Understanding advaita

7,526 views

Published on

[Major Update] v14.0.0 beta updated 20.10.2015

3.1 Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara &
3.3 Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma

are entirely rewritten.

change log: http://www.advaita-vedanta.in/recent-updates

Namaste Fellow Advaitins,

This site is dedicated to fellow Advaitins and aims at giving clear picture of Advaita. The site is divided into three parts:

PART I: Advaita Vedanta

1.1 Understanding Advaita
1.2 adhyAropa apavAda - A Consistent Traditional Teaching
1.3 Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin
1.4 Advaita, Creation and it's practicability
1.5. Musings - Other Side of Coin
1.6. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu
1.7. Clearing Accusations & Doubts

PART II: Advaita in shastras

2.1 Advaita in Shastras
2.2 Random Quotes
2.3 Brahman in Upanishads
2.4 Concepts of Advaita in Shastras

PART III: Works of Adi Shankara

3.1 Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara
3.2 References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama
3.3 Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma


PART IV: Conspiracies against Bhartiyas

4.1. Conspiracies against Bhartiyas

PART V: Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru

5.1. Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru

PART VI: Works of Adi Shankara

6.1. Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara
6.2. References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama
6.3. Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma

PART VII: Authentic Shastras

7.1. Authentic Upanishads and Gitas
7.2. Authenticity Puranas, Up-Puranas and Shala Puranas

Thank you

|| ॐ तम नमामि गुरूम्‌ परम ||

Published in: Spiritual, Education
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,526
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
219
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Understanding advaita

