The importance of
groundwater in urban India
        S.Vishwanath
           Advisor
          Arghyam
Urban India 2001
• 285 million (27.8%) of 1.02 billion

•   5161 cities
•   35    metros - million plus
•   388 large town...
Photo : Norma Angelica Hernandez Bernal
Groundwater.....provides for the poor , since the poor are usually not connected to
the piped water supply
Water from a recharge well
What does urbanization do to
   urban groundwater?
•Increase it in the core area through leaking pipes
          (50%) and...
Typology
• Lithology determines typology

•   Coastal
•   Hilly
•   Hard Rock
•   Alluvial
•   Arid
Groundwater dependence
• 75 % of urban areas in alluvial areas
  depend on groundwater
• 80 % of cities in hard rock areas...
But water is a state subject..
Karnataka
• 223 towns
• 46 completely dependant on groundwater
• 137 partially dependant on groundwater

• Bangalore (pop-...
The issue in cities

          • Exploding water demand in cities
          • Problems of urbanization : water shortage an...
Realities

            •   New paradigm required
            •   Multiple sourcing of water
            •   Source control...
Water in the city



Lakes and tanks :
                    261 in 1960
                    81 in 1997
                    ...
The Cauvery river basin   Bangalore
Groundwater use
• Impacts surface flows – The Arkavathy
  river, 4000 sq km catchment, is now dry.
• 150 MLD supply source...
Surface water
• 800 mld is pumped 300 meter high
• 80 MW of energy is used
• 200,000 bore wells pump groundwater
  from 10...
Local hydrologic cycle
The change
•                  Before construction   After construction
•   Runoff                 15                 90   ...
Rain barrel : Does storing water from rain reduce pumping of water?
What should be the quality of
     recharge water?
Sub-optimization is inevitable
Price will determine use
• Bangalore – Rs 72/ KL for industrial water
• Resulted in resource substitution – about
  100 ml...
The monitoring..
• Each connection is metered
• Each bore well pays Rs 50 /- a month as
  sanitary cess . Can bore wells b...
The construct of the problem
      determines the solution
• Mulbagal town : 70,000 population
• Arghyam initiative for IU...
Energy cost
• Approx 60 % of the muncipality’s budget
  goes for energy charges towards pumping
  costs annually
Sustainability
•   Socially-
•   Technically
•   Institutionally- Where are the urban gwi’s?
•   Legally- Where is the law...
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath

4,741 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,741
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
123
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Importance Of Groundwater In Urban India: S. Vishwanath

  1. 1. The importance of groundwater in urban India S.Vishwanath Advisor Arghyam
  2. 2. Urban India 2001 • 285 million (27.8%) of 1.02 billion • 5161 cities • 35 metros - million plus • 388 large towns • 4738 small and medium < 10 lakhs • Projected 368 million by 2012
  3. 3. Photo : Norma Angelica Hernandez Bernal
  4. 4. Groundwater.....provides for the poor , since the poor are usually not connected to the piped water supply
  5. 5. Water from a recharge well
  6. 6. What does urbanization do to urban groundwater? •Increase it in the core area through leaking pipes (50%) and uncollected sewage •Impair quality through point/non-point pollution •75% of surface water is polluted by untreated municipal waste water
  7. 7. Typology • Lithology determines typology • Coastal • Hilly • Hard Rock • Alluvial • Arid
  8. 8. Groundwater dependence • 75 % of urban areas in alluvial areas depend on groundwater • 80 % of cities in hard rock areas depend on external surface sources of water • - Ankit Patel,S. Krishnan
  9. 9. But water is a state subject..
  10. 10. Karnataka • 223 towns • 46 completely dependant on groundwater • 137 partially dependant on groundwater • Bangalore (pop- 6.6million) for example has 20 to 40 % dependence on groundwater but is counted as non groundwater dependant
  11. 11. The issue in cities • Exploding water demand in cities • Problems of urbanization : water shortage and flooding • Need to manage water in cities holistically Case study of a city as an example
  12. 12. Realities • New paradigm required • Multiple sourcing of water • Source control for flood management • Institutional coordination • People’s participation in solution’s • More space for ‘softer’ solutions like education Water tanker Bore well
  13. 13. Water in the city Lakes and tanks : 261 in 1960 81 in 1997 55 in 2000 Lake development authority created to preserve and enhance surface water bodies in city
  14. 14. The Cauvery river basin Bangalore
  15. 15. Groundwater use • Impacts surface flows – The Arkavathy river, 4000 sq km catchment, is now dry. • 150 MLD supply source is now finished • This water now must come from groundwater within the city or from another surface source
  16. 16. Surface water • 800 mld is pumped 300 meter high • 80 MW of energy is used • 200,000 bore wells pump groundwater from 100 to 300 metre depths • ? MW of energy • The gw energy nexus
  17. 17. Local hydrologic cycle
  18. 18. The change • Before construction After construction • Runoff 15 90 (75) • Percolation 10 5 (-5) • Evapo-transpiration 75 5 (-70)
  19. 19. Rain barrel : Does storing water from rain reduce pumping of water?
  20. 20. What should be the quality of recharge water?
  21. 21. Sub-optimization is inevitable
  22. 22. Price will determine use • Bangalore – Rs 72/ KL for industrial water • Resulted in resource substitution – about 100 mld less demand on BWSSB , which presumably came from groundwater • Open well Rs 3/per KL • Bore well Rs 15-18 / kl • Cauvery iv stage Rs 48 per KL
  23. 23. The monitoring.. • Each connection is metered • Each bore well pays Rs 50 /- a month as sanitary cess . Can bore wells be metered and volumetrically priced? • Will people manage groundwater better if it is cheaper than piped supply?
  24. 24. The construct of the problem determines the solution • Mulbagal town : 70,000 population • Arghyam initiative for IUWM • Grey area according to the CGWB • Mines and Geology suggests 600 feet as g.w. depth • Studies indicate g.w. at 20 feet depthBGL in a well defined shallow aquifer enough for Mulbagal’s needs
  25. 25. Energy cost • Approx 60 % of the muncipality’s budget goes for energy charges towards pumping costs annually
  26. 26. Sustainability • Socially- • Technically • Institutionally- Where are the urban gwi’s? • Legally- Where is the law? • Economically- What is the incentive? • Ecologically- How do we protect aquifers and base flows?

×