 3.2 3.4 4.1 Bihar 6.7 11.1 22.1 Chhattisgarh 2.9 3.9 5.1 Uttarakhand 8.4 10.2 11.1 Maharashtra 26.8 36.1 53.6 Tamil Nadu 27.1 40.7 61.1 Punjab 36.8 47.6 61.7 West Bengal 13.9 20.1 33.5 Orissa 8.8 13.4 23.6 India 17.1 24.2 36.9 Source: Annual Report, Department of Telecommunications 44
  45. 45. • Only a little higher than 4 percent people have telephone connections in Jharkhand, a very low coverage ratio. • There is tremendous scope for increasing the coverage of telecommunications in Jharkhand. Even though coverage has increased in the last few years, it is still considerably lower than the national average. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has the highest density of telephone connections followed by Chhattisgarh. • Jharkhand’s figures stands much below in comparison to the figures of the developed states like Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In Punjab more than 60 % population has telephone connection. b. Mobile Connections per 1000 people Mobile phone technology has rapidly become a necessity in recent years especially in urban areas. Greater use of mobile telephone is an indicator of a technologically advancing economy and its growing acceptance among the general population. Further it also indicates how well a state is adapting to advancing technology and demand for the same especially since the telecom sector has now been privatized. Mobile density i.e. mobiles per 1000 persons has been used in the present discussion and it includes all the connections with all the service providers operating in the state in the respective years. Table B.1 (b): Mobile Connections per 1000 people State 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Jharkhand 16.6 19.1 27.2 Bihar 55.8 98.4 210.9 Chhattisgarh 16.7 25.3 38.7 Uttarakhand 46.8 66.6 81.1 West Bengal 50.4 90.9 306.0 India 132.5 203.8 336.8 Source: Annual Report, Department of telecommunications • Penetration of mobile connections in Jharkhand is significantly lower than all India. 45
  46. 46. • Bihar, its parent state, has almost seven times higher penetration than Jharkhand. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has about 81 mobile connections per 1000 persons followed by Chhattisgarh with 38 mobile connections per 1000 person c. Internet Users The Internet has emerged as a new tool of communication for last few years. It is a highly versatile mode of accessing information. It is used for business promotion, transactions, making contracts etc. In this discussion all the registered internet connections have been considered. Table B.1 (c): Internet Connections (per lakh population) across States State 2001 2002 2003 Jharkhand 83 42 51 Bihar 13 14 22 Chhattisgarh 20 37 43 Uttarakhand 69 126 223 West Bengal 334 163 174 Orissa 50 47 60 Maharashtra 948 789 961 India 347 310 330 Source: Ministry of Telecommunication, Govt. of India., Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 1733, dated 18.12.2003 • Internet has miniscule prevalence in Jharkhand, but it is much higher than its parent state. In comparison to the all India average Jharkhand’s internet penetration is not even one sixth. There is an urgent need to bridge this digital-gap. • Even though it is one of the newly formed states Uttarakhand, surprisingly has almost four times penetration of internet than Jharkhand. This difference is probably on account of high literacy rate in Uttarakhand. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 2. Educational Institutions a. Pre-College Institutions/Schools Pre-college level of education forms the foundation for higher professional education. It also marks completion of school education. Current discussion includes all the registered pre-college institutions or schools in the state. Table B.2 (a): Number of Pre-College Institutions/Schools per Million People State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Jharkhand 817 768 785 802 939 Bihar 629 616 606 598 616 Madhya Pradesh 1,470 1,665 2,158 2,104 2,158 Chhattisgarh 1,555 2,067 2,143 1,991 2,085 Uttar Pradesh 886 942 990 1,017 1,038 Uttarakhand 2,162 2,171 2,199 2,214 2,241 Maharashtra 1,340 1,375 1,375 861 865 Kerala 419 424 463 459 455 India 1,036 1,099 1,150 1,098 1,083 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • Density of pre-college institutes or schools is considerably lower in Jharkhand than all India average though it has shown a rising trend over the years. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has the highest density of pre college institutes followed by Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. 48
