Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

BUILDING DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR A BILLION

1,847 views

Published on

Pramod Varma, Chief Architect of Aadhaar & IndiaStack talks about how to build internet scale systems for governance.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

BUILDING DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR A BILLION

  1. 1. BUILDING DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR A BILLION AADHAAR & INDIA STACK @pramodkvarma
  2. 2. 22 1.2 Billion people <3%pay income tax 70%under $2/ day 400 Million migrants Photo credit: Hoang Long Ly, 2014 CGAP Photo Contest
  3. 3. 3 1 Billion mobile connections 350 Million Internet users 200 Million social media users India is rapidly going digital Source: various publicly available documents
  4. 4. 4 $50 Billion every year! 2.5% of GDP India spends huge amount as direct subsidies ... Source: various publicly available Govt documents
  5. 5. 5 20-40% leakage 1% of GDP wasted ... but, leakages are massive Source: various publicly available Govt documents
  6. 6. 6 Tackling large societal problems Pipe vs Platform
  7. 7. 7 Large scale social problems require "unbundling of the problem" and creation of "shared digital infra" as "public good" on top of which "innovative solutions" can be "assembled" to meet diverse contextual needs.
  8. 8. Internet GPS OS Smartphone Maps Payment Cloud Infrastructure Disruptive solutions ride on shared infrastructure 8
  9. 9. Aadhaar & India Stack A set of digital infrastructure platforms as public good to allow solutions to be assembled by the ecosystem
  10. 10. Name DoB/Age Gender Address Mobile/Email 1234 5678 9012 Foundational Minimal Unique Lifetime 10 Aadhaar - Identity for a billion A ubiquitous digital identity infrastructure for all Source: http://uidai.gov.in
  11. 11. Source: http://uidai.gov.in 11 950 M 600 M 300 M 100 M 50 M 1085 M Currently at 1.15 B At peak, processed ~2 M enrollments a day! Currently processing ~1 M enrollments & updates a day! 1 Billion in 5½ years
  12. 12. 12 Aadhaar - online identity services Enabling online authentication and e-KYC to a billion people ELIMINATES PHYSICAL PRESENCE Are you who you claim to be? ONLY a yes/no answer Anytime anywhere ELIMINATES PAPER BASED KNOW YOUR CUSTOMER ONLY done with authentication No more fake documents Anytime anywhere Authentication Electronic KYC Source: http://uidai.gov.in
  13. 13. 13 Now at 600+ M a month 25+ M a day The Aadhaar system can authenticate 100 M transactions per day! 7+ Billion authentications in 6 years Source: http://uidai.gov.in
  14. 14. eSign - Digital signature for a billion Application Service Provider (ASP) 1.Online request for Digital Signature 2. Request for PoA/PoI Data 4. Online Instant Digital Signature Issued 3. PoA/PoI Through eKYC eSign Service Providers (ESP) UIDAI (for Aadhaar eKYC) Residents needing to sign a document Interoperable, Open API based, multi-provider, digital signing protocol, legally protected under IT Act 14Source: http://cca.gov.in
  15. 15. Interoperable, Open API based, multi-provider, documents & data exchange framework Digital Locker Framework Source: http://dlai.gov.in
  16. 16. Validation & Assurance Virtual Payment Address Minimal Issuer/Acquirer Cost Ubiquitous - Bank accounts Easy Immediate Payments Timely Notification Unified Payment Interface Push & Pull Payments @Every one with a bank account can send money to any bank account in India! Real-time posting Funds are not locked! Immediate notifications of the payment made Payments can be initiated by payer or payee. Real-time validation of the account and balance No need to disclose account information. Allows account portability, enhances privacy. Smartphone replaces card and PoS machine!! 16 Inter-operable, multi-provider instant money exchange framework Source: http://npci.org.in
  17. 17. 17 ● Structured consent artifact and log system ● User controlled data sharing, data flow, and data retention ● Separation of data and consent flows ● Consistent with current legal frameworks Electronic Consent Architecture Data Consumers (Banks,Credits Providers etc) CONSENT Collector Data Providers (Banks,Telco, Hospitals,etc) Consent Flow Digitally signed consent artifact Data Flow Secure data sharing based on consent Framework to give control of digital footprints back to people Source: http://dlai.gov.in
  18. 18. Aadhaar Auth Aadhaar eKYC eSign Digital Locker Consent Framework Unified Payment India Stack is an open infrastructure built by Indian Government which unbundled identity, signature, money exchange, document & data exchange allowing apps and solutions to be built easily Mobile, Internet, GPS, Cloud 18 GOVT SUBSIDIES BANKING, INVESTMENTS & CREDIT HEALTH SKILLS & EDUCATIONCOMMERCE
