Reviving Springs in Western Ghats_Dr. Jared Buono_2014

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Dr. Jared Buono, Hydrologist at Gram Pari talks about how Groundwater recharge and Spring Revival can go hand in hand. It can supply clean drinking water and mobilize community at the same time.

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Reviving Springs in Western Ghats_Dr. Jared Buono_2014

  1. 1. Spring Protection: Safe & Sustainable Drinking Water in the Western Ghats Dr. Jared Buono Mr Dhananjay Ambrale World Water Day, 2014 IIT Mumbai
  2. 2. Outline • Hydrogeology • Social importance • Ecological status • Grassroots restoration efforts
  3. 3. Western Ghats Focus Area: Satara District
  4. 4. Monsoon, Patchputewadi Village
  5. 5. Dry Season, Patchputewadi
  6. 6. Water is #1 issue: • Degraded watersheds • Over pumping • Natural conditions
  7. 7. Basalt: • Fine grained • Groundwater flow limited to cracks, vesicles
  8. 8. Deccan traps • 66M year old lava • 500K km2 area • ~2000m thick Present day Iceland
  9. 9. Generalized Geology Massive Basalt Compound Flows Talus & Soil
  10. 10. Typical Groundwater Flow Paths - At contacts - Occasional fractures Spring Formation
  11. 11. Spring recharge zone Discharge zone Well recharge zone Springs
  12. 12. Spring Formation Laterite Cap Typical Groundwater Flow Paths - At contacts - Occasional fractures - Laterite plateaus
  13. 13. Laterite tableland formations in Satara District
  14. 14. • Up to 1,00,000 liters per day • 50 to 1400m above sea level • Geology: basalt, laterite or talus • Spring type: contact or fracture General Spring Characteristics
  15. 15. Water quality of springs • Water quality very good; min & max values – Temp: 17 – 22 °C (winter) – Ph: 7.3 – 8.3 – TDS: 35 – 160 mg/l – EC: 70 – 320 mmho/cm – Hardness (CaCO3): 30 – 140 mg/l – Na: 2 – 25 mg/l – K: 0 – 2 mg/l – Ca2: 10 – 36 mg/l – Mg2: 1 – 12 mg/l – HCO3: 31 – 177 mg/l – Cl: 7 – 14 mg/l – Fe2: 0.4 – 0.7 mg/l ***** From Naik et al. 2000 • Only iron shows marginal excess • Pathogens are rare at source (e.g. no fecals)
  16. 16. Laterite Basalt Villages Accessing Spring Water Potential Spring Locations
  17. 17. Socioeconomic value – Uses: drinking, irrigation, temples, animals – Safe and sustainable source of drinking water • Gravity-fed = no pumping cost • Year round supply • Water quality very high
  18. 18. Cultural value
  19. 19. Credit: Rohit Gowaikar, Wikipedia/Flickr Historic value
  20. 20. Current State of Springs
  21. 21. Typical spring box • Installed in 1970s as drought response • Poor design & maintenance = leaks, contamination • Declining flow due to adjacent pumping, ecological degradation
  22. 22. The Rush for More
  23. 23. Ecological Degradation • Anthropogenic fire • Over grazing • Fuel wood collection
  24. 24. Almost all springs under threat Declining flow due to: • Deforestation • Groundwater exploitation
  25. 25. • How many springs are there? • How many people affected?
  26. 26. Karjat Area: Elevation – 50 m Flow – ~7 l/m Use – irrigation Status – disuse, loss to bore wells Pune Area: Elevation – 700 m Flow – ~10 l/m Use – drinking Status – loss to bores, wells Koyna Area: Elev – 800 m Flow – ~30 l/m Use – drinking Status – healthy in unpopulated area Panchgani Area: Elev – 1200 m Flow – ~9 l/m Use – drinking Status – loss to bores, wells
  27. 27. Satara District
  28. 28. Maharashtra Location Map SATARA DISTRICT SPRINGS Legend District Boundary Taluka Boundary Spring Locations (Subsample) Laterite Tableland Formations • Our growing map of springs • For every point there are probably 100 more
  29. 29. Detailed survey: • >20 spring systems • 10 dependent villages • >10000 people • All springs threatened
  30. 30. Western Ghats Modified from Molur et al. 2011 National Importance of the Western Ghats
  31. 31. Western Ghats Watersheds - Cover 9 states - Direct water supply for 120 million people - Indirect, >400 million *Molur et al. 2011 Modified from Molur et al. 2011 Western Ghats
  32. 32. Laterite tableland formations in Satara District
  33. 33. Source: Wikimedia Commons; Hillebrand, Steve
  34. 34. Precipitation Time Discharge
  35. 35. Springshed Restoration & Recharge
  36. 36. Standard Spring Box
  37. 37. Nalla-box (sand dam) With livestock or wildlife guzzler
  38. 38. Empowerment
  39. 39. Spring recharge zone Discharge zone Well recharge zone Springs Piryachiwadi Village: Recharge & Discharge Zones April 2013
  40. 40. Godavalli Aquifer Contour Feb 2014 Wells Spring *
  41. 41. Wells Spring Flow Vectors * Godavalli Aquifer Feb 2014
  42. 42. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau RECHARGE ZONE SPRING – DISCHARGE ZONE Godavalli Village: Recharge & Discharge Zones Feb 2014
  43. 43. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau Recharge Zone Feb 2014
  44. 44. Lineament/Fracture Zone along Nala Management – Reforestation Management – Roof Water Harvest & Limited Pumping Laterite - Basalt Contact Contour N Management Recommendations Feb 2014
  45. 45. Map Credit: wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons • Part of initiative by Arghyam to make springs national priority •We are partners for Western Ghats
  46. 46. • Expand to more villages • Create a knowledge base in area • Applied research to better understand springs • Hydrologic importance of laterite plateaus • Quantify land-use effects on spring flow • Provide spring-specific policy recommendations Future Activities
  47. 47. THANKS! Now come work with us… jared.buono@gmail.com | +91 966 537 4629 dhanuambrale.7@gmail.com | +91 997 579 9311 grampari.org facebook/grampari.org REFERENCES: Molur, S., Smith, K.G., Daniel, B.A. and Darwall, W.R.T. (Compilers). 2011. The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in the Western Ghats, India. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, and Coimbatore, India: Zoo Outreach Organisation. Naik, P.K., · A.K. Awasthi, P.C. Mohan. 2002. Springs in a Headwater Basin in the Deccan Trap Country of the Western Ghats, India. Hydrogeology Journal (2002) 10:553–565.
  48. 48. GRAMPARI MISSION: - Empower rural India through thoughtful, community-led programs CORE AREAS: - Livelihoods - Governance - Health & Environment

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