Environmental and social impacts of water projects_Pradeep Kumar (NWA)_2011


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Water projects, their need, their benefits and their impact on the environment and human population.

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Environmental and social impacts of water projects_Pradeep Kumar (NWA)_2011

  1. 1. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WATER RESOURCES PROJECTS <ul><li>Based on a presentation by Mr Pradeep Kumar </li></ul><ul><li>Director, National Water Academy </li></ul><ul><li>(The views expressed are his own and may not necessarily belong to NWA) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Water resource projects <ul><li>Multipurpose river valley projects </li></ul><ul><li>Major irrigation projects / canals </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-linking of rivers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why do we need these projects? <ul><li>Our population is growing </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s population which was over 1027 million in 2001 AD is expected </li></ul><ul><li>to reach a level of around 1390 million by 2025 AD. Our water demand is growing </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Production of food grains has increased from around 50 million tons in the fifties </li></ul><ul><li>to about 208 million tons in 1999-2000. This will have to be raised to around 350 </li></ul><ul><li>million tons by the year 2025 AD. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic and industrial water needs have largely been concentrated in or near </li></ul><ul><li>major cities. However, the demand in rural areas is expected to increase sharply </li></ul><ul><li>as the development programmes improve economic conditions of the rural </li></ul><ul><li>masses. </li></ul><ul><li>Power generation </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for water for hydro and thermal power generation is also </li></ul><ul><li>increasing substantially. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some facts <ul><li>Among Asian countries, India has the largest arable land, which is close to 39 per cent of Asia’s arable land. Only United States of America has more arable land than India </li></ul><ul><li>India produces 50% of world’s mango, 19% of banana, 36% of cashewnut, 38% of cauliflower, 28% of green peas </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, a small percentage of farm produce is processed into value added products. The level of processing for fruits and vegetables is envisaged to increase from the present 2.2% to 10% and 15% in 2010 and 2015 respectively. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>While the gross irrigation potential is estimated to have increased from 19.5 million hectare at the time of independence to about 95 million hectare by the end of the Year 1999-2000, further development of a substantial order is necessary if the food and fiber needs of our growing population are to be met with. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>As a result, water, which is already a scarce resource, will become even scarcer in future. This underscores the need for the utmost efficiency in water utilisation and a public awareness of the importance of its conservation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CONSTRUCTION PHASE BENEFICIAL IMPACTS <ul><li>Socio – economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment generated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser migration to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation given to people who lose their lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory afforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(green belt created on the periphery of reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the case of multi-purpose river valley projects) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. CONSTRUCTION PHASE ADVERSE IMPACTS <ul><li>Socio – economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of livelihood that they have been used to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of monuments (some cases) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submergence of forest land (in the case of multi-purpose river valley projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on flora and fauna due to construction activity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Forest area in the country is mainly being lost due to conversion of forest land into agricultural land.
  10. 10. <ul><li>We should also note that forests </li></ul><ul><li>are being affected due to many </li></ul><ul><li>reasons,including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCROACHMENTS GRAZING FODDER SHIFTING CULTIVATION FOREST FIRES DIVERSION OF FOREST LAND FUELWOOD </li></ul></ul>A total of 1343346.622 hectares of forest area in the country were encroached upon as on 31 st March 2004
  11. 11. OPERATION PHASE BENEFICIAL IMPACTS <ul><li>Socio – economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation allows for improved crop production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved water supply through the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved groundwater recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased aquatic life in reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in migratory birds </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. OPERATION PHASE ADVERSE IMPACTS <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water logging and salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(methane emissions from submerged forests) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in production of water intensive crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in sediment loads through the course of the river and at the delta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic life affected due to differential temperature and flow rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in natural ecosystem </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Submergence of forests by multi-purpose river valley projects </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory forestry(as per Forest Conservation Act 1980) is a part of all </li></ul><ul><li>water resources projects </li></ul><ul><li>In several large projects like Narmada Sagar and Sardar Sarovar, </li></ul><ul><li>alternative lands allocated for compensatory afforestation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Health Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Water related disease such as Malaria, and Filariasis can spread through </li></ul><ul><li>stagnant or slow moving water in the irrigation command area. </li></ul><ul><li>These vectoral risks can be substantially reduced by </li></ul><ul><li>better health management plans and the setting up of good health centres in high risk areas (usually included in project cost) </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in water supply and sanitation ensuring continued maintenance of drains and canals and efficient water management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys have shown that the improved economic status of people has made them more health conscious and capable of availing requisite health care. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases like Dudhganga in Maharashtra, sanctuaries are relocated </li></ul><ul><li>to suitable places in order to preserve the natural wildlife </li></ul>
  16. 16. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Fish/Aquatic Life </li></ul><ul><li>Fish ladders are provided to facilitate migration of fish from downstream of the dam </li></ul><ul><li>to upstream regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoirs are good fish rearing grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Some new species can be reared in newly created environments </li></ul><ul><li>Some species reappear after years of disappearance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Mineral Deposits, Historical Monuments </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral wealth and monuments protected by constructing ring bunds or by </li></ul><ul><li>exploiting resources before inundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical monuments that were to submerge in the reservoir created by the </li></ul><ul><li>Nagarjuna Sagar dam were excavated before impoundment and shifted to </li></ul><ul><li>a museum on top of a nearby hill </li></ul>
  18. 18. Management of major environmental impacts <ul><li>Good management measures need to be adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Good pricing policy </li></ul><ul><li>Remunerative water saving schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Assured irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Crop insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive use of ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Assured electricity </li></ul>Water-logging (caused due to over irrigation when water supply improves after construction of a dam)
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN <ul><li>Contains details of safety measures in the project area </li></ul><ul><li>Lists key persons responsible for its implementation </li></ul><ul><li>also includes Disaster Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Components of EMP </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental safeguards (management) during construction activities </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for restoration of quarry areas/burrow areas and areas for dumping excavated material. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory afforestation plan along with cost benefit analysis </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Forest management including action plan for improvement of quality (like density, naturalness) and quantity (extent) of forest in low forest cover districts/areas which are served by the water resources project </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for green belt (other than catchment area). </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir rim treatment plan </li></ul><ul><li>Comments/observations/recommendations of Chief Wildlife Warden in- case Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>habitat/migratory path exists within 7 Kilometers of project site </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation plan for affected flora/fauna including rehabilitation plan for rare/endangered species including action plan for alternate breeding ground and access corridor for food and shelter. </li></ul><ul><li>Index map of catchment areas with yearly target (physical & financial). </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan for control of irrigation induced water logging, salinity etc including strategies and policies with choice of species/crop for optimum use of water for agriculture to reduce adverse impacts of excessive irrigation including water logging. </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan for command area development in respect of irrigation potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed management </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water management including harnessing of ground water in conjunction with surface water. </li></ul><ul><li>Land use management with special emphasis on water logging problem </li></ul>Components of EMP
  21. 21. <ul><li>Management of flora and fauna in the connecting basins as well as along the link including action plan for alternate breeding grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Alien flora and aquatic weeds management </li></ul><ul><li>Wetland management </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of sensitive and archeological monument sites </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan for health delivery systems </li></ul><ul><li>Post project environmental monitoring plan </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Management plan including risk and dam break analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of free fuel to labour </li></ul>Components of EMP
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Genuine environmental impacts need to be managed to the extent possible </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes there are misconceptions and a process of dialogue and education needs to be adopted </li></ul><ul><li>We need to focus on sustainable development </li></ul>