  19. 19. India is also building other layered platforms 1. Goods & Services Tax Network (GSTN) 2. Bharat Bill Pay System (BBPS) 3. Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC) 19 GSTN will process ~5 B invoices a monthacross 7+ Mbusinesses! 1 Butility bills amounting to $60+ Ba month BBPS source: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/bill-payment-industry-all-set-to-rock-in-services-sector/1/180344.html
  20. 20. 20 India will go from data poor to data rich nation ... … and individuals and small businesses will be empowered to use their digital footprints as their "digital asset" to get access to credit and other services. Social Commerce Payment Education/ Employment Healthcare Digital Platforms Tax / Business ConsentFramework Access Inclusion Empowerment
  21. 21. Source: UIDAI, NPCI, TRAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials 287 M Jan Dhan Bank Accounts Jan Dhan 1.15 B Enrolments Aadhaar 350 M Smartphones Mobile 21 7+ B Authentications Aadhaar 600 M Authentications/month 500+ M unique ids 340 M eKYC in 3 years > 1 M /day 399 M APB Accounts Linked 1.2 B Txns worth 4.5 B USD in 3 years > 3 M e-Sign in 15 months 4.8 M Digilocker users 1+ B Uploaded Docs 10M+ UPI Txns in 3 months ~400 M USD transacted a month 1060 M Phone numbers
  22. 22. Impact of Aadhaar & India Stack
  23. 23. Large Bank Retail Customer Onboarding - Reimagining the User journey with Aadhaar, eKYC, e-Sign and Digital Locker Source: McKinsey & Company - Financial Services and Digital practices Turnaround Time down from 6 days to 1 hour Reduced Drop Offs First Time Right> 99% Branch Capacity Freed up by 10% Back Office No longer required 23
  24. 24. Large Asset Manager Source: McKinsey & Company - Financial Services and Digital practices Transaction Time down from 4 hours to 2 mins Reduced Operational cost Improved customer retention Statement Processing time down from 1 hour to < 1 min Capacity Freed up for lead generation Reimagining Channel Management - Digital Transformation with Aadhaar eKYC 24
  25. 25. Large Telecom Source: Conversations On boarding time Time down from 1 day to 4 mins Saved Rs 15 / SIM issued Saved 15,000 Trees Onboarding Rate 50M in < 2 months Customer Experience "Walk Out Working" Customer Onboarding - Digital Transformation with Aadhaar eKYC 25
  26. 26. Elite (11M HHs, 4%) >$37k annual gross HH income Wealthiest class in India Affluent (26M HHs, 9%) $18.5k-$37k annual gross HH income Top 6-10% of highest income HHs Aspires (66M HHs, 23%) $7.4k-18.5k annual gross HH income Middle Class- Looking to trade up & aspire to upgrade (Disposable Income - 60%) Next Billion (103M HHs, 500m, 36%) $3.3k-$7.4k annual gross HH income New Consumers- HHs have some disposable income (33%), total spend $1 T Strugglers (80M HHs, 28%) <$3.3k annual gross HH income HHs with the majority of spend on basic needs such as food, shelter, power & water India 1: New Consumption Patterns Process Reinvention India 2: Unlock Bharat India 3: Reduce Benefits Leakage Changing India - one India at a time! Inclusion 10X reach 10X effectiveness
  27. 27. Banking at scale 27 Presence-less Paperless Data driven Algorithms driven Network model Mobile Becomes The Bank!
  28. 28. Investment at Scale 28 To increase market size 10x or 50x and bring in mass inclusion, cost of doing business must be brought down! Source: NCAER-CMCR survey, www.openthemagazine.com, discussions with ScripBox
  29. 29. 29 Millions of Borrowers Data Driven Algorithm Driven Consented Data Sharing Enabled by Mobile Electronic Contracts Digital Payments Credit Marketplaces Thousands of Lenders Digital Footprints Credit at Scale
  30. 30. Skilling at scale 30 COMMERCE TRANSPORT TOURISM CONSENT ARCHITECTURE DIGITAL LOCKER COMMON IDENTITY SKILLS EXPERIENCE Networks and aggregators driving mass skilling in several domains Portable education, skill, and experience records
  31. 31. "India has, without question, made the largest technological breakthrough of any nation in living memory. Its technology advancement has left even Silicon Valley standing. India has built the world's first national digital infrastructure, leaping at least two generations of financial technologies and has built something at least as important as the railroad was to the UK or the interstate highways was to the US." - Raoul Pal https://twitter.com/RaoulGMI/status/835847520920162304
  32. 32. Primary Education Health Providers Logistics Flow-lending Savings Books, TV 32 Aadhaar & India Stack provides a robust foundation to build innovative solutions to solve India’s hard problems! Formalization of Economy
  33. 33. 33 Thank You! linkedin.com/in/pramodkvarma @pramodkvarma

×