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Architecting Platforms for Innovation


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Dr Pramod Varma talks about design principles on architecting platforms for innovation.

Published in: Technology
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Architecting Platforms for Innovation

  1. 1. 1 Architecting Platforms for innovation @pramodkvarma
  2. 2. 2 Product 1 Raw Material 1 Product 2 Raw Material 2 Container Shipping Containers in mid 1900s Rail Truck Ship Air Allows innovation on all sides Amplifies impact of ecosystem players Suppliers Transportation Networks
  3. 3. 3 Email Web Audio / Video Telephony Apps Cloud TCP/IP TCP/IP Packet Switching & Layered Internet Architecture LAN WIFI Switches / Routers Satellite WAN Allows layering of innovation on both sides Applications / protocols Network Technologies
  4. 4. 4 125 Years of Telecom Graham Bell to Now
  5. 5. 5 Architecture Patterns ● Minimal ● Standardized ● Unbundled ● Generalized ● Layerable ● Ecosystem Driven
  6. 6. 6 Architecture Patterns TCP/IP GPS Internet Smartphone Maps Payment ● Minimal ● Standardized ● Unbundled ● Generalized ● Layerable ● Ecosystem Driven
  7. 7. IDENTITY as an innovation platform 7
  8. 8. 8 Today identity is embedded within vertical solutions and often conflated with entitlement
  9. 9. 9 Name DoB/Age Gender Address Mobile/Email 1234 5678 9012 Unique Lifetime Minimal, Standardized, Unbundled, Generalized, Layerable via APIs, Ecosystem Driven, Data Driven Source:
  10. 10. 1 Billion in 5½ Years Source: 10 950 M 600 M 300 M 100 M 50 M 1085 M A Ubiquitous Digital Identity Infrastructure for a digital desh. The Aadhaar system can authenticate 100 M transactions per day, in real time!
  11. 11. 11 UIDAI Registrars Enrolment Agencies Operators Training Agencies Certification Agency Device providers Printers Contact Centers 200people 6Offices 2Data centers 85Registrars 20Biometric Device Providers 410Enrolment Agencies 40000Stations 200,000Operators 7500cr Cost so far 30,000cr Savings so far Source: Rough data obtained from papers and conversations with UIDAI
  12. 12. 12 Aadhaar is like GPS It's minimal and zero-knowledge system All it does is confirm identity All the innovations happen outside!
  13. 13. 13 ANY BANK ACCOUNT NPCI Aadhaar Payment Bridge 380 Million Mobility Send money to an Aadhaar Number Aadhaar based bankingusing biometric auth On-us and off-us transactionsacross banks RBI approved Aadhaar enabled Micro-ATMspec Source:
  14. 14. Smartphones with integrated Aadhaar compliant Iris recognition available for commercial use! Biometric smart phones enable 1-click 2-factor authentication 14
  15. 15. 15 Aadhaar Hourglass Architecture Identity as a utility, an enabler Allows innovation on all sides Amplifies ecosystem players Network effects Biometric Sensors Phones Tablets Attendance Device Micro ATM Healthcare Apps SIM Finance Apps UPI Digital Locker APB AEPS DBT eSign Aadhaar Applications / Systems Devices
  16. 16. PAYMENT as an innovation platform 16
  17. 17. 17 Today payment systems are siloed and non-interoperable making usage costly and complex
  18. 18. Validation & Assurance Virtual Payment Address Minimal Issuer/Acquirer Cost Ubiquitous - Bank accounts Easy Immediate Payments Timely Notification Features Push & Pull Payments @Every one with a bank account can send money to any bank account in India! Real-time posting Funds are not locked! Immediate notifications of the payment made Payments can be initiated by payer or payee. Real-time validation of the account and balance No need to disclose account information. Allows account portability, enhances privacy. Smartphone replaces card and PoS machine!! 18Source:
  19. 19. Payment Markup Language A structured markup having a unified representation of payment instruction ● Amount and transaction context (which utility bill or which interest payment or which insurance premium or which SIP, etc.) ● Financial address (Mobile, Aadhaar, bank account, card, virtual address, etc.) ● Pluggable authentication (mobile, PIN, biometric, digital signature, etc.) ● Transaction context (truck passing the toll gate, invoice being raised, utility bill being raised etc., or by a rule/mandate – SIP, EMI etc.) ● Method (push/PAY or pull/COLLECT) ● Channel (Smartphone over data, feature phone over USSD, phone over IVR) 19Source:
  20. 20. ● Open interoperable API ● 1-click 2-FA experience ● 4-party model allowing unbundling of application from bank ● Virtual Payment Addresses hide bank details and allows features like one time VPA, amount limited VPA, revocation, etc. ● Merchant can use smartphone/featurephone to eliminate PoS ● e-Mandate, e-Cheque and biometric authentication are coming on UPI 2.0 ● Markup allowing pluggability for addresses, credentials, and channels State of the Art architecture 20Source:
  21. 21. INDIA STACK Open APIs as Public Infrastructure 21
  22. 22. PRESENCE-LESS LAYER Aadhaar Authentication Unique digital biometric identity with open access of nearly a Billion users CONSENT LAYER Open Personal Data Store Provides a modern privacy data sharing framework PAPERLESS LAYER Aadhaar e-KYC, E-sign, Digital Locker Rapidly growing base of paperless systems with billions of artifacts CASHLESS LAYER IMPS, AEPS, APB, and UPI Game changing electronic payment systems and transition to cashless economy COMMERCE (GSTn) CREDIT (RBI) INVESTMENTS (SEBI) OTHERS INDIASTACK SKILLS JAM Jan Dhan, Aadhaar, Mobile 22
  23. 23. Source: UIDAI, NPCI, TRAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials 3 Bn Authentications of 500M unique ids 1.1 Bn Enrolments In 6 years since launch 340 Mn eKYC in 3 years 75 Mn unique ids 380 Mn APB Accounts Linked 1.2 B Transactions worth 4.5 B USD in 3 years >2.5 Mn e-Sign in 15 months >0.8 Mn unique ids 2.9 Mn Digilocker users & 15 months 4.8 Mn Uploaded Docs 10M+ UPI VPA in Just in 4 Months ~1000 cr per month! 252 Mn Jan Dhan bank accounts 350 Mn Smartphones 1060 Mn Phone numbers Jan Dhan Aadhaar Mobile 23
  24. 24. Source: UIDAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials India Stack Ecosystem 25 ASA 293 AUA Aadhaar Authentication 23 KSA 216 KUA Aadhaar eKYC 4 eSign ESPs 1Digital Locker Provider 20 Issuers, 500 million docs 830Banks (APB) 127Banks (AEPS) 26Banks (UPI) 24
  25. 25. Bharat Bill Payment System API based platform allowing innovation on delivery models Ecosystem incentives aligned for rapid adoption Multi-channel (web, mobile, offline, etc) with multi payment methods (card, cash, UPI, etc) Unbundling bills, access, payments and rebundling for any-to-any Bills can go into Digital Locker which can then be shared with consent for a use (e.g. loan) ~1 Billion Bills per month ~250 Billion INR monthly payments 25Source: Public data and NPCI website
  26. 26. Electronic Toll Collection Interoperable RFID tag and API specifications Works across 350+ toll booths on national highways All vehicle classes, ~60 Million, supported 4 Large banks ready to be issuers and acquirers Built as an Open API platform. In future, can be used for dynamic pricing, congestion pricing, parking apps, etc. It can also be used to auto link transport manifests for ease cross border movements. 26Source: NPCI website and discussions with NPCI
  27. 27. GSTN Platform Goods & Services Tax Network (GSTN) API based platform GSPs can provide basic and value-added services to taxpayers 27 GSTN will process 5 Billioninvoices a month across 70+ Lakhsbusinesses! Source: GSTN website
  28. 28. 28 Disruptive innovation comes from unbundling, layering, and rebundling!
  29. 29. 29 Thank You! @pramodkvarma