What Are We Doing To Our Water

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This is part of the educational series that http://schools.indiawaterportal.org has introduced. This presentation is aimed at allowing the teaching and parent community to explain the existing and potential problems of water mismanagement in our world. This is part of the creative common license

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  • What Are We Doing To Our Water

    1. 1. Impacts of Water pollution
    2. 2. Water - Source of life
    3. 3. But look at what we are doing to it Photo by Subijoy Dutta Photo by Risab Jain
    4. 4. Photo by Sudhanshu Malhotra Do you know it affects us all?
    5. 5. Natural Chemical Anthropogenic Microbial WATER POLLUTION
    6. 6. Natural pollution <ul><li>Groundwater in certain areas is rich in some inorganic chemical compounds such as fluorides, arsenic etc. </li></ul>These chemicals bio accumulate in the body. They are not excreted out of the body easily and if rate of intake is higher than rate of excretion, they accumulate in the body.
    7. 7. Fluorosis ©Ruhani Kaur/UNICEF India http://www.fannz.org.nz 20 states in India have groundwater that is rich in fluoride Dental Fluorosis Skeletal Fluorosis Excess fluoride in the body (above 1.5 – 2 ppm) Natural pollution
    8. 8. How does fluorosis impact people <ul><li>Handicapped </li></ul><ul><li>Social outcastes </li></ul><ul><li>Lose livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Medical costs that they can’t meet </li></ul>http://gbgm-umc.org/nwo/99ja/india3.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com http://www.heal.co.uk/images/child-labour-3.jpg A young girl living on the streets in India. Photograph: Rob Elliott/AFP/Getty Images
    9. 9. Arsenicosis causes <ul><li>Liver damage ( jaundice, cirrhosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cancers of the </li></ul>lung kidney bladder skin Natural pollution liver
    10. 10. Anthropogenic water pollution <ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic life </li></ul><ul><li>Other impacts </li></ul>Chemical Microbial
    11. 11. <ul><li>Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsanitary conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhygienic practices </li></ul></ul>Chemical contamination and its impacts Drinking water contaminated with nitrates can lead to serious, even fatal consequences particularly for infants. In human body, nitrate is converted to nitrite which then combines with haemoglobin to form metheamoglobin which reduces oxygen levels in the blood . This causes cyanosis (blue baby syndrome) and in severe cases it can cause death Anthropogenic pollution
    12. 12. Chemical contamination and its impacts <ul><li>Mercury: Widespread use in industrial processes and in various products (e.g. batteries, lamps and thermometers) </li></ul>These compounds bio-accumulate in our bodies and are dangerous to health and life. Many cause cancer, affect various vital organs and can cause death. Anthropogenic pollution Heavy Metals Lead : Industrial effluents from battery manufacturing industries, industries which have a paint shop etc. Cadmium : Marine and aerospace applications; some fertilisers, detergents and refined petroleum products.
    13. 13. Chemical contamination and its impacts Anthropogenic pollution Lead : Kidney, nerve and brain damage; anaemia – leads to death. Children most susceptible Cadmium : Kidney damage, genetic mutations Mercury : Damage to brain and central nervous system
    14. 14. Chemical contamination and its impacts Anthropogenic pollution Synthetic Organic Chemicals These compounds bio-accumulate in our bodies and are dangerous to health and life. Cause cancers, damage to the nervous system, reproductive system, endocrinal system Dyes Plastics Pesticides
    15. 15. Bio-magnification Accumulation of these compounds increases as we go up the food chain. Organisms higher in the food chain are exposed to contamination from different sources.
    16. 16. Minamata disease <ul><li>Industrial wastewater from the Chisso corporation (manufacturing fertilizers and other chemicals) was released into the Minamata Bay in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>The waste water was rich in methyl mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury content in shellfish in that region increased </li></ul><ul><li>People ate the shellfish and the cats ate the leftovers </li></ul>Anthropogenic pollution
    17. 17. Minamata disease Strange things started to happen – cats had convulsions and died, crows fell from the sky, dead fish floated.. Young children had convulsions and difficulty in walking and speaking People died Investigation showed organic mercury poisoning affecting the nervous system First discovered in 1956 Lawsuits and claims continue till today Anthropogenic pollution
