Agriculture         andEnvironmental Pollution           Dr P S Harikumar           Scientist and Head           Water Qua...
Agricultural Policy  Higher production and increased             efficiency        Intensification of the           farmin...
Linkages between policies, driving forces and the state of the              environment relevant to water                 ...
Agricultural Pollution• Contamination of the soil, air and water environments  resulting from farming activities• The prim...
Effects of agricultural pollution.1) Public health       In drinking water, high concentrations of nitrate can cause   met...
Biodiversity Loss                                    SoilLoss and degradation of habitat from     Erosionclearing grasslan...
Human HealthNitrates in drinking waterPesticide residues in drinking water,food, and airContamination of drinking andorgan...
Air Pollution                                         Water                                            Water wasteGreenhou...
FertilizersTYPES OF FERTILIZERSInorganic fertilizersLiquid fertilizers Nitrosol and African Violet FoodSlow-release fertil...
Pesticides• Pesticide covers a wide range of compounds -  insecticides,fungicides,herbicides,rodenticides,  molluscicides,...
Pesticide use in India 1948 : Dichloro DiphenylTrichloroethane (DDT) and Benzene Hexa Chloride (BHC) formalaria control.In...
76% of the pesticide used is insecticide, as against 44% globally            India                          World         ...
Pesticide use in India 30% of the cropped area.  Increased from 2.4, million hectares (1950) to 137 million hectares.  Tot...
Kerala agriculture contributes 17.2% to Kerala’seconomy (as of 2002-2003).       Pesticide consumption in Kerala and India
How can Agricultural Pollution harm ourenvironment?How do different agricultural activities contributeto pollution, and ho...
Agricultural impacts on water quality Agricultural activity   Tillage/ploughing                         Impacts       Surf...
Surface water pollution• Direct surface runoff• Seepage to ground water that discharges to a surface  water outlet• Variou...
Agricultural activity  Fertilizers                              Impacts        Surface water                          Grou...
Groundwater pollution• Nitrate -most common chemical contaminant• Mean nitrate levels - risen by an estimated 36%  in glob...
Agricultural activity  Manure spreading                                 Impacts            Surface water                  ...
Agricultural activity     5. Irrigation                                   Impacts            Surface water                ...
Agricultural activity   Clear cutting                                  Impacts          Surface water                     ...
Agricultural activity                        Impacts     Surface water                   GroundwaterBroad range of effects...
Agricultural activity   Aquaculture                         Impacts      Surface water                   GroundwaterReleas...
Health problems• Handling, storage and disposal of chemical  agricultural inputs - cause cancer ,negatively  influence rep...
Agriculture Pollution in Kerala• Systems of ‘Pokkali’, ‘Kuttanad’ and ‘Kole’-• Irrigated as well as rain fed rice cultivat...
Periyar (5,400 km2, 244 km),Muvattupuzha (1,550 km2,121kmMeenachil (1,250km2, 78kmManimala (850 km2, 90km)Pamba (2,250 km2...
Pollution of Vembanad backwater system• Input of large quantities of agrochemicals and pesticides• The annual usage of pes...
To check the floodwaters from Achenkovil,Manimala and Pamba Rivers during monsoons, aspillway was constructed at Thottapal...
Agricultural practicesConstruction of barrages andbundsDrainage of fertilizer, pesticideresidues
Coconut husk rettingEutrophicationAquatic weeds
Sl.No   Crop                            Fertilizers (Tonnes)                                    N           P             ...
Fertilizers   Total agricultural field area in Kuttanad is 56000 ha including       30000 ha in        Alappuzha and 26000...
Eichornia crassipes( water hyacinth)Salvania molesta (African Payal) Anoxic conditions in the wetland -deleterious to fish...
Production of hydrogen sulfide and releaseof organic substances such as pectin, petosan,fat and tannin by the biological d...
WATER QUALITYSl.No:   Parameter                           Old Findings                         Recent Findings            ...
Sl.No:     Parameter                Old Findings                Recent Findings (CWRDM)  5       Manganese       141 to 33...