  49. 49. b. Higher Educational Institutions/Post School Institutions The presence of higher educational institutions shows the existence of facilities and denotes ease of access to higher education. Presence of higher educational institutes is also indicative of the demand for the higher education. Good educational institutes not only attract students from within the state but also those from outside. It includes all the registered post=school and higher educational institutions in the state. Table B.2 (b): Number of Higher Educational Institutions/Post School Institutions per Million People State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Jharkhand 6 6 5 6 6 Bihar 10 4 10 10 11 Madhya Pradesh 13 13 17 17 18 Chhattisgarh 12 11 11 19 19 Uttar Pradesh 7 7 11 15 14 Uttarakhand 9 9 13 18 23 Maharashtra 19 19 18 24 23 Kerala 12 12 12 17 16 India 1 13 15 19 19 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • Jharkhand has a very low number of higher educational institutions per million people compared to the newer states. • It also falls below its parent state, Bihar. The Government should take steps to increase the access of higher education to its people thereby investing in future human capital. 49
  50. 50. c. Engineering, Technical & Architecture Institutions Increasingly economies are becoming more technically advanced which requires technically trained work force. This makes the presence of technical colleges important to meet this growing demand. For this discussion all the registered engineering, technological and architecture institutes in the respective years have been considered. Table B.2(c): Number of Engineering, Technical & Architecture Institutions per 10 Million People State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Jharkhand 1 2 2 4 3 Bihar 1 1 1 1 1 Madhya Pradesh 5 10 9 11 13 Chhattisgarh 1 1 1 7 7 Uttar Pradesh 4 4 4 6 6 Uttarakhand 2 2 2 13 14 Maharashtra 17 18 18 19 20 Kerala 20 20 20 30 29 India 9 10 12 14 14 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • Jharkhand has a long way to go to have considerable penetration of technically oriented institutes though the number has increased in 2005-06 compared to previous years. • Generally the presence of professional institutes is low in the new states except Uttarakhand where it has shown a considerable rise. In case of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, it could be attributed to the nascent phase of statehood, making it difficult to have an adequate infrastructure with respect to professional education. • However, Jharkhand falls far below states like Kerala where the educational standard is better than most other states. 50
  51. 51. • Realizing the importance of good quality education, the state government has already proposed to open an Indian Institute of Technology at Dumka, an Indian Institute of Management at Bokaro and an Indian Institute of Information Technology at Hazaribagh. 51
  52. 52. d. Medical Colleges Health is a public service and hence presence of adequate number of doctors and other nurses etc. is indispensable for the system to work effectively. For adequate training of medical professional, proper infrastructure is essential. All the registered medical colleges in the state have been included in this discussion. Medical colleges cover education in the various systems of medicine practiced in India – Allopathy, Ayurved, Homeopathy, Unani – as well as colleges offering training in nursing and pharmacy. Table B.2 (d): Number of Medical Colleges per 10 Million People State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Jharkhand 1 3 3 2 2 Bihar 3 3 3 3 3 Madhya Pradesh 4 4 4 15 14 Chhattisgarh 1 1 1 9 9 Uttar Pradesh 2 2 2 5 5 Uttarakhand 1 1 1 21 21 Maharashtra 12 12 11 34 34 Kerala 12 12 12 37 37 India 7 7 7 18 18 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • Jharkhand is far behind the educationally developed states like Kerala. • Among the newly formed states, Jharkhand has the lowest number of medical colleges compared to other two states. • Jharkhand’s figure is also far behind India as a whole. 52