  1. 1. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita Indiaspirituality Blog (Amrut) Offline version of website Understanding Advaita Version 14.0.0 beta, dt. 20.10.2015 © Copy Left - Indiaspirituality Blog (Amrut): Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 India License Page 1 of 619
  2. 2. Understanding Advaita - Free Culture Works License – Public Domain (Skip Index and read chapter I Understanding Advaita, jump to page – 34 ) Index About Version Numbers...................................................................................................3 Changes Since Last Version.............................................................................................3 Disclaimer........................................................................................................................6 Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy.......................................................................6 Credits.............................................................................................................................8 TOC – with subtitles.........................................................................................................9 Introduction..................................................................................................................26 Understanding Advaita..................................................................................................34 adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- A Consistent Traditional Teaching.........................94 Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin..................................................................135 Advaita, Creation and it's Practicability.......................................................................147 Q & A...........................................................................................................................159 Clearing Accusations & Doubts....................................................................................170 Musings - Other side of coin........................................................................................243 viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu....................................................................................249 Advaita in Shastras......................................................................................................293 Random Quotes and Thoughts.....................................................................................376 Brahman in Upanishads...............................................................................................387 Concepts of Advaita in Shastras...................................................................................396 Conspiracies by East India Co, Max Muller, Wilson, Jones and others..........................411 Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................417 Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara....................................423 References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama..................464 Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................470 Authentic Upanishads and Gitas..................................................................................536 Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas............................................565 References and Sources...............................................................................................617 Page 2 of 619
  3. 3. Understanding Advaita - About Version Numbers About Version Numbers Version numbers or Revision numbers are designated as following • Major Update e.g. 4.0 to 5.0 - indicates addition new quotes from new shastras or creation of new page. • Minor Update e.g. 4.0 to 4.1 - indicates new write-up without addition of new minor upanishads and other shastras • Big Fix Update e.g. 4.1.1 to 4.1.2 - indicates correcting of typos and addition of sanskrit verses in devnagari script. Please note that the version number in downloads link on website does not match with actual version number. This is because Google Sites does not support minor version number and bug- fixes. Changes Since Last Version Changes since Version 13.1.4 beta up to v14.0.0 beta || Hari OM || praNAm-s Dear Divine Souls, This is a major update. Following articles were updated. Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Sankara - Article Entirely Rewritten Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma - Article Extensively Modified - Many more proofs form Vishnu Sahasranama Sankara bhashyas added, Summary in Brief Added. 1 Contents in Brief 1. 12 Adi Sankara didn't translate 'ISA' as 'rudra' in his gItA bhASya on verse BG 11.15 2. 13 Adi Shankara's Interpretation of Shiva (Rudra), Surya, Laxmi and OM in Vishnu Sahasranama Page 3 of 619
  4. 4. Understanding Advaita - Changes since Version 13.1.4 beta up to v14.0.0 beta 1. 13.1 Siva-viShNu abheda 1. 13.1.1 Introductory verses of Vishnu Sahasranama 2. 13.1.2 Siva-viShNu abheda in intro verses of viShNu samhasranAma 3. 13.1.3 05 भभतकक तत bhUtakrut 4. 13.1.4 06 भभतभकतत bhUtabhrut 5. 13.1.5 23 कक शव keSava 6. 13.1.6 25 सवर sarva 7. 13.1.7 26 शवर Sarva 8. 13.1.8 27 शशव Siva 9. 13.1.9 38 शशभभ Sambhu 10.13.1.10 64 ईशयान ESAna 11.13.1.11 114 रद rudra 12.13.1.12 231 समपमदरनन sampramardanaH - New 13.13.1.13 234 अशनलन anilaH - New 14.13.1.14 239 शवशवभभकत vishvabhuk - New 15.13.1.15 335 पभरनदर purandara 16.13.1.16 491 महयादकवन mahadevah 17.13.1.17 505 सरोमन somaH - New 18.13.1.18 582 शयानतन SAntah 19.13.1.19 584 शयाननतन SAntih 20.13.1.20 600 शशव Siva 21.13.1.21 651 कयामदकव kAmadeva (kāmadeva) - New 22.13.1.22 653 कयामम kAmI (kāmī) - New 23.13.1.23 877 जयरोशतन jyotihḥ - (Visḥ hnḥ u is pure consciousness, Siva as skambha is also pillar of light) New 2. 13.2 sUrya-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma 1. 13.2.1 232 अहनसशवतरकन ahaHsaMvartakaH (About sUrya bhagavAn) - New 2. 13.2.2 553 वरणन varuNaH - (sUrya bhagavAn is varuNA) - New 3. 13.2.3 648 कक शवन keshava - (trinity are rays or powers of brahman - Mapping with sūryadeva) - New 4. 13.2.4 881 रशवन ravi - (Sūrya Bhagavān is ravi) New 5. 13.2.5 883 सभयर Sūrya - (Sūryadeva) - New 6. 13.2.6 941 अनयाशदन anādihḥ - (No Pointing of specific Deity as Bhagavān) - New 3. 13.3 laxmI-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma 1. 13.3.1 942 भभभभरवन Bhūrbhuvahḥ - (Appears in Gāyatrī mantra, linked with next name #943 Laxmī) - New 2. 13.3.2 943 लकमम Laxmī - (Laxmīdevī is ātma-svarūpa) - New 4. 13.4 praNava-viShNu abheda in viShNu sahasranAma 1. 13.4.1 957 पणव (ॐ) pranḥ ava - (Formless, Attributeless Brahman OM) - New adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद) - A Consistent Traditional Teaching 4. 1.4 adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya Page 4 of 619
