Information, Education & Communication in Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan_Dr Tapan Das_2012
IEC STRATEGY IN TSC & NBA DR. T. K. Das Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation
TSC Components• Start Up Activities• IEC Activities• Rural Sanitary Mart/Production Centers• Construction of IIHLs• Community Sanitary Complex• Institutional Toilets :School/Anganwadi• Ecological Sanitation SLWM ,Administrative Charges
IEC as per TSC Guidelines• 15 % of TSC fund earmarked for IEC• IEC to create demand for sanitary facilities for creation of demand for HHs ,Schools ,AW, CSC• IEC Activities to be area specific & involve all cross sections of people• IEC to generate “felt need” and willingness to construct latrines.• IEC activity is not one time activity
IEC as per TSC Guidelines• IEC is not only for demand creation but also for use ,maintenance & up-gradation• IEC should result in integration of sanitation & hygiene as integral part of sustainable life.
IEC STRATGEY IN TSC• IEC should focus on health , hygiene practices & environmental sanitation aspects.• Under IEC mass media should be taken up only at national &state level.• At district level focus should be IPC, Mid-media& Reminder media like Wall painting, Hoarding ,Posters etc.• District to prepare detailed IEC Annual Action Plan by February with strategies to reach all sections of community.
IEC Strategy in TSC(cont.)• Aim of Dist .Comm. Plan to motivate rural people to adopt hygiene behaviour as way of life & thereby develop ,use and maintain facilities created under TSC.• CCDU to assist Districts to develop communication Strategy & plan & implement.• The Annual IEC plan to be approved by DWM or Dt. Panchayat.• Observance of San Day/Week/Fortnight to be a part of Annual IEC Plan.
IEC Funds in TSC Guidelines• For effective dissemination of IEC materials Funds to be ensured for Block & GP.• NGO: for IEC , selection of motivators , execution of work like wall paintings, street plays , street plays etc.• Funds for IEC to be imparted hygiene edn. To communities ,general public ,school children.• IEC for training of masons, SHGs , for production of san components, napkins etc.
New addition in IEC in NBA• IEC fund to be divided for pre- Nirmal & post-Nirmal stages.• Funds to be divided as per baseline survey& rate of acceleration of sanitation coverage• IEC Plan for pre-NGP & post NGP stages.• Funds to be used for hygiene education of communities, general public & school children.• IEC Plan for raising awareness of school children, teachers & PTA.• National Advocacy &Communication Strategy(draft) formulated.
NBA focus on Gram Swachhata Sabha (GSS)• Gram Swachhata Sabha(GSS) every six months to undertake mandatory Review of month wise progress in respect of month-wise plans• Proceedings of Swachhata Diwas that was held in GP .• Information as prepared by GP, Secretary ,will be read out by a responsible person of the community(i.e. teacher/ex-serviceman )• >,verify financial expenditure ,• >examine list of beneficiaries ,• >discuss the priorities reflected in choices made, and critically evaluate quality work as the services of programme officials .
Mandatory Agenda Issues of SGS• Whether the objectives defined in the project cover entire GP including every household.• Whether Months Plans for Sanitation were prepared in a transparent manner.• Whether the identified beneficiaries received the incentive amount on construction and use of IHHL.• Was the list of identified beneficiaries read out for verification at the GS?• Efforts for coverage of remaining households including APLs for provision of sanitation facilities?• Plan of action to attain open defecation free/Nirmal status.
Procedeedings of Gram Sabha• Proceedings to be conducted in a transparent manner ,where the poorest and most marginalize can speak out in confidence & without fear.• The officials responsible for implementation are required to be present to answer queries .• Decisions & resolutions must be recorded by vote ,but dissenting comments must be recorded.• The mandatory agenda must be gone through, including transparency checklist .• Objections if any must be recorded.• The ATR in respect of previous GSS should be read out at the beginning of GSS.• The reports of these GSS & minutes should be submitted to the DWSM/District Collector within a period of one month for necessary action.• DWSM/District Collector is responsible for ensuring social audit is convened timely as per details.• The District Collector will regularly review that the Social Audits are being conducted.