  53. 53. e. Management, Law, IT, Agricultural Colleges Management, Law , Information Technology and Agricultural Education are specialized courses of education. Increasingly economies require people with management and legal skills who can provide consultancy in the growing service sector. This section includes all the registered management, law, IT and agricultural colleges in the state in the respective years. Table B.2 (e): Number of Management, Law, IT, Agricultural Colleges perMillion People State 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2007-07 Jharkhand 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.9 Bihar 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.4 1.8 Madhya Pradesh 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.2 2.2 Chhattisgarh 1.5 1.5 1.4 2.2 2.5 Uttar Pradesh 0.7 1.5 3.9 3.8 3.3 Uttarakhand 3.2 3.1 3 3 6.2 Maharashtra 1.3 1.3 1.3 4 4.2 Kerala 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 0.9 India 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.3 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • In Jharkhand the penetration of management educational institutions is less than the all India average. • In 2005-06, the number of management institutes per million students in Jharkhand has slightly increased, giving some solace to aspiring management students. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has shown comparatively better performance followed by Chhattisgarh. C. Socio Economic Profile 53
  54. 54. Demography a. Population Population of a particular region refers to the number of people residing within that specified geographical area. Table C.1 (a): Growth rate of Population (in per cent) States 2006-102001 2001-05 Jharkhand 26945829 1.77 1.78 Bihar 82998509 1.77 1.78 Chhattisgarh 20833803 1.77 1.76 Uttarakhand 8489349 2.21 2.24 Punjab 24358999 1.12 1.15 Maharashtra 96878627 1.06 1.08 Tamil Nadu 62405679 0.83 0.8 West Bengal 80176197 1.3 1.28 Orissa 36804660 0.89 0.89 India 1028610328 1.55 1.52 Source: Estimated Population, Registrar General of India • Jharkhand accounts for 2.6 % of India’s Population. However the parent state Bihar is three times more populated than Jharkhand. • Average annual population growth in Jharkhand as remained almost same between the period 2001-05 and 2006-10. • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has the highest population growth rate as compared to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. 54
  55. 55. b. Sex Ratio The sex ratio is measured as number of females per thousand males. Sex ratio is an indicator of the extent of gender bias prevailing in a particular region and reflects on the extent of discrimination shown against a girl child. Table C.1 (b) Sex Ratio, 2001 State 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Jharkhand 919 920 921 922 923 Bihar 913 914 914 914 914 Chhattisgarh 937 939 941 942 943 Uttarakhand 938 939 941 941 942 Maharashtra 944 946 947 948 948 Punjab 905 907 908 909 911 Tamil Nadu 981 982 982 983 983 INDIA 32821 937 938 939 940 Source: Census of India, 2001 • The number of females per thousand males of Jharkhand is lower than India as a whole. • In spite of faring better than its mother state, Bihar, and economically better performing states such as Punjab, Jharkhand trails behind the two other newly formed states. • A positive aspect emerges from the fact that the sex ratio in Jharkhand is expected to show improvement over the period while the sex ratio in parent state Bihar is more or less stagnant over the years, according to the Census of India projections. 55
  56. 56. c. SC and ST population The proportion of scheduled castes(SC) and scheduled tribes(ST) residing in a particular region shows the proportion of backward sections in the entire population. Backward communities need special progammes and policies aimed at their development to allow these sections to merge with the mainstream over time. Table C.1 (c) Percentage of SC & ST population, 2001 States S C S T Jharkhand 11.8 26.3 Bihar 15.7 0.9 Chhattisgarh 11.6 31.8 Uttarakhand 17.9 3.0 Punjab 28.9 0.0 Maharashtra 10.2 8.9 Tamil Nadu 19.0 1.0 West Bengal 23.0 5.5 Orissa 16.5 22.1 INDIA 16.2 8.2 Source: Census of India, 2001 • STs constitute a considerable proportion of Jharkhand’s population. This proportion is more than three times that of all India. • Among the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has the highest proportion of tribal population followed by Jharkhand,where as Uttarakhand has the highest proportion of SC population. • Among Jharkhand’s neighboring states, West Bengal has the highest proportion of SC population. Orissa is another state with considerable proportion of tribal population. 56