Chlorophyll is to be having high value inthe range 4.33 to 45.85 mg/ m3.High chlorophyll value (2.4 to 21 mg/ m3)was repor...
Herbicides:  Fernoxone, 2,4-D- (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, for control of  broad leaved weeds and sedges.  Clinchure...
run–offby direct sprays on water surface to killmosquitoes and such other such vectors. Kuttanad area has a practice of pu...
Wetland rice soils - high concentration of iron andmanganeseRun off from the agricultural fields during rainyseasonPractic...
The concentration of the nutrients, shallow nature, lower secchidepth values (average 1.50m) and chlorophyll concentration...
Water column of the lake is in euphotic zone concentration of the nutrients shallow nature lower secchi depth values (aver...
Aquatic weeds of Vembanad Lake       Habit                         Species   ‘Free’ floating             Eichornia crassip...
The results indicate that a reduction of 12.5 % of theexisting load of phosphorous may be necessary to achievethe targeted...
Pesticides
Conflicting uses of pesticides  - agricultural and domesticTwo methods of classifying pesticidesa) according to chemical c...
Health Effects of Pesticides
AbsorptionIngestionInhalation (lung)Skin (dermal)
Insecticides    Insecticides (kill insects)•    Organochlorines•    Organophosphates•    Carbamates•    Synthetic Pyrethro...
Mechanism of Action    Oganochlorines & Pyrethroids    - Enzymes, axonal membranes      (Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl-)              ...
DDE (1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (P-chlorophenyl) Ethylene) - Changanacherry.  BHCThe concentration range from a maximum of 38.3...
Core sediment samplesLindane(16.15mg/Kg), aldrin endo-alpha, dieldrin, DDE, endo-beta (2.02mg/Kg )and DDD (1.06mg/Kg)     ...
Study on the Persistence ofEndosulfan in Water, Soil and    Sediment Samples of     Kasargod District
Toxicity ClassificationEndosulfan - a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)Recognized by UNEP to be a Persistent ToxicSubstan...
Endosulfan-chemical Identity• Chemical formula- C9H6Cl6O3S• Registered trade name(s)- Thiodan; Thionex;  Thionate Malix; C...
Endosulfan Prone Areas in Kasargod district
Panchayaths Selected for Sampling1   Kumbadaje             7    Kayyur Cheemeni2   Bellur                8    Kallar3   Mu...
Study on the impacts of agrochemicals on a Micro Watershed in Kozhikode District         VELLANUR WATERSHED MAP
Management measures• Sediment/erosion control• Confined animal facility• Nutrient management• Livestock grazing• Effective...
Integrated pest management (IPM)• Combines biocontrol, chemical, and other  methods       Involve:      –•   Biocontrol   ...
Biological control• Synthetic chemicals can pollute and be health hazards.• Biological control (biocontrol) avoids this.• ...
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
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Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012

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This presentation by Dr Harikumar, Scientist, CWRDM made at the Kerala Environment Congress, Trivandrum organised by the Centre for Enviroment and Development provides information about the pollutants in the environmental sectors produced as a consequence of agricultural activities

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Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012

  1. 1. Agriculture andEnvironmental Pollution Dr P S Harikumar Scientist and Head Water Quality Division, CWRDM hps@cwrdm.org
  2. 2. Agricultural Policy Higher production and increased efficiency Intensification of the farming system Increase of pollution risks
  3. 3. Linkages between policies, driving forces and the state of the environment relevant to water Source: OECD Secretariat, 2010
  4. 4. Agricultural Pollution• Contamination of the soil, air and water environments resulting from farming activities• The primary agricultural nonpoint source pollutants: nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) sediment wastes pesticides salts.
  5. 5. Effects of agricultural pollution.1) Public health In drinking water, high concentrations of nitrate can cause methemoglobinemia( blue baby syndrome), a potentially fatal disease in infants. Endosulphan Problem2) Fish stocks and marine biodiversity. Eutrophication destroys (a) spawning areas for economically valuable fish (b) habitats for other marine life3) The tourist industry Poisonous and odorous coastal waters discourage tourists!