  5. 5. Understanding Advaita - Changes Since Last Version 2. 2 adhyAropa apavAda in yoga texts 1. 2.1 adhyAropa apavAda in Siva samhitA Advaita, Creation and it's Practicability 1. 1.1 Some Typical Objections 2. 1.2 Questions and Doubts 3. 1.3 Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint? Musings - Other side of coin 1.4 211 धयाम DhAma and 212 सतय satya Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru 1. 1 Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru 2. 2 Life of Sringeri AcArya SrI Abhinava vidyAtirthA mahAsvAmI Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas Summary in Brief is added. 1. 1 Summary in Brief 1. 1.1 Refutation of controversial verses of padma purANa by use of Logic 2. 1.2 Verses from sAttvika purANa-s, mahAbhArata and veda-s glorifing Siva 2. 4.2 Greatness of Siva in bhAgavat purANa 2. 8 sattva, rajasa and tamasa - alternate meanings 3. 9 purANa-s cannot contradict mahAbhArata which says brahmA and viShNu are born from Siva 4. 10 purANa-s cannot contradict vedA-s which glorify rudra In addition to above, minor corrections were made to many other articles. || Hari OM || For old update logs, please visit Recent Updates Page 5 of 619
  6. 6. Understanding Advaita - Disclaimer Disclaimer || Hari OM || The authors are not an authority in Spirituality but are sAdhaka-s (seekers of truth). This work is an attempt to collect information related to Advaita Vedanta in one place. Quotes used in this work are taken from information available on internet in public domain mostly by third party or from books written by saints following advaita vedAnta. The intention to use their work is not to make any commercial benefit, but to present Advaita Vedanta positively. Though care is been taken to give correct information, authors are not responsible for any misinformation given in this work, which is unintentional. However, pointing out mistakes and giving corrections are welcome. Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy Namaste, This project aims to give pointers. This work is not aimed to be an authentic guide. Publishing strategy is to push frequent minor updates on the fly i.e. as and when we find info, website is directly updated. This project is done on volunteer basis, in free time, with no intention of gaining commercial benefit. The idea is to constantly update the work as and when time permits. We push frequent minor updates. This approach is against conventional publishing where an article is composed offline and only after thorough editing and proof reading it is considered ready to be uploaded to website. We have reason for pushing minor updates. The idea is to give as much information as possible and act as a rough reference, with a hope to encourage readers to undertake study of Shastra-s. This is also the reason for pushing unfinished updates with uncorrected typos or not providing sanskrit verses. We just want to point out direction so that interested reader can check out shastra-s with translations from respected and authentic authors and sources. We are not working on this project as a professional nor we intend to publish this work in print media. Our aim is to give maximum info, which makes easier to search, thereby saving a lot of time searching in books. Since the intention is to save time spend in searching, even a few quotes are a good reason to push for another update. Page 6 of 619
  7. 7. Understanding Advaita - Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy We believe in openness and transparency. Hence we put Recent Site Activity public, which is generally kept confined to authors and webmasters. Updating and Uploading .odt and pdf is time consuming and hence current version available for download may not be updated to latest version. Hence in home page we have mentioned version number of website and version number of odt and pdf files. Pdfs on Scribd and Slideshare are not as frequently updated as available in download section of website. Pranam-s Hari OM Page 7 of 619
  8. 8. Understanding Advaita - Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy Credits I surrender and pray to Parabrahman and my Guru for his infinite grace and teachings on Advaita. I would also like to thank Shri Vidyashankara Sunderasan ji, maintainer of Advaita-vedanta.org for providing useful information and giving us advaita-vedanta mailing list. I would also like to extend my thanks, but not limited to, the creators of websites dedicated to Advaita by http://www.kamakoti.org/ http://www.kamakotimandali.com/advaita/advaita_index.html http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm http://www.astrojyoti.com/ http://202.3.77.102/acquia/?q=node/20 - Gita Super Site Beta 2.0 http://spokensanskrit.de - Sanskrit – English Disctionary Advaita Ashrama and Ramakrishna mission I am also thankful to websites like and other similar sites that have upload spiritual content from Sri Ramakrishna mission, works of Shri S.N Shastri, Shri P. M. Ramchandar and other authors. I would like to thank all those who have contributed to advaita and have uploaded articles, website, forums, discussion groups, blogs, etc. I would like to thank Shri Gaurav Tiwari for taking interest in this project and helping me in typing words in sanskrit and in correcting typos. Page 8 of 619
  9. 9. Understanding Advaita - Credits TOC – with subtitles Table of Contents About Version Numbers...................................................................................................2 Changes Since Last Version.............................................................................................3 Changes since Version 13.1.2 beta up to v13.1.4 beta.....................................................3 Changes since Version 12.4.1 beta up to v13.1.2 beta.....................................................4 Disclaimer........................................................................................................................7 Nature of Project and Publishing Strategy.......................................................................7 Credits.............................................................................................................................8 TOC – with subtitles.........................................................................................................9 Introduction..................................................................................................................25 Page 9 of 619