  57. 57. 2. Workforce The workforce is defined as the percentage of the total population working in return for monetary incentives. Therefore, it does not include housewives/homemakers, working in a family business etc., i.e. people enganged in work that does not involve monetary incentives is not included in this indicator Table C.2 Percentage of workers in total population, 2001 States Main workers Marginal workers Non-workers Jharkhand 23.92 13.59 62.48 Bihar 25.37 8.34 66.3 Chhattisgarh 33.86 12.6 53.54 Uttarakhand 27.36 9.56 63.08 Punjab 32.17 5.3 62.53 Maharashtra 35.87 6.63 57.5 Tamil Nadu 38.07 6.6 55.33 West Bengal 28.7 8.1 63.2 Orissa 26.1 12.8 61.1 INDIA 30.43 8.67 60.9 Source: Census of India, 2001 • In Jharkhand, percentage of people who are not workers exceeds that of Chhattisgarh by almost 10 percentage points. However, the situation in Jharkhand is very similar to Uttarakhand and India as a whole. Even Punjab, which is one of the economically developed states, has almost equal share of people who do not fall in the working category. . • Among the three newly formed states, Jharkhand accounts for maximum percentage of people who had not worked for the major part of the reference period (i.e. less than 6 months). The percentage points are almost doubled when compared with the economically developed states like Punjab and Maharashtra. The percentage of marginal workers is also much higher than all India average, which is very similar to Bihar. 57
  58. 58. • Percentage of main workers in the total population in Jharkhand is considerably lower than the India average. In fact, Jharkhand has the minimum percentage of people having full employment as compared to all the other states considered. This could be due to lower avenues for regular employment. • Overall therefore, lower percentage of people working will lead to greater pressures on household budgets for meeting basic needs. 58
  59. 59. 3. Basic Necessity a. Head Count Ratio (HCR) The head-count ratio is computed on the basis of National Sample Survey data on consumption expenditure. People with an income below a predefined poverty norm( also called poverty line) are "poor" and the proportion of the poor to the aggregate population defines the head-count ratio. Symbolically, HCR = q/n * 100 (Where q is the number of persons below poverty line and n is the total population.) Table C.3 (a) Head Count Ratio State 1999-00 2004-05 Jharkhand 43.96 33.15 Bihar 40.92 33.36 Chhattisgarh 40.54 36.46 Uttarakhand 15.20 31.67 Punjab 6.16 4.98 Maharashtra 25.02 25.05 Tamil Nadu 21.12 17.17 West Bengal 27.02 20.96 Orissa 47.15 40.09 India 26.10 21.76 Source: NSSO 55th and 61st (Consumer Expenditure)round, 1999-2000 & 2004-05 • Percentage of population below poverty line is significantly high for Jharkhand, much higher than that of India as a whole although over the years it has successfully reduced this percentage. 59
  60. 60. • Among the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has the highest percentage of population below poverty line in 2004-05 followed by Jharkhand. • When compared with the neighbouring states, Orissa has the highest percentage of population below poverty line. The HCR of Jharkhand is also higher than that of Bihar, the mother state. • Jharkhand is far behind the economically better performing states such as Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. • Overall, more than two out of every five people cannot meet their basic needs in Jharkhand. High poverty is reflected in all other measures of socio-economic development. This calls for constructive steps to be taken by the government to eradicate the stark poverty. b. Food Sufficiency Food Sufficiency is defined as a household where every member has had at least two square meals a day . This measures the extent of nutritional poverty of a country. India has the largest number of the absolutely poor. This in turn implies that the number of households not having food sufficiency is also very high. Table C.3 (b) Percentage of household without food sufficiency, 2004-05 State % of households without food sufficiency Jharkhand 0.57 Bihar 2.69 Chhattisgarh 2.24 Uttarakhand 0.39 Punjab 0.65 Maharashtra 0.84 Tamil Nadu 0.30 WestBengal 8.91 60
  61. 61. Orissa 5.24 India 1.93 Source: NSSO 61st (Employment & Unemployment) round • The percentage of households not getting two square meals per day in Jharkhand is lower than that of its mother state Bihar. It also trails behind the all India figure. • Among the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has the maximum percentage of households who live without sufficient food followed by Jharkhand. • Jharkhand performs much better on this front compared to its neighbours like West Bengal and Orissa. 61
