1
Architecting Platforms
for
innovation
@pramodkvarma
2
Product 1
Raw Material 1
Product 2
Raw Material 2
Container
Shipping
Containers in
mid 1900s
Rail
Truck
Ship Air
Allows ...
3
Email
Web Audio /
Video
Telephony
Apps
Cloud
TCP/IP
TCP/IP Packet
Switching &
Layered Internet
Architecture
LAN
WIFI
Swi...
4
125 Years of Telecom
Graham Bell to Now
5
Architecture Patterns
● Minimal
● Standardized
● Unbundled
● Generalized
● Layerable
● Ecosystem Driven
6
Architecture Patterns
TCP/IP
GPS
Internet Smartphone
Maps Payment
● Minimal
● Standardized
● Unbundled
● Generalized
● L...
IDENTITY as an innovation platform
7
8
Today identity is embedded within vertical solutions
and often conflated with entitlement
9
Name
DoB/Age
Gender
Address
Mobile/Email
1234 5678 9012
Unique
Lifetime
Minimal, Standardized, Unbundled,
Generalized, L...
1 Billion in 5½ Years
Source: http://www.uidai.gov.in 10
950 M
600 M
300 M
100 M
50 M
1085 M
A Ubiquitous Digital
Identity...
11
UIDAI
Registrars
Enrolment
Agencies
Operators
Training
Agencies
Certification
Agency
Device
providers
Printers
Contact
...
12
Aadhaar is like GPS
It's minimal and zero-knowledge system
All it does is confirm identity
All the innovations
happen o...
13
ANY BANK ACCOUNT
NPCI
Aadhaar
Payment
Bridge
380 Million
Mobility
Send
money to
an Aadhaar
Number
Aadhaar based banking...
Smartphones with integrated
Aadhaar compliant Iris
recognition available for
commercial use!
Biometric smart phones enable...
15
Aadhaar Hourglass
Architecture
Identity as a utility, an enabler
Allows innovation on all sides
Amplifies ecosystem pla...
PAYMENT as an innovation platform
16
17
Today payment systems are siloed and non-interoperable
making usage costly and complex
Validation & Assurance
Virtual Payment Address
Minimal Issuer/Acquirer Cost
Ubiquitous - Bank accounts
Easy Immediate Paym...
Payment Markup Language
A structured markup having a unified representation of payment instruction
● Amount and transactio...
● Open interoperable API
● 1-click 2-FA experience
● 4-party model allowing unbundling of application from bank
● Virtual ...
INDIA STACK Open APIs as Public Infrastructure
21
PRESENCE-LESS LAYER Aadhaar Authentication
Unique digital biometric identity
with open access of nearly a Billion
users
CO...
Source: UIDAI, NPCI, TRAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials
3 Bn
Authentications of
500M unique i...
Source: UIDAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials
India Stack Ecosystem
25 ASA 293 AUA
Aadhaar Auth...
Bharat Bill Payment System
API based platform allowing innovation
on delivery models
Ecosystem incentives aligned for rapi...
Electronic Toll Collection
Interoperable RFID tag and API specifications
Works across 350+ toll booths on national highway...
GSTN Platform
Goods & Services Tax
Network (GSTN)
API based platform
GSPs can provide basic and
value-added services to
ta...
28
Disruptive innovation comes from
unbundling, layering, and rebundling!
29
Thank You!
@pramodkvarma
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Architecting Platforms for Innovation

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Dr Pramod Varma talks about design principles on architecting platforms for innovation.

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Architecting Platforms for Innovation