  10. 10. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles O Thou, The Knower Of All The Milk-Ocean Of Scriptures! The Expounder Of The Topics Of Great Upanisadic Treasure-Trove! On Thy Faultless Feet I Meditate In My Heart. Be Thou My Refuge O preceptor, Sankara. I meditate on Your pure lotus feet in my heart | O Preceptor Shankara, be my refuge. - toTakAShTaka.m - 1..........................................25 PART I: Advaita Vedanta................................................................................................25 a. Understanding Advaita..............................................................................................26 b. adhyAropa apavAda - A Consistent Traditional Teaching...........................................26 c. Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin................................................................26 d. Advaita, Creation and it's practicability.....................................................................26 e. Q and A......................................................................................................................27 f. Musings - Other Side of Coin......................................................................................27 g. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu..................................................................................27 h. Siva-viShNu abheda...................................................................................................27 i. Clearing Accusations & Doubts...................................................................................28 PART II: Advaita in shastras..........................................................................................29 a. Advaita in Shastras....................................................................................................29 b. Brahman in Upanishads.............................................................................................30 c. Concepts of Advaita in Shastras.................................................................................30 d. Random Quotes and Thoughts...................................................................................30 PART III: Conspiracies against Bhartiyas......................................................................30 a. Conspiracies against Bhartiyas..................................................................................30 PART IV: Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru............................................................................30 a. Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru........................................................................................31 PART V: Works of Adi Shankara.....................................................................................31 a. Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara..................................31 b. References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama...............31 c. Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma.....................................................................31 PART VI: Authentic Shastras..........................................................................................32 a. Authentic Upanishads and Gitas................................................................................32 b. Authenticity Puranas, Up-Puranas and Shala Puranas...............................................32 Understanding Advaita..................................................................................................34 Salutations to Param Guru - Guru Gita...........................................................................34 What is Advaita Vedanta................................................................................................34 Brahman........................................................................................................................40 NirguNa brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह)..........................................40 Page 10 of 619
  11. 11. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles bheda shruti (भकद शभशत):.............................................43 a-bheda shruti (अभकद शभशत):..........................................44 ghaTaka shruti (घटक शभशत):..........................................44 Position of Ishvara in Advaita.......................................................................................44 Maya and Mithya (मयायया,शमथ्यया)...........................................................................................45 Applying mithyA (शमथ्यया)..................................................................................................46 nitya and anitya (शनतय-अशनतय)..........................................................................................47 VairAgya and doSa-darshan (ववैरयाग्य - दरोष दशरन, Dispassion and fault finding).....................49 1. mUDha adhikAri (मभढ अधधकयारम)......................................................................................50 2. madhyama adhikAri (मध्यम अधधकयारम).............................................................................52 3. uttam adhikAri (उत्तम अधधकयारम)......................................................................................52 Jiva (जमव).......................................................................................................................52 Why I am not Jiva?........................................................................................................53 Aham 'I' and AhamkAra 'I-ness', 'I am Doer', 'Ego'.......................................................54 Atman............................................................................................................................55 Relation between Jiva, Ishvara and Brahman...............................................................55 Ishvara SrUShTI and jIva SrUShTI (ईशवर सकशष, जमव सकशष).....................................................56 JIva SrUShTI (जमव सकशष) is the cause of bondage..............................................................56 What is the root cause of suffering?..............................................................................57 moksha (मरोक, moxa).......................................................................................................58 Three Types of vAsanA-s (वयासनया, Desires) and their renunciation...................................58 Is Brahman really deluded?...........................................................................................59 Three Levels of Truths...................................................................................................59 VyavahArika satya.........................................................................................................60 PrAtibhAsika satya........................................................................................................60 PAramArthika satya.......................................................................................................60 Explanation for Brahman getting deluded.....................................................................60 Jivanmukti and Videha Mukti.........................................................................................62 Whom to Surrender?.....................................................................................................62 Why Theory of Advaita is right.......................................................................................62 Acceptance of Six Pramanas..........................................................................................63 Mimamsa...........................................................64 Page 11 of 619