  62. 62. c. Safe Drinking Water & Sanitation Facility If a household has access to piped drinking water, it is considered to have access to safe drinking water. While every household should have the provision of safe drinking water and basic sanitation facilities in its premises, this facility is not provided for the majority of households in rural areas and also in many parts of urban centres. The situation is grim in many states and well-governed states are those who would demonstrate a high proportion of rural and urban households enjoying such facilities. Table C.3 (c) Percentage Households using piped drinking water (2005-06) State Urban Rural Jharkhand 44.4 0 Bihar 19.8 1.2 Chhattisgarh 55.5 6.0 Orissa 51.7 1.9 West Bengal 67.0 9.5 India 71.0 27.9 Source : National Family and Health Survey-III • Urban Jharkhand performs much better than the urban Bihar in providing their people access to piped drinking water. However, situation in the rural Jharkhand is alarming with no household having access to piped drinking water. • Also both Bihar and Jharkhand have much lower coverage of piped drinking water as compared to the national average. 62
  63. 63. Table C.3 (d) Households having access to toilet facility in 2005-06 Source : National Family and Health Survey-III • In terms of providing access to toilet facility to households in urban areas Jharkhand performs much better than its neighboring states of Orissa and Chhattisgarh. However, the coverage of toilet facility is abysmally low in rural areas of the state. • Jharkhand needs to develop the infrastructure facilities in sanitation and water supply which in turn will raise the health and standard of living of the people. 63 State Urban Rural Jharkhand 73.7 5.0 Bihar 73.0 16.2 Chhattisgarh 65.5 5.6 Orissa 58.9 11.3 West Bengal 90.5 44.8 India 83.1 25.9
  64. 64. 4. Health a. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate (IMR) refers to the percentage of infants dying before completing one year of age. Infancy is a stage when the human body is most susceptible to diseases, and therefore proper hygiene, care and nutrition are essential. The infant mortality rate can be significantly reduced through the dissemination of requisite health care for mother and child and is therefore a marker of a society’s socio-economic development. Reduction in infant mortality is a major policy goal and thus part of the strategy to achieve health for all in India. The ratio of Male IMR to Female IMR is an indicator of the extent of gender bias in the society – a higher ratio denoting a more equitable society. Table C.4 (a) Infant Mortality rate (IMR) State IMR(2005) IMR(2006) IMR(2007) Male IMR/Female IMR(2005) Male IMR/Female IMR(2006) Male IMR/Female IMR(2007) Jharkhand 50 49 48 0.74 0.88 0.96 Bihar 61 60 58 0.97 0.92 0.98 Chhattisgarh 63 61 59 0.98 0.95 0.95 Uttarakhand 42 43 48 0.77 0.95 0.98 West Bengal 38 38 37 0.97 0.93 0.97 Orissa 75 73 71 0.96 0.99 0.97 Maharashtra 36 35 34 0.92 0.97 0.94 Punjab 44 44 43 0.85 0.78 0.93 Tamil Nadu 37 37 35 0.90 0.97 0.94 INDIA 58 57 55 0.92 0.95 0.98 Source: SRS Bulletin, respective years • The infant mortality rate in Jharkhand has reduced marginally from 50 in 2005 to 48 in 2007. • Though the ratio of male to female IMR has increased during the same period, it is still below the national average. 64
  65. 65. • Among the new states, Chhattisgarh has the highest IMR. • Among the neighboring states, Orissa has very high IMR compared to others. b. Percentage of assisted births Percentage of births assisted by trained health professionals. Trained health professional includes the following: doctor, auxiliary nurse midwife, nurse, midwife, lady health visitor or other health professional. It does not include dais and other traditional attendants. Table C.4 (b) Percentage of Assisted Births across different states State 2002-04 2007-08 Jharkhand 26.7 25 Chhattisgarh 27.1 29.6 Uttarakhand 32.8 35.5 Bihar 25.2 31.9 Maharashtra 62.6 69.4 Punjab 64.2 77.1 Tamil Nadu 89.3 95.6 West Bengal 54.8 51.6 Orissa 40.3 50.9 India 48 52.6 Source: District Level Household Survey (DLHS III) • In Jharkhand, the percentage of assisted births has reduced marginally by 1.7 percentage points, since 2002-04. • In contrast, in Bihar this percentage has increased by 6.7 percentage points. • Other new states have shown better performance in this context where the percentage of assisted births has increased by average 2.6 percentage points thereby depicting improvement of health facilities provided in the state. 65