  1. 1. 1 Architecting Platforms for innovation @pramodkvarma
  2. 2. 2 Product 1 Raw Material 1 Product 2 Raw Material 2 Container Shipping Containers in mid 1900s Rail Truck Ship Air Allows innovation on all sides Amplifies impact of ecosystem players Suppliers Transportation Networks
  3. 3. 3 Email Web Audio / Video Telephony Apps Cloud TCP/IP TCP/IP Packet Switching & Layered Internet Architecture LAN WIFI Switches / Routers Satellite WAN Allows layering of innovation on both sides Applications / protocols Network Technologies
  4. 4. 4 125 Years of Telecom Graham Bell to Now
  5. 5. 5 Architecture Patterns ● Minimal ● Standardized ● Unbundled ● Generalized ● Layerable ● Ecosystem Driven
  6. 6. 6 Architecture Patterns TCP/IP GPS Internet Smartphone Maps Payment ● Minimal ● Standardized ● Unbundled ● Generalized ● Layerable ● Ecosystem Driven
  7. 7. IDENTITY as an innovation platform 7
  8. 8. 8 Today identity is embedded within vertical solutions and often conflated with entitlement
  9. 9. 9 Name DoB/Age Gender Address Mobile/Email 1234 5678 9012 Unique Lifetime Minimal, Standardized, Unbundled, Generalized, Layerable via APIs, Ecosystem Driven, Data Driven Source: http://www.uidai.gov.in
  10. 10. 1 Billion in 5½ Years Source: http://www.uidai.gov.in 10 950 M 600 M 300 M 100 M 50 M 1085 M A Ubiquitous Digital Identity Infrastructure for a digital desh. The Aadhaar system can authenticate 100 M transactions per day, in real time!
  11. 11. 11 UIDAI Registrars Enrolment Agencies Operators Training Agencies Certification Agency Device providers Printers Contact Centers 200people 6Offices 2Data centers 85Registrars 20Biometric Device Providers 410Enrolment Agencies 40000Stations 200,000Operators 7500cr Cost so far 30,000cr Savings so far Source: Rough data obtained from papers and conversations with UIDAI
  12. 12. 12 Aadhaar is like GPS It's minimal and zero-knowledge system All it does is confirm identity All the innovations happen outside!
  13. 13. 13 ANY BANK ACCOUNT NPCI Aadhaar Payment Bridge 380 Million Mobility Send money to an Aadhaar Number Aadhaar based bankingusing biometric auth On-us and off-us transactionsacross banks RBI approved Aadhaar enabled Micro-ATMspec Source: http://www.npci.org.in
  14. 14. Smartphones with integrated Aadhaar compliant Iris recognition available for commercial use! Biometric smart phones enable 1-click 2-factor authentication 14
  15. 15. 15 Aadhaar Hourglass Architecture Identity as a utility, an enabler Allows innovation on all sides Amplifies ecosystem players Network effects Biometric Sensors Phones Tablets Attendance Device Micro ATM Healthcare Apps SIM Finance Apps UPI Digital Locker APB AEPS DBT eSign Aadhaar Applications / Systems Devices
  16. 16. PAYMENT as an innovation platform 16
  17. 17. 17 Today payment systems are siloed and non-interoperable making usage costly and complex
  18. 18. Validation & Assurance Virtual Payment Address Minimal Issuer/Acquirer Cost Ubiquitous - Bank accounts Easy Immediate Payments Timely Notification Features Push & Pull Payments @Every one with a bank account can send money to any bank account in India! Real-time posting Funds are not locked! Immediate notifications of the payment made Payments can be initiated by payer or payee. Real-time validation of the account and balance No need to disclose account information. Allows account portability, enhances privacy. Smartphone replaces card and PoS machine!! 18Source: http://www.npci.org.in
  19. 19. Payment Markup Language A structured markup having a unified representation of payment instruction ● Amount and transaction context (which utility bill or which interest payment or which insurance premium or which SIP, etc.) ● Financial address (Mobile, Aadhaar, bank account, card, virtual address, etc.) ● Pluggable authentication (mobile, PIN, biometric, digital signature, etc.) ● Transaction context (truck passing the toll gate, invoice being raised, utility bill being raised etc., or by a rule/mandate – SIP, EMI etc.) ● Method (push/PAY or pull/COLLECT) ● Channel (Smartphone over data, feature phone over USSD, phone over IVR) 19Source: http://www.npci.org.in
  20. 20. ● Open interoperable API ● 1-click 2-FA experience ● 4-party model allowing unbundling of application from bank ● Virtual Payment Addresses hide bank details and allows features like one time VPA, amount limited VPA, revocation, etc. ● Merchant can use smartphone/featurephone to eliminate PoS ● e-Mandate, e-Cheque and biometric authentication are coming on UPI 2.0 ● Markup allowing pluggability for addresses, credentials, and channels State of the Art architecture 20Source: http://www.npci.org.in
  21. 21. INDIA STACK Open APIs as Public Infrastructure 21
  22. 22. PRESENCE-LESS LAYER Aadhaar Authentication Unique digital biometric identity with open access of nearly a Billion users CONSENT LAYER Open Personal Data Store Provides a modern privacy data sharing framework PAPERLESS LAYER Aadhaar e-KYC, E-sign, Digital Locker Rapidly growing base of paperless systems with billions of artifacts CASHLESS LAYER IMPS, AEPS, APB, and UPI Game changing electronic payment systems and transition to cashless economy COMMERCE (GSTn) CREDIT (RBI) INVESTMENTS (SEBI) OTHERS INDIASTACK SKILLS JAM Jan Dhan, Aadhaar, Mobile 22
  23. 23. Source: UIDAI, NPCI, TRAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials 3 Bn Authentications of 500M unique ids 1.1 Bn Enrolments In 6 years since launch 340 Mn eKYC in 3 years 75 Mn unique ids 380 Mn APB Accounts Linked 1.2 B Transactions worth 4.5 B USD in 3 years >2.5 Mn e-Sign in 15 months >0.8 Mn unique ids 2.9 Mn Digilocker users & 15 months 4.8 Mn Uploaded Docs 10M+ UPI VPA in Just in 4 Months ~1000 cr per month! 252 Mn Jan Dhan bank accounts 350 Mn Smartphones 1060 Mn Phone numbers Jan Dhan Aadhaar Mobile 23
  24. 24. Source: UIDAI Website, Conversations with NPCI, eMudhra, Deity officials India Stack Ecosystem 25 ASA 293 AUA Aadhaar Authentication 23 KSA 216 KUA Aadhaar eKYC 4 eSign ESPs 1Digital Locker Provider 20 Issuers, 500 million docs 830Banks (APB) 127Banks (AEPS) 26Banks (UPI) 24
  25. 25. Bharat Bill Payment System API based platform allowing innovation on delivery models Ecosystem incentives aligned for rapid adoption Multi-channel (web, mobile, offline, etc) with multi payment methods (card, cash, UPI, etc) Unbundling bills, access, payments and rebundling for any-to-any Bills can go into Digital Locker which can then be shared with consent for a use (e.g. loan) ~1 Billion Bills per month ~250 Billion INR monthly payments 25Source: Public data and NPCI website
  26. 26. Electronic Toll Collection Interoperable RFID tag and API specifications Works across 350+ toll booths on national highways All vehicle classes, ~60 Million, supported 4 Large banks ready to be issuers and acquirers Built as an Open API platform. In future, can be used for dynamic pricing, congestion pricing, parking apps, etc. It can also be used to auto link transport manifests for ease cross border movements. 26Source: NPCI website and discussions with NPCI
  27. 27. GSTN Platform Goods & Services Tax Network (GSTN) API based platform GSPs can provide basic and value-added services to taxpayers 27 GSTN will process 5 Billioninvoices a month across 70+ Lakhsbusinesses! Source: GSTN website
  28. 28. 28 Disruptive innovation comes from unbundling, layering, and rebundling!
  29. 29. 29 Thank You! @pramodkvarma

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