  12. 12. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Advaita Vedanta - A Pure Vedantic path........................................................................65 Uniqueness of Advaita...................................................................................................66 vAda-s - Theories of Creation........................................................................................67 Arambha vAda...............................................................................................................67 pariNAma vAda..............................................................................................................67 Vivarta vAda..................................................................................................................67 ajAta vAda.....................................................................................................................68 Is Advaita for everybody?..............................................................................................70 Advaitins never compare capacity of Jnani with avatAra...............................................73 Advaita asks one to rise above dvaita...........................................................................73 sAdhana CatuShTa varNana (four qualities to practice advaita)....................................74 Snake- Rope Analogy - A perfect example to explain Advaita........................................75 TruNa-Jantu NyAya and Keet-Bramar NyAya.................................................................78 1. Truna-Jantu Nyaya (Caterpillar law).........................................................................78 2. Keet-Bramar Nyaya...................................................................................................78 Subtle Points.................................................................................................................78 Ishwara does not depend upon anything 'Else' for creation of universe........................80 Three Paths...................................................................................................................80 ajAta vAda: Moksha - a mahabranti (great illusion).......................................................81 Vachyartha and Laxyartha.............................................................................................82 But we have heard so much about mAyA (maayaa). Why is mAyA talked too much?....83 Subtle points for sincere advaita meditators.................................................................83 Upadeshas are given from AdhikAra bheda...................................................................85 adhyAropa apavAda - Only Consistent Traditional Teaching of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda...............................................................................................................87 Ishwara is Neutral says Gita..........................................................................................87 Krishna taught both dvaita and advaita.........................................................................89 Both sides of coin has to be understood........................................................................91 Reason behind Shrutis, Smritis and Puranas praising one Personal deity......................92 adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- A Consistent Traditional Teaching.........................93 Page 12 of 619
  13. 13. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles adhyAropa apavAda (अध्ययाररोप अपवयाद)- Only Consistent Traditional Teaching as taught by Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda.........................................................................................93 Brahman can be described only in a negative way........................................................94 adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita...........................................................................94 How was this traditional Method discovered?................................................................98 adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya..................................................103 How is this method Traditional?..................................................................................103 adhyAropa apavAda by post Sankara advaitins...........................................................104 adhyAropa apavAda in all 10 (ten) Upanishads...........................................................104 adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad.........................................................105 adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad.........................................................105 adhyAropa apavAda in Isa Upanishad..........................................................................106 adhyAropa apavAda in Kena Upanishad.......................................................................107 adhyAropa apavAda in Katha Upanishad......................................................................108 adhyAropa apavAda in PraSNa Upanishad (Prashna Upanishad).................................110 adhyAropa apavAda in Taittiriya Upanishad.................................................................110 adhyAropa apavAda in Aitareya Upanishad..................................................................111 adhyAropa apavAda in Mundaka Upanishad.................................................................112 adhyAropa apavAda in Mandukya Upanishad...............................................................114 adhyAropa apavAda in Chandogya Upanishad.............................................................115 adhyAropa apavAda in Svetasvatara Upanishad..........................................................116 adhyAropa apavAda in Maha Narayana Upanishad......................................................119 adhyAropa apavAda in Amrit Bindu Upanishad............................................................121 adhyAropa apavAda in Brahma Upanishad...................................................................122 adhyAropa apavAda in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad.............................................123 