Groundwater Management: Experiences of WASSAN

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Groundwater Management: Experiences of WASSAN

  1. 1. Groundwater Management In Rainfed Areas: Requires A New Paradigm Ravindra A, www.wassan.org raviwn@gmail.co m
  2. 2. Drawing a parallel…. Forestry: – JFM / CFM : a new paradigm of managing forests, knowledge systems evolved Soil and Water Conservation: – Participatory watershed development These programs have brought.. • Investments • decisions (relatively) into people’s domain • New actors closer to the field • new knowledge and new ways of knowledge transfer • Had all these A NEW PARADIGM HAS BEEN A DRIVING FORCE In to accommodate people’s knowledge
  3. 3. What should be the direction of Groundwater Management Agenda..? • Augmentation of sources? • Building more awareness on the crisis • More knowledge transfer to farmers / communities/ community based monitoring? • Efficient use of ground water (micro-irrigation etc.) • Regulation of use? (Acts, No-to-Paddy, ..) • More equitable distribution of access..?? Does these solve the problem..? In fact, WHAT IS THE PROBLEM..?
  4. 4. • Groundwater is NOT the problem of/for only those who have access to it. • It is THE PROBLEM for those who do not have access to it.
  5. 5. Secure access to groundwater… • Secures crops • Securing crops is securing investments • Higher investments leads to better crop productivity stable incomes (if practices sustainable agriculture) • Helps to diversify.. • Reduces the climate change risks
  6. 6. In an year where crops have nearly Pegionpea (redgram) : failed due to a long dry spell: Sl Farmer Area in Total produce Yield in Rate/Bag Total (Rs) no Name (acres) (quintals) Qt/acre 1 Balraj ** 2.00 6.50 3.25 2800.00 18200.00 Chinna 2 4.00 2.00 0.50 2800.00 5600.00 Basappa Pedda 3 1.00 3.50 3.50 2800.00 9800.00 Kistappa ** Chinna 4 2.00 1.00 0.50 2800.00 2800.00 Kistappa Bala 5 2.00 2.00 1.00 2800.00 5600.00 Kistappa Total 11.00 15.00 1.36 2800.00 42000.00 ** highlighted : with critical irrigation
  7. 7. India will still have 60% of its cultivated area as rainfed after exhausting all irrigation potential. Substantial number of farmers depend on rainfed farming.
  8. 8. Subsidies flow with water: •Power subsidies •Fertiliser subsidies •Price support •Micro irrigation •Horticulture promotion.. So on.. For Rainfed farmers… ??
  9. 9. Are public investments driving a sustainable Groundwater Management agenda?
  10. 10. Investment on Wells and Borewells 2500000 2000000 1500000 Rs. 1000000 500000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Cumulative investment on w ells Cumulative investment on borew ells Investment on w ells Investment on borew ells More water conservation More Borewells
  11. 11. Micro-Irrigation: where we are heading..? •Driving a large expansion of irrigated horticulture in drylands • Reallocating water use – between field crops and horticulture •Resulting in more number of borewells Subsidy for Sprinklers and drips in AP (Rs. Crore)
  12. 12. • Changing the crop-patterns • Changing the food habits 70 PERCENTAGE OF AREA OF RICE IRRIGATED BY DIFFERENT SOURCES IN ANDHRA PRADESH 60 50 Percentage (%) 40 30 20 10 0 T im e ( Ye a r ) Tank % C anal % Total % GW based Total ( means tube well, dug well & others)
  13. 13. What Must Drive the Public Investments on Groundwater in rainfed areas? • Can groundwater investments trigger • security to various rural production systems • Security of livelihoods • Increase Productivity of water • Create Access to Groundwater for all households
  14. 14. CHELLAPUR, Daultabad, Mahabubnagar 5 borewells – pooled 5 farmers, 48 acres total land -No new borewells for at least 10 years -MOU signed by MRO -Rest-one BW every day (reduce usage by about 20%) Coverage of all rainfed lands Common operation Commissioned in 2007 2 seasons data available
  15. 15. Ground water sharing in Chellapur Area under different Irrigation/crop types * Area in acres 2006- Irrigation type 07 2007 2007 2007-08 2008 2008 2008-09 season Rabi Summer Kharif Rabi Summer Kharif Rabi Irrigated 1.25 7.00 3 9.60 irrigated dry 7.00 1.25 19.5 1.25 14.5 Rainfed-critical irrigation 12.00 Rainfed-not irrigated 35.00 16.75 Total area in acre 7 1.25 43.25 19.5 3 39.6 14.5 Planning phase for 1)Good rains Initial rains Area Ground Water received in this are late restricted collectivization season and and below through 2) Pipe line average farmers’ installation rain fall consultation phase Increased area - both irrigated and irrigated dry crops (earlier 5 borewells were continuously pumping– now 1 borewell rested every day as per norms). No new borewells are dug.
  16. 16. Gorantlavandlapalli: Nallacheruvu mandal, Anantapur 72 farmers in 370 acres 33 borewells Entire village has agreed to collectivize - No new borewells - All rainfed land must be covered - non-borewell owners must also be covered - Cost sharing - No new borewells Plans ready for 3 clusters & quotations are invited.
  17. 17. • Where from the Investment s come?
  18. 18. Evolve a Proactive GW Investment Package for Rainfed Areas • Extensive pipeline network to reach out to much of the rainfed farms • Triggering pooling of borewells • Trigger sharing of water to rainfed farmers for critical irrigation • Priority to security of Kharif crops • Evolve robust governance systems to enforce norms that the community has evolved for themselves. • Move towards integrated farming
  19. 19. Knowledge Implications
  20. 20. A Practical View of Knowledge Back Up for GW Management Agenda: • Avoid excessive quantification • Heuristics based understanding of the complex systems • Integrate local benchmarks / indicators / proxies • How to establish database support for community level negotiations. . . is a major challenge • A language amenable for communities to discuss and discover. • Thumb rule calculations/ projections that can be easily passed on to local level facilitators. • Take mapping tools to people (a hybrid of GPS base + Google Maps)
  21. 21. To sum up… • Evolve a new paradigm for groundwater management • Substantive public investments as a driver for change • Let the state backup with comprehensive resource support • Evolve a new knowledge system

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