  66. 66. • Among the neighboring states, Orissa has shown remarkable improvement in health conditions prevailing than Jharkhand. • In Tamil Nadu, more than 95 percent of women are assisted by trained personnel during delivery. c. Estimated Death Rate The death rate gives the number of deaths during a year per thousand mid year population and is also known as the crude death rate. While the death rate gives only a rough indicator of the mortality situation, it accurately measures the impact of current mortality on population growth. Access to good quality health services is an important factor in reducing the death rate. Better household hygiene practices, access to sanitation, and water supply amenities aid in further reduction in death rate. Table C.4 (c) Death Rate across different states, 2007 State Death Rate Jharkhand 7.3 Bihar 7.5 Chhattisgarh 8.1 Uttarakhand 6.8 West Bengal 6.3 Orissa 9.2 Maharashtra 6.6 Punjab 7.0 Tamil Nadu 7.2 INDIA 7.4 Source: Sample Registration System (SRS) Bulletin • The average death rate of Jharkhand is slightly lower than that of India as a whole. • The death rate of Jharkhand is slightly more than that of Maharashtra, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. 66
  67. 67. • Amongst the newly formed states, Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate followed by Jharkhand. • Among the neighboring states, Orissa has a high death rate of 9.2 percent. 5. Education a. Literacy rate The Literacy Rate is measured as a percentage of population aged seven years and above who are able to read and write simple sentences. As per the Census, literacy is defined as the ability to read and write the person’s name and to form simple sentences. Higher literacy levels in a state denote rising socio-economic development and universal literacy is a crucial step towards achieving overall progress. Table C.5 (a) Literacy Rate across different states States 2002-04 2007-08 Jharkhand 56.4 62.1 Bihar 51 58.7 Chhattisgarh 60.7 65.7 Uttarakhand 71.2 79.1 Maharashtra 73.5 74.7 Punjab 70.6 75.9 Kerala 89.3 92.9 West Bengal 68.7 72.1 Orissa 62.8 69.2 India 67.2 71.9 Source: District Level Household Survey III, II • Jharkhand has a comparatively lower literacy rate with just 62% people being literate and falls below the all India figure. • Though the state performs better than its mother state, Bihar, it trails behind the newly formed states. Amongst the three, Uttarakhand fares the best with almost three fourths of the population being literate. 67
  68. 68. • The high performing states like Maharashtra, Punjab, West Bengal, have more than 70% literate population. • In other words, Jharkhand has a long way to go if it is to achieve its socioeconomic development goals. The state should avail the benefits of various literacy campaigns introduced from time to time by the central government. b. Proportion of 10 plus children having completed Primary Education Primary schools are up to either standard IV or V in different states and as per the formal education system a child between the ages 9 and 11 years would have ordinarily completed the primary level of education. Thus the primary school completion rate is the percentage of children in the age group 10 to 12 years who have completed this level of education. This ratio measures educational attainment based on enrolment at the right age and timely completion of primary school. Thus a higher percentage of timely completion of primary schooling gives an indication that the programmes and plans of the government are effective. Table C.5 (b) Percentage of Children having completed primary schooling across different states, 2004-2005 States Primary Completion Rate (%) Jharkhand 34.84 Bihar 28.04 Chhattisgarh 32.16 Uttarakhand 44.87 Maharashtra 49.08 Punjab 47.90 Kerala 61.86 West Bengal 49.81 Orissa 49.67 India 42.50 Source: NSSO 61st round (Employment & Unemployment) 68