adhyAropa apavAda in subAla Upanishad....................................................................124 adhyAropa apavAda in tejo-bindu Upanishad..............................................................125 adhyAropa apavAda in bAhvrica (Bahvricha) Upanishad.............................................126 adhyAropa apavAda in maitrayAni Upanishad..............................................................127 adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSirasa Upanishad.........................................................128 adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSikhA Upanishad..........................................................129 adhyAropa apavAda in paingala Upanishad.................................................................130 adhyAropa apavAda in Srimad BhAgavatam................................................................131 Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin..................................................................133 Two types of sAdhanA can be practiced by Advaita Vedantin......................................133 1. OM...........................................................................................................................133 The Journey......................................................134 Page 13 of 619
  14. 14. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles 2. Neti-neti..................................................................................................................135 Is Sri Ramana Maharshi's Teaching Traditional?..........................................................136 Why is renunciation important from beginning?..........................................................140 'Direct Experience' v/s 'Intellectual Understanding'....................................................142 'Negation' and not 'Rejection'......................................................................................142 What is 'Negation'?.....................................................................................................143 Reason behind saying everything is mithyA.................................................................143 Advantage of Singing or Listening to Bhajans, Devotional Songs, Hymms and Stotras 144 Advaita, Creation and it's Practicability.......................................................................145 PART I - Explaining Advaita, Theory of Creation and Duality.......................................145 Questions and Doubts.................................................................................................146 Why theory of creation is not true from absolute standpoint?.....................................147 Why do SAstra-s explain the theory of creation?.........................................................149 Shruti Hinting non-duality while explaining Creation..................................................149 Veiling (covering) of Self by Ignorance.......................................................................150 The dual statements also point to non-duality.............................................................151 Why the knowledge of Self Realization is supreme?....................................................151 Then why Teach Theory of Creation if it is illusion?.....................................................151 Few words on 'Illusion'...............................................................................................152 Neo Philosophy............................................................................................................152 PART II - Positive Approach........................................................................................153 Practical Advaita.........................................................................................................153 Adi Shankara - The Jagad Guru...................................................................................154 Advaita is not for everybody........................................................................................154 Lets return to practical world and start our journey with Prayers...............................154 Q & A...........................................................................................................................155 Clearing Accusations & Doubts....................................................................................165 Page 14 of 619
  15. 15. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles A Note to Readers........................................................................................................165 Quoting Padma Purana to accuse Adi Shankara - Refutation of mAyAvAdam asatSAstraM Praccanam baudham uchyate......................................................................................166 Lets explore related verses from Padma Purana for better understanding..................169 Is Advaita Non-Vedic?.................................................................................................174 Acceptance of all six pramanas of Mimamsa................................................................175 We need all types of Knowledge..................................................................................175 Last message of Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda.............................................................176 Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru.......................................................................................177 Another Accusation on our acharya is that - Adi Shankara became Vaishnava during his last years.....................................................................................................................177 BrihadAraNyaka upanishad says jIva is destroyed......................................................179 Shiva Gita, a part of Padma Purana teaches advaita, says jIva is destroyed...............179 Pre Shankara Advaitins...............................................................................................182 Shankaracharya is accused as hidden-Buddhist..........................................................183 GauDapAda is accused as hidden-Buddhist.................................................................184 Two types of Granths and Commentaries are created.................................................186 Adi Shankara's teachings are not consistent...............................................................187 Shankara was dogmatic..............................................................................................188 Devotional Works by Adi Shankara.................................188 Advaita parampara starts with Narayana as first guru.............188 Not Afraid to write about praises to VAsudeva....................189 Humility of Adi Shankara.........