    18. 18. Health impacts of Microbial contamination of water Water-borne Diseases Water-washed Diseases Water-based Diseases Water-related vector borne Diseases Anthropogenic pollution
    19. 19. Water borne diseases (also water-washed and food borne) <ul><li>Diseases caused by ingestion of water contaminated by human </li></ul><ul><li>or animal excrement, which contain pathogenic microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhoeal diseases (dysentry) </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid </li></ul><ul><li>Infective jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>Polio </li></ul><ul><li>Roundworm </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Faecal-Oral Route of Disease Transmission <ul><li>One gram of human excreta can contain: </li></ul><ul><li>10,000,000 viruses </li></ul><ul><li>1,000,000 bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 parasite cysts </li></ul><ul><li>100 parasite eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Source: United Nations Children’s Fund, Sanitation for All: Promoting Dignity and Human Rights. UNICEF, New York, 2000. </li></ul>Faeces - the most dangerous pollutant
    21. 21. The Faecal-Oral Route of Disease Transmission Food Excreta Hands Water Flies Mouth
    22. 22. Diarrhoeal disease Children in developing countries most affected Responsible for the deaths of 7,00,000 million people every year (WHO, 2004) Over 7,00,000 deaths in India in 1999 (works out to abt 1600 per day) (World Bank, 1999)
    23. 23. Water washed disease <ul><li>Diseases caused by poor personal </li></ul><ul><li>hygiene and skin and eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>with contaminated water </li></ul><ul><li>Scabies </li></ul><ul><li>Skin sepsis and ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Leprosy </li></ul><ul><li>Lice and typhus </li></ul><ul><li>Trachoma </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis </li></ul><ul><li>Dysenteries </li></ul><ul><li>Ascariasis </li></ul><ul><li>Paratyphoid </li></ul>How Trachoma spreads
    24. 24. Water washed diseases Scabies Trachoma Not enough water to keep clean
    25. 25. Water based diseases <ul><li>Schistosomiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) </li></ul>Life Cycle of guinea worm infection Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people worldwide, of whom 88 million are under 15 years of age Water Based Diseases Life cycle of the guinea worm infection (dracunculiasis) Parasitic infections for which aquatic and semi-aquatic snails function as intermediate hosts
    26. 26. Water related vector borne diseases <ul><li>Transmission by insects having aquatic immature stages </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue </li></ul><ul><li>Filariasis </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Onchocerciasis </li></ul><ul><li>Trypanosomiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul>
    27. 27. http://www.worldwater.org/drinkwat.gif Populations without access to safe drinking water
    28. 28. Affect of anthropogenic water pollution on freshwater aquatic populations <ul><li>Sewage / Organic pollution in lakes – eutrophication (all life in lake dies) </li></ul>Industrial effluents dumped into rivers – fish kills and loss of underwater plants
    29. 29. Affect of anthropogenic water pollution on marine biodiversity <ul><li>Oil spills in oceans – huge damage to marine biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage in oceans – mistaken for food and consumed </li></ul><ul><li>by marine animals. Causes death </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical pollution – from land based sources, damage marine biodiversity </li></ul>http://sxmprivateeye.com/node/255
    30. 30. Acid rain <ul><li>Affects the hatching of fish eggs </li></ul><ul><li>pHs lower than 5 can kill adult fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Has eliminated insect life and some fish species </li></ul><ul><li>Kills microbes in the soil and alters soil chemistry </li></ul>Acid rain – rain in which SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, CO 2 etc. are dissolved
    31. 31. Acid rain <ul><li>High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as they are often surrounded by clouds and fog which are more acidic than rain. </li></ul>Acid rain – rain in which SO 2 and oxides of nitrogen are dissolved Damages buildings and historical monuments Sulphuric acid in the rain reacts chemically with the calcium compounds in the stones - limestone, sandstone, marble and granite - to create gypsum, which then flakes off.

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