  6. 6. Biodiversity Loss SoilLoss and degradation of habitat from Erosionclearing grasslands and forests anddraining wetland Loss of fertilityFish kills from pesticide runoff SalinizationKilling of wild predators to protectlivestock WaterloggingLoss of genetic diversity from Desertificationreplacing thousands of wild cropstrains with a few monoculture strains
  7. 7. Human HealthNitrates in drinking waterPesticide residues in drinking water,food, and airContamination of drinking andorganisms from livestock wastesBacterial contamination
  8. 8. Air Pollution Water Water wasteGreenhouse gas emissions from fossil Surface and groundwaterFuel issue pollution from pesticides Aquifer depletion and fertilizersOther air pollutants from fossil fuel use Increased runoff and Overfertilization of lakes flooding from land cleared and slow-moving riversPollution from pesticide sprays to grow crops from runoff of nitrates and phosphates from Sediment pollution from fertilizers, livestock erosion wastes, and food processing wastes Fish kills from pesticide runoff
  9. 9. FertilizersTYPES OF FERTILIZERSInorganic fertilizersLiquid fertilizers Nitrosol and African Violet FoodSlow-release fertilizersFertilizer with insecticides
  10. 10. Pesticides• Pesticide covers a wide range of compounds - insecticides,fungicides,herbicides,rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators• India - steady growth in the production of technical grade pesticides (5,000 metric tons in 1958 to 102,240 metric tons in 1998)
  11. 11. Pesticide use in India 1948 : Dichloro DiphenylTrichloroethane (DDT) and Benzene Hexa Chloride (BHC) formalaria control.India is the leading manufacturer of basic pesticides in Asiaand ranks 12th globallyInsecticides :61% of total consumptionfungicides (19%) and herbicides (17%).54% of the total quantity of pesticides :cotton17% : rice and 13% in vegetables and fruits.
  12. 12. 76% of the pesticide used is insecticide, as against 44% globally India World Consumption pattern of pesticides
  13. 13. Pesticide use in India 30% of the cropped area. Increased from 2.4, million hectares (1950) to 137 million hectares. Total consumption was the highest during the 1980s, post-green revolution. The declining trend observed later may be attributed to the increased awareness on negative externalities by the farmers or the changes in policies reducing subsidies.Consumption level of pesticides in agriculture in Kerala (1995-96 to 2007-08)462.05 metric tonnes (MT) (2007-08) technical grade material of insecticides,fungicides, weedicides and rodenticides.Over the past 15 years, consumption reached the highest level of 1,381.30 MTin 1994-95 and 1,328.10 in 2001-02 and was the lowest at 271.96 MT during2003-04 and shows a gradual declining trend.
  14. 14. Kerala agriculture contributes 17.2% to Kerala’seconomy (as of 2002-2003). Pesticide consumption in Kerala and India
  15. 15. How can Agricultural Pollution harm ourenvironment?How do different agricultural activities contributeto pollution, and how does this affect our groundand surface waters?? 16
  16. 16. Agricultural impacts on water quality Agricultural activity Tillage/ploughing Impacts Surface water GroundwaterSediment/turbidity: sedimentscarry phosphorus and pesticidesadsorbed to sediment particles;siltation of river beds and lossof habitat,etc. 17
  17. 17. Surface water pollution• Direct surface runoff• Seepage to ground water that discharges to a surface water outlet• Various farming activities - erosion of soil particles Sediment produced by erosion - damage fish habitat wetlands , transports excess agricultural chemicals resulting in contaminated runoff• Excess nutrients from nonpoint sources cause eutrophication
  18. 18. Agricultural activity Fertilizers Impacts Surface water GroundwaterRunoff of nutrients, especially phosphorus,leading to eutrophication causing taste and Leaching of nitrate toodour in public water supply, excess groundwater; excessive levelsalgae growth leading to deoxygenating are a threat to public health.of water and fish kills. 19