  69. 69. • The earlier the children complete primary school, the more they can learn at higher levels of schooling. In Jharkhand barely a third of the 10 year olds have completed primary education. Though it is better than some neighboring states in this respect, its primary educational system needs strengthening to achieve levels as in other parts of the country • Among the newly formed states, Uttarakhand has the highest proportion of children completing primary schooling within the given age group followed by Jharkhand. • Jharkhand also falls far below other neighbouring states like West Bengal and Orissa. • Jharkhand also falls behind the high-ranking states like Maharashtra and Punjab. • Primary school completion rate is a very good proxy for the quality of education that is being provided in state schools. The figures suggest that primary educational institutions are not being able to provide education that will (i) retain the children in school, and (ii) provide them with education that their parents consider beneficial enough to send their children to school. c. Ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and middle school Gender disparity in education is a concern in India. This ratio measures disparity at two levels of formal education. It is the ratio of number of girls enrolled in a particular level to the number of boys enrolled in a particular level. Table C.5 (c) Ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and middle school States 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Jharkhand 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Bihar 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 Chhattisgarh 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 Uttarakhand 1 1 1 0.9 0.9 1.0 West Bengal 0.9 0.9 1 1 0.9 1.0 Orissa 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 India 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years 69
  70. 70. • The ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and middle school for Jharkhand has remained stagnant since the last 3 years. The ratio is below the India level. • The ratio of girls to boys in Jharkhand is higher than its mother state Bihar. • Among the new states, Uttarakhand has minimum gender bias in the state which is reflected in the higher ratio of girls to boys enrolment in primary and middle schooling. Uttarakhand is followed by Jharkhand. 70
  71. 71. d. Pupil Teacher Ratio The pupil teacher ratio is defined as the number of students attended by a teacher. It reflects the degree up to which a teacher can devote personalized attention to his pupils. Adequate trained teachers are essential for the educational upliftment. It takes into account all the teachers teaching and the students enrolled in higher educational levels i.e. secondary, senior secondary or intermediate schools. Table C.5 (d) Pupil Teacher Ratio across different states State 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Jharkhand 24 26 24 24 28 Bihar 18 20 18 19 17 Chhattisgarh 31 32 32 32 36 Uttarakhand 35 38 37 38 44 West Bengal 31 30 29 30 29 Orissa 18 17 17 17 18 INDIA 21 22 22 25 26 Source: Selected Educational Statistics, respective years • Lower pupil teacher ratio is an indication of better quality of education. The pupil teacher ratio in Jharkhand has shown a marginal increase over the years, which calls for attracting talented and committed individuals to take up teaching as profession. • Among the new states, Jharkhand has the lowest pupil teacher ratio followed by Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand. • Jharkhand performs at par with India in terms of Pupil-Teacher Ratio at the higher educational level. 71
  72. 72. e. Total expenditure of Education Department on Primary & Middle Level This variable measures the per person expenditure made by the government on primary and middle level education. As a social and development sector issue it is important that the government spends adequately on this aspect. Table C.5 (e) Total Expenditure on primary and middle level education per child in 6-14 years age group, (Rs. Per Person) State 2005-06 Jharkhand 1,821 Bihar 1,393 Chhattisgarh 1,788 Maharashtra 2,301 Punjab 1,189 Orissa 1,743 West Bengal 1,279 India 1,810 Source : Analysis of budgeted expenditure on education, Ministry of HRD • The expenditure on primary and middle education per person for Jharkhand is higher than that of Bihar. The expenditure is also higher than that of Chhattisgarh in 2005-06. • At about 1800 Rupees per head, the expenditure incurred by the Jharkhand state government on primary and middle school education is much less than that of higher-ranking states like Maharashtra. • The expenditure incurred by the state is a little higher than the national average. 72

×