In this presentation, Dr R. Sakthivadivel gives a brief overview of the various Government policies relating to fisheries, the potential for inland fishing in Tamilnadu and the factors constraining yield.
Contributory factors for low productivity of inland capture fisheries in Tamilnadu_Dr R. Sakthivadivel_2013
CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS FOR LOW
PRODUCTIVITY OF INLAND CAPTURE FISHERIES
IN TAMIL NADU
Dr R. Sakthivadivel,
CWR, Anna University,
TAMIL NADU FISHERIES POLICY
The Policy aims at :
Productive utilization of the fishery resources
without compromising with environmental
Will enhance fish production and increase the
availability of fish all over the State.
Will ensure supply of health foods to reduce
malnutrition; gainful employment in the rural area;
and development of processing industries for food
Details of Inland Capture and Culture
Fisheries in the Proposed Policy
Leasing of common water bodies such as Panchayat tanks,
reservoirs and temple tanks will be streamlined.
Since the seasonal and perennial water bodies have untapped
potential for fish production, the Government shall provide
technical assistance to the lease holders to enhance fish production
through proper stocking with carps, scampi and other compatible
Hatchery and nursery facilities shall be promoted in the private
sector for the production of fingerlings.
Lease period may be extended to 5 years to undertake scientific
stocking/ culture practices.
The Government will set out a procedure to share/utilize open
water bodies for aquaculture and agriculture that both groups are
Aquaculture service centres will be set up to provide input
services to inland fisheries and socio-economic uplift of fisherfolk.
Government Strategy to Maximize inland
Fish Production in Open Water Bodies
Introduce advance fingerlings of fast growing
species in the short seasonal water bodies.
Introduce cage culture in reservoirs to increase unit
Introduce integrated method of fish culture with
scampi to generate maximum income.
POTENTIAL FOR INLAND CAPTURE
FISHERIES IN TAMIL NADU
Water spread area of reservoirs in irrigation systems, larges
seasonal tanks, short-seasonal tanks and ponds= 3.71 lakh ha.
Fresh water aquaculture area= 5000 ha presently used.
Total brackish water area available for aquaculture
production= 56,000 ha of which 6250 ha are under
aquaculture production, presently.
Fish seed production centres =8
Fish rearing centres= 29 with a capacity to produce 2750 lakh
of early fry.
Inland fish production potential = 500000
mt valued at 1500 crores.
Present inland fish harvest =1,15,000 mt valued at 2305 crores.
OUTCOME OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION HELD AT
ORATHANADU ON 17-3-2012
Aquaculture activities should be treated on par with agriculture for
providing government loans and subsidy for the benefit of small
and marginal fish farmers.
Develop quality brood stock by establishing brood banks in
potential places as community facility.
Certification authority may be established for testing the quality of
fish seeds. Certified seeds alone should be allowed for stocking by
Authorities should regulate the fish seed price produced by
Private seed producers may be allowed for supplying fish seed for
reservoirs to avoid supply of seeds from other states by middle
OUTCOME OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION HELD AT
ORATHANADU ON 17-3-2012 (Contd.)
Energy subsidy, insurance may be provided; Minimum
support price for the produce may be fixed by the
Extension services provided may be linked with ICT for
widespread reach among the fishing community.
Facilities for raising fast growing species, post harvest
transport facilities and hygienic fish markets may be
The data base of inland fishery may be strengthened,
Feed mills may be established to prepare feed with optimum
quality with locally available raw materials.
The bank loan interest rate may be fixed on par with
1) FACTORS CONSTRAINING YIELD
Complexity of Inland Fisheries.
Inland fisheries are complex and dynamic
As economy evolve, inland fisheries change in their nature
and in the range of drivers that influence them.
One predominant driver affecting inland fishery is the human
Catches are falling( decreasing), species are disappearing
fueling hopelessness and sub-ordination to agriculture.
Lack of resources assigned to inland capture fisheries and
bringing this fact to administrative structure to get the
grievance redressed is missing.
No reliable data on inland capture fisheries.
2) Key Features of Inland waters
In Tamil Nadu, there are not very many perennial rivers except one or two. Most of them are
ephemeral; quite a few are dammed up; flood plains encroached; nutrient deposition
reduced due to dams and deforestation.
b)Lakes, tanks, ponds:
Lakes, tanks and ponds are closed system of water bodies. Encroachment, weed infestation,
changes in water quality, pollution and multiple use of water creating conflicts are the major
drivers affecting fishery.
The nature of operation affects the reservoir water spread area and its dynamics. Reservoir
level fluctuation and its rate of fluctuation are the main drivers affecting fish production.
Pollution, eutrophication and reservoir sedimentation are other drivers affecting fishery.
D) Coastal Wetlands, swamps etc.,:
These include river estuaries, coastal delta, coastal lagoons and inland mangrove system.
The ecology of fish depends on fresh water and salt water flow regime and its movement.
Again, pollution, land reclamation and associated loss of wetlands affect fishery.
3) KEY FEATURES OF INLAND FISH:
Number of fish species:
Number of fish species found vary with basin area contributing run
off to the reservoirs. It varies from 10 to 100 depending on the size
of the basin; the smaller the basin, the smaller the number of
Response to Fishing pressure:
Over exploitation and very high fishing pressure reduces the
number of species and sometime, permanently wipe them out.
There are 150 types of fishing gears. Appropriate fishing gears
need to be used; otherwise, some of the species will be wiped out.
Introduction of new caps;
Some of the new caps introduced will annihilate the traditional
varieties found in the region
4) Fishing and People:
a) Inland fishery as a part of livelihood strategy.
b) Socio-economic importance of inland fishery
c) Role of small scale inland fisheries: Food and nutritional
securities of fish farmers; cash income generation; labour
buffer function. Saftey net function and coping strategy in
5) Drivers external to Fishery:
Inland waters have suffered the most intense
human induced impacts of all ecosystems.
Aquatic resources are subjected to numerous
anthropogenic disturbances such as agriculture,
hydro-elctric power production and
The major drivers include:
o Modification of environment and eliminating critical habitats
o Dams and barrages blocking fish movement
o Land recovery, drainage, flood protection affecting critical
o Abstraction of water for agriculture, industries and domestic
o Degradation of water through pollution.
6) Governance, Institution, and
Many inland systems are public resources and once
open access system. To-day, it is no more open access
system. Slowly, responsibilities for management are
being devolved to private individuals and/or local
Current difficulties for the management of fisheries
are: social-political and institutional settings and
population pressure affecting land and water.
Management strategies consists of:
1) Management of fish
Stocking to maintain productive species
Introduction of new species
Elimination of unwanted species
Provision of good seed and feed material
2) Management of Fisheries
Fishing processes are controlled by various regulatory
measures to prevent the over-exploitation.
Restriction to access is not a simple problem
Management under the control of centralized
authority is not working
Handing over to user community for better
3) Management of the environment
To defend the interest of fisheries shareholders with
other interested groups such as agriculture,
To seek to limit damage to aquatic ecosystem
To promote rehabilitating activities
Provide reserved/refuge areas for fish culture
Pollution control and prevention
Freedom of passage
Rehabilitation of degraded habitats