  19. 19. Groundwater pollution• Nitrate -most common chemical contaminant• Mean nitrate levels - risen by an estimated 36% in global waterways since 1990• India and Africa - 20-50% of wells in agriculture areas contain nitrate levels greater than 50 mg/l & in some cases as high as 100 mg/l
  20. 20. Agricultural activity Manure spreading Impacts Surface water GroundwaterCarried out as a fertilizer activity;Results in high levels of contamination of Contamination ofreceiving waters by pathogens, groundwater,metals, phosphorus and nitrogen especially by nitrogenleading to eutrophication andpotential contamination. 21
  21. 21. Agricultural activity 5. Irrigation Impacts Surface water GroundwaterRunoff of salts leading to salinizationof surface waters; runoff of fertilizersand pesticides to surface waters withecological damage, bioaccumulation Enrichment of groundwaterin edible fish species, etc. High levels withof trace elements such as selenium salts, nutrients (especiallycan occur with serious ecological nitrate).damage and potential human healthimpacts. 22
  22. 22. Agricultural activity Clear cutting Impacts Surface water GroundwaterErosion of land, leading to high Disruption of hydrologic regime,levels of turbidity in rivers, siltation often with increased surface runoffof bottom habitat, etc. Disruption and decreased groundwaterand change of hydrologic regime, recharge; affects surface water byoften with loss of perennial streams; decreasing flow in dry periods andcauses public health problems concentrating nutrients anddue to loss of potable water. contaminants in surface water. 23
  23. 23. Agricultural activity Impacts Surface water GroundwaterBroad range of effects:pesticide runoff and contaminationof surface water and fish; erosionand sedimentation problems. 24
  24. 24. Agricultural activity Aquaculture Impacts Surface water GroundwaterRelease of high levels of nutrientsto surface water and groundwaterthrough feed and faeces, leadingto serious eutrophication. . 25
  25. 25. Health problems• Handling, storage and disposal of chemical agricultural inputs - cause cancer ,negatively influence reproduction ,disrupt the endocrine system etc.• Pesticide residues in food and drinking water - cause similar adverse health effects
  26. 26. Agriculture Pollution in Kerala• Systems of ‘Pokkali’, ‘Kuttanad’ and ‘Kole’-• Irrigated as well as rain fed rice cultivation- in valleys of midlands and highlands• Catchment area of Kuttand- fertilizer and pesticide consumption increased significantly over the years• Plantation Corporation of Kerala -aerial spraying of Endrin (later Endosulphan) in cashew plantations -severe health problems
  27. 27. Periyar (5,400 km2, 244 km),Muvattupuzha (1,550 km2,121kmMeenachil (1,250km2, 78kmManimala (850 km2, 90km)Pamba (2,250 km2, 176kmAchencoil (1,500 km2,128km). Coordinates : 9° 10’ 40” N latitude 76° 77’ 30” E longitude Area : 151250 ha Elevation : 0.6 - 2.2 m below MSL
  28. 28. Pollution of Vembanad backwater system• Input of large quantities of agrochemicals and pesticides• The annual usage of pesticides/fungicides/weedicides in Kuttanad -117 tones during Virippu season , 368 tones during the Mundakan and Puncha season• Annual fertilizer consumption - 8409 tones of nitrogen, 5044 tones of potassium• Aggressive waterweeds and water pollution
  29. 29. To check the floodwaters from Achenkovil,Manimala and Pamba Rivers during monsoons, aspillway was constructed at Thottapally in 1955which divert the water to the Arabian Sea.To prevent salt water intrusion and to promotedouble crop of rice in about 55000 ha of low lyingfields in the area, a barrage at Thanneermukkomin the Vembanad Lake was constructed in1975with facilities for allowing navigation and thisremains closed from December to May everyyear.