Average of recall response for IEC before & after NGP:CMS(011) (Percentage-%)STATES IEC Activities IEC Activities Before NGP After NGPRajasthan 54 40Chattisgarh 48 38Himachal Pradesh 37 25Maharashtra 34 24Karnataka 27 28Andhra Pradesh 25 25Haryana 22 24Kerala 21 0Tripura 21 20Uttar Pradesh 20 12West Bengal 20 19Bihar 6 3Total Average 28 22
Recall responses for IEC(%) before &after NGP:CMS Study(2011)60 Before NGP5040 After NGP30 Series120 Series210 0
Extent of IEC Activities recall before NGP Year :SMS Study: GOI(2003)Sl. No. IEC Activities Percentage Recall 1Rallies & Marches 23 2Posters/Wall Paintings 18 3Speeches by Political 17 leaders & Govt. Officials 4Street Plays 17 5Sanitation in School 9 Curriculum 6Audio Camapigns in W .B. 7A.V.shows mainly in Chattisgarh & A.P. 8Distribution of leaflets/ booklets(mainly in Bihar & Karnataka)
Extent of IEC before NGP Year :CMS25201510 Series1 5 0
FINDING ON EFFECTIVENESS OF IEC/BCC COMPONENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUTAINABILITY IN SANITATIONFindings of UNICEF &WSP study (162 Findings of CMS in NGP villagesGPs)1.Gram Sabha discussion(51% recall)2.Door-to-door camp.(46% recall)3.Discussion in SHGs & or localmeeting(39% recall)4.Rallies,marches,street plays(34% 1. Rallies/marches(23% recall)(4)St.recall) plays(17% recall)5.Speeches by political Leaders & Gov.. 3. Speeches by Pol. leaders & gov.Off.-off.-(32% recall) 17%(recall)6.A.V.Shows(18% recall) 6. A.V .shows(lesser extent)7.Audio Camp.(17% recall) 6. Audio Camp(lesser extent)8.San. issues in School Curriculum(15% 5. San .issues in school curriculumrecall) (9%recall)9. Distribution of leaflets, booklets (12% 6. Leaflets(Lesser extent)recall) 2. Posters & Wall paintings(18% recall)
LEADERS & INFLUENCERS IN SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN NGP VILLAGES School Teachers , AWW,NGOs & Self motivated Others, 11% , 10% SHG Members PRI,VWSC , 12% Members, 53% Government Officials, 14%• Source :UNICEF/WSP & GOI study in 162 NGP in 6 States
On-line IEC Format used for Districts (Palakkad)in KeralaSl.No. IEC COMPONENTS No.of IEC activities Proposed expenditure Proposed (Rs in Lakhs) 1 Song & drama activities 13 0.5 2 Wall writing 504 37 3 Street Plays 0 0 4 Melas organised 0 0 5 Hoardings and banners 2900 14.5 6 Picture frames 0 0 7 Group meetings 104 2.4 8 Participatory Rural Appraisal 0 0 9 Exhibition 1 0.1 10 Radio Spots 0 1.5 11 TV Spots 0 3 12 Audio visual publicity 13 0.65 13 School Rally 65 0.65 14 Awareness cum inaugural workshop 108 2.3 15 Inter-personal communication 0 0 16 Distribution of IEC materials 5 14 17 Other (SUCHITWA POORNIMA) 655 33.3 Total :- 4368 109.9
WASH behaviours to be focussed in IEC New IEC Strategy• Based on the evidence the strategy focuses on four critical WASH behaviours:• 1. Building and use of toilets• 2. The safe disposal of child faeces• 3. Hand washing with soap after defecation, before food and after handling child faeces• 4. Safe storage and handling of drinking water
Communication Approaches• Advocacy: to influence public and policy with information and to raise the issue of sanitation higher in the policy agenda and in the minds of the people.• Interpersonal Communication: is the key approach of this strategy to raise awareness on the importance of sanitation among the rural community and support the increased interest and willingness to uptake sanitation and hygiene practices.• Community Mobilisation: to initiate dialogue among community members to deal with critical issues of sanitation and hygiene and also provide a platform for the community to participate in decisions that affect their daily lives.• Mass media, outdoor media and folk media: to raise mass awareness, promote the 4 critical behaviours and programme information. Simultaneously also provide support to interpersonal and community mobilisation efforts by reinforcing and raising the credibility of the message carried by non-professionals.• Entertainment Education: to disseminate messages which are educational in substance, entertaining in structure and popular in the community, in order to promote sanitation and hygiene messages by building on and coordinating with the above efforts.• Social marketing: to promote adoption of behaviours and create a demand for services and supplies that help practice that behaviour
Phases of New Communication Strategy Framework(2012-2017)• Three phases of the WASH Advocacy and Communication Strategy• Phase 1: Raising Awareness- Designed to raise visibility of the importance of good sanitation and hygiene behaviours and to build public support, creating an enabling environment for change.• Phase 2: Advocacy- To arm influencers and decision makers with the information they need, and to encourage them to speak up and to take action for positive change.• Phase 3: Social and Behaviour Change Communication- To empower individuals and families to make decisions based on correct information and improved understanding and to motivate communities to help create positive social norms.
Implementation Framework of new Communication Strategy• Phase I:Raising Awareness &Knowledge on Sanitation & Hygiene.• Phase II: Advocacy with decision makers & Key influencers for creating enabling environment• Phase III: Promoting positive attitudes & Social & BC Change for sanitation & correct hygiene behaviour.
A few Key components of new Communication Strategy• District Communication Plan Template• >Communication Plan with steps ,time frame, Objective of Step , Output & Output Indicators• Fund Management:Centre:State Share• >IPC & Community Mobilization :Up to 70%• >Outdoor Media& folk media :Up to 15%• >Mass Media :Up to 10%• >M &E of IEC Activities:5%
Key features of New Communication Strategy• Core Components of District Communication Plan:• Communication Materials Cost Template• M & E Frame work with Activity wise Indicators & means of verification