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Contributory factors for low productivity of inland capture fisheries in Tamilnadu_Dr R. Sakthivadivel_2013


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In this presentation, Dr R. Sakthivadivel gives a brief overview of the various Government policies relating to fisheries, the potential for inland fishing in Tamilnadu and the factors constraining yield.

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Contributory factors for low productivity of inland capture fisheries in Tamilnadu_Dr R. Sakthivadivel_2013

  1. 1. CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY OF INLAND CAPTURE FISHERIES IN TAMIL NADU by Dr R. Sakthivadivel, Emeritus Professor, CWR, Anna University, Chennai-600 025 1 12/21/2013
  2. 2. TAMIL NADU FISHERIES POLICY The Policy aims at : Productive utilization of the fishery resources without compromising with environmental safeguards Will enhance fish production and increase the availability of fish all over the State. Will ensure supply of health foods to reduce malnutrition; gainful employment in the rural area; and development of processing industries for food and medicine. 2 12/21/2013
  3. 3. Details of Inland Capture and Culture Fisheries in the Proposed Policy Leasing of common water bodies such as Panchayat tanks, reservoirs and temple tanks will be streamlined. Since the seasonal and perennial water bodies have untapped potential for fish production, the Government shall provide technical assistance to the lease holders to enhance fish production through proper stocking with carps, scampi and other compatible species. Hatchery and nursery facilities shall be promoted in the private sector for the production of fingerlings. Lease period may be extended to 5 years to undertake scientific stocking/ culture practices. The Government will set out a procedure to share/utilize open water bodies for aquaculture and agriculture that both groups are benefited. Aquaculture service centres will be set up to provide input services to inland fisheries and socio-economic uplift of fisherfolk. 3 12/21/2013
  4. 4. Government Strategy to Maximize inland Fish Production in Open Water Bodies Introduce advance fingerlings of fast growing species in the short seasonal water bodies. Introduce cage culture in reservoirs to increase unit productivity. Introduce integrated method of fish culture with scampi to generate maximum income. 4 12/21/2013
  5. 5. POTENTIAL FOR INLAND CAPTURE FISHERIES IN TAMIL NADU Water spread area of reservoirs in irrigation systems, larges seasonal tanks, short-seasonal tanks and ponds= 3.71 lakh ha. Fresh water aquaculture area= 5000 ha presently used. Total brackish water area available for aquaculture production= 56,000 ha of which 6250 ha are under aquaculture production, presently. Fish seed production centres =8 Fish rearing centres= 29 with a capacity to produce 2750 lakh of early fry. Inland fish production potential = 500000 mt valued at 1500 crores. Present inland fish harvest =1,15,000 mt valued at 2305 crores. 5 12/21/2013
  6. 6. OUTCOME OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION HELD AT ORATHANADU ON 17-3-2012 Aquaculture activities should be treated on par with agriculture for providing government loans and subsidy for the benefit of small and marginal fish farmers. Develop quality brood stock by establishing brood banks in potential places as community facility. Certification authority may be established for testing the quality of fish seeds. Certified seeds alone should be allowed for stocking by farmers. Authorities should regulate the fish seed price produced by hatcheries. Private seed producers may be allowed for supplying fish seed for reservoirs to avoid supply of seeds from other states by middle men. Contd… 6 12/21/2013
  7. 7. OUTCOME OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION HELD AT ORATHANADU ON 17-3-2012 (Contd.) Energy subsidy, insurance may be provided; Minimum support price for the produce may be fixed by the authorities. Extension services provided may be linked with ICT for widespread reach among the fishing community. Facilities for raising fast growing species, post harvest transport facilities and hygienic fish markets may be provided. The data base of inland fishery may be strengthened, Feed mills may be established to prepare feed with optimum quality with locally available raw materials. The bank loan interest rate may be fixed on par with agriculture. 7 12/21/2013
  8. 8. 1) FACTORS CONSTRAINING YIELD POTENTIAL Complexity of Inland Fisheries. Inland fisheries are complex and dynamic As economy evolve, inland fisheries change in their nature and in the range of drivers that influence them. One predominant driver affecting inland fishery is the human impact. Catches are falling( decreasing), species are disappearing fueling hopelessness and sub-ordination to agriculture. Lack of resources assigned to inland capture fisheries and bringing this fact to administrative structure to get the grievance redressed is missing. No reliable data on inland capture fisheries. 8 12/21/2013
  9. 9. 2) Key Features of Inland waters a) Rivers In Tamil Nadu, there are not very many perennial rivers except one or two. Most of them are ephemeral; quite a few are dammed up; flood plains encroached; nutrient deposition reduced due to dams and deforestation. b)Lakes, tanks, ponds: Lakes, tanks and ponds are closed system of water bodies. Encroachment, weed infestation, changes in water quality, pollution and multiple use of water creating conflicts are the major drivers affecting fishery. C)Reservoirs: The nature of operation affects the reservoir water spread area and its dynamics. Reservoir level fluctuation and its rate of fluctuation are the main drivers affecting fish production. Pollution, eutrophication and reservoir sedimentation are other drivers affecting fishery. D) Coastal Wetlands, swamps etc.,: These include river estuaries, coastal delta, coastal lagoons and inland mangrove system. The ecology of fish depends on fresh water and salt water flow regime and its movement. Again, pollution, land reclamation and associated loss of wetlands affect fishery. 9 12/21/2013
  10. 10. 3) KEY FEATURES OF INLAND FISH: Number of fish species: Number of fish species found vary with basin area contributing run off to the reservoirs. It varies from 10 to 100 depending on the size of the basin; the smaller the basin, the smaller the number of species. Response to Fishing pressure: Over exploitation and very high fishing pressure reduces the number of species and sometime, permanently wipe them out. Fishing Gears: There are 150 types of fishing gears. Appropriate fishing gears need to be used; otherwise, some of the species will be wiped out. Introduction of new caps; Some of the new caps introduced will annihilate the traditional varieties found in the region 10 12/21/2013
  11. 11. 4) Fishing and People: a) Inland fishery as a part of livelihood strategy. b) Socio-economic importance of inland fishery c) Role of small scale inland fisheries: Food and nutritional securities of fish farmers; cash income generation; labour buffer function. Saftey net function and coping strategy in subsistence system. 11 12/21/2013
  12. 12. 5) Drivers external to Fishery: a) Inland waters have suffered the most intense human induced impacts of all ecosystems. b) Aquatic resources are subjected to numerous anthropogenic disturbances such as agriculture, hydro-elctric power production and industrialization and urbanization. The major drivers include: c) o Modification of environment and eliminating critical habitats o Dams and barrages blocking fish movement o Land recovery, drainage, flood protection affecting critical habitats. o Abstraction of water for agriculture, industries and domestic uses. o Degradation of water through pollution. 12 12/21/2013
  13. 13. 6) Governance, Institution, and Management Strategy: Many inland systems are public resources and once open access system. To-day, it is no more open access system. Slowly, responsibilities for management are being devolved to private individuals and/or local group/ communities. Current difficulties for the management of fisheries are: social-political and institutional settings and population pressure affecting land and water. Management strategies consists of: 13 12/21/2013
  14. 14. 1) Management of fish Stocking to maintain productive species Introduction of new species Elimination of unwanted species Provision of good seed and feed material 14 12/21/2013
  15. 15. 2) Management of Fisheries Fishing processes are controlled by various regulatory measures to prevent the over-exploitation. Restriction to access is not a simple problem Management under the control of centralized authority is not working Handing over to user community for better management 15 12/21/2013
  16. 16. 3) Management of the environment To defend the interest of fisheries shareholders with other interested groups such as agriculture, environment etc., To seek to limit damage to aquatic ecosystem To promote rehabilitating activities such as; Provide reserved/refuge areas for fish culture Pollution control and prevention Freedom of passage Rehabilitation of degraded habitats 16 12/21/2013
  17. 17. THANK YOU 17 12/21/2013