  30. 30. Agricultural practicesConstruction of barrages andbundsDrainage of fertilizer, pesticideresidues
  31. 31. Coconut husk rettingEutrophicationAquatic weeds
  32. 32. Sl.No Crop Fertilizers (Tonnes) N P K 1 Paddy 6839 3666 4721 2 Coconut 914 757 1399 3 Banana 111 77 193 4 Cocoa 67 40 102 5 Vegetables 33 26 29 6 Tapioca/Cassava 18 16 64 7 Plantain 83 82 86 8 Others 344 380 192 Total 8409 5044 6786
  33. 33. Fertilizers Total agricultural field area in Kuttanad is 56000 ha including 30000 ha in Alappuzha and 26000 ha in Kuttanad area.NPK requirement per ha is 90:45:45 Factomphos - 20:20:0:15 (N: P: K: S) Rajphos - 22-24% rock phosphate, suited to the acid environment of Kerala Urea - Source of Nitrogen Mureto potash -Source of Potassium (400 kg/ha per season)
  34. 34. Eichornia crassipes( water hyacinth)Salvania molesta (African Payal) Anoxic conditions in the wetland -deleterious to fish lifeCan choke the drainage channelsThe rafts of water hyacinth obstruct thenavigation and even result in theanoxic condition.Can adsorb heavy metals
  35. 35. Production of hydrogen sulfide and releaseof organic substances such as pectin, petosan,fat and tannin by the biological degradationof algae and fungiThe retting yards also act as breeding groundsfor mosquitoesKuttanad, -157 million coconut husks aresubjected to retting annually covering anarea of 242 ha.Anoxic condition, excess H2S and increasedturbidity drastically reduce the primaryproductivity of the lake leading considerabledecline in fishery resource
  36. 36. WATER QUALITYSl.No: Parameter Old Findings Recent Findings (CWRDM)1 Nitrate-N 0-20.3 µ g/l (Lakshmanan et al., 1987) 0 – 1536.37 µ g/l.2 Phosphate- µ 18µ g/ l (Joseph, 1974) 102.75 µ g/l P3 Chloride 2500 mg/l in the north of the bund (Jacob et.al, 1987) 7300 mg/l 300 mg/l in the south of the bund (Jacob et.al, 1987) 3700 mg/l4 Chlorophyll 2.4 to 21 mg/ m3 (Bijoy & Abdul Aziz, 1995) 4.33 to 45.85 mg/ m3 25 mg/g monsoon of 1989 (Nair et al., 1993). 62.4 mg/g
  37. 37. Sl.No: Parameter Old Findings Recent Findings (CWRDM) 5 Manganese 141 to 337 µ g / g in the year 2000 404.76 to 785 µ g / g. 35 mg/g pre-monsoon of 1989 (Nair 99.5 mg/g et al., 1993). 6 Organic carbon 25 mg/g monsoon of 1989 (Nair et 62.4 mg/g al., 1993).
  38. 38. Chlorophyll is to be having high value inthe range 4.33 to 45.85 mg/ m3.High chlorophyll value (2.4 to 21 mg/ m3)was reported in Vembanad LakeGross primary productivity shows avertical decrease from 0.0004718 mg C/m3/hr in the surface to zero in thebottom during monsoon seasonLuxuriant growth of plants in some partsof the lake indicates the nutrient richcondition in the lake.The system is found to be eutrophic in nature, especially the tourism areas where the chlorophyll content and the nutrients are found to be high and DO is found to be very less.
  39. 39. Herbicides: Fernoxone, 2,4-D- (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, for control of broad leaved weeds and sedges. Clinchure 10/EC - Cyhalofop butyl,for control of Echinochlora sp. Sofit 30/EC - Pretilachlor and safenerFungicides: New generation chemicals are used and are supposed to be dissipating in 30 days and so they are not harmful.
  40. 40. run–offby direct sprays on water surface to killmosquitoes and such other such vectors. Kuttanad area has a practice of pumping outwater from the agriculture field to the waterbodies to avoid flooding. During this processthere is a chance of pesticide to join the watercourse
  41. 41. Wetland rice soils - high concentration of iron andmanganeseRun off from the agricultural fields during rainyseasonPractice of pumping out flooded water from ricefields to the nearby canals
  42. 42. The concentration of the nutrients, shallow nature, lower secchidepth values (average 1.50m) and chlorophyll concentration µhigher than 30µg/l indicate that the water column of the lake isin euphotic zone.The analysis of the water and sediment also reveals the extent of eutrophication at the southern part of the lake.The eutrophication is also determined to be influenced byoperation of the Thaneermukkom barrage an interventionconstructed to prevent salinity intrusion during summermonths.
  43. 43. Water column of the lake is in euphotic zone concentration of the nutrients shallow nature lower secchi depth values (average1.50m) chlorophyll concentration higher than 30 µg/l indicateExtent of eutrophication at the southern part of the lakeWhen the barrage is closed the nutrients have the tendency toconcentrate in the lakeBottom turbulence and tidal influence phosphorous to the epilimnion section (averagephosphorous 20 mg/kg) plankton production
  44. 44. Aquatic weeds of Vembanad Lake Habit Species ‘Free’ floating Eichornia crassipes Salvania molests Rooted and floating Nymphaea stellata Nymphoea nouchali Nymphoides cristatum Nymphoides indicumRooted and submerged Hydrilla verticellata Najas minor Limnophila heterophylla Aponogeton crispium Potamogeton pectinatus Emergent/littoral Scripus validus Cyperus corymbosus Ischaemum barbatum
  45. 45. The results indicate that a reduction of 12.5 % of theexisting load of phosphorous may be necessary to achievethe targeted reduction in chlorophyll value <10 so as tobring the lake to mesotrophic/oligotrophic level
  46. 46. Pesticides
  47. 47. Conflicting uses of pesticides - agricultural and domesticTwo methods of classifying pesticidesa) according to chemical classb) according to their intended use
  48. 48. Health Effects of Pesticides
  49. 49. AbsorptionIngestionInhalation (lung)Skin (dermal)
  50. 50. Insecticides Insecticides (kill insects)• Organochlorines• Organophosphates• Carbamates• Synthetic Pyrethroids
  51. 51. Mechanism of Action Oganochlorines & Pyrethroids - Enzymes, axonal membranes (Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl-) Organophosphates & Carbamates - excess acetylcholine
  52. 52. DDE (1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (P-chlorophenyl) Ethylene) - Changanacherry. BHCThe concentration range from a maximum of 38.35 mg/kg to a minimumof 6.35 mg/kg.
  53. 53. Core sediment samplesLindane(16.15mg/Kg), aldrin endo-alpha, dieldrin, DDE, endo-beta (2.02mg/Kg )and DDD (1.06mg/Kg) Variation of organochlorine pesticides in the sediment core of Vembanad Lake
  54. 54. Study on the Persistence ofEndosulfan in Water, Soil and Sediment Samples of Kasargod District
  55. 55. Toxicity ClassificationEndosulfan - a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)Recognized by UNEP to be a Persistent ToxicSubstance. U S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hasclassified endosulfan as Category 1b – HighlyHazardous.
  56. 56. Endosulfan-chemical Identity• Chemical formula- C9H6Cl6O3S• Registered trade name(s)- Thiodan; Thionex; Thionate Malix; Cyclodan; Thifor; Beosit; etc. Chemical structure
  57. 57. Endosulfan Prone Areas in Kasargod district
  58. 58. Panchayaths Selected for Sampling1 Kumbadaje 7 Kayyur Cheemeni2 Bellur 8 Kallar3 Muliyar 9 Panathadi4 Badiyadukka 10 Ajanur5 Enmakaje 11 Pullurperiya6 Karadukka
  59. 59. Study on the impacts of agrochemicals on a Micro Watershed in Kozhikode District VELLANUR WATERSHED MAP
  60. 60. Management measures• Sediment/erosion control• Confined animal facility• Nutrient management• Livestock grazing• Effective irrigation system• Control of phosphorus from point and diffuse sources• Integrated Pest Management
  61. 61. Integrated pest management (IPM)• Combines biocontrol, chemical, and other methods Involve: –• Biocontrol –• Pesticides –• Close population monitoring –• Habitat modification –• Crop rotation –• Transgenic crops –• Alternative tillage –• Mechanical pest removal
  62. 62. Biological control• Synthetic chemicals can pollute and be health hazards.• Biological control (biocontrol) avoids this.• Biocontol entails battling pests and weeds with other organisms that are natural enemies of those pests and weeds.• (“The enemy of my enemy is my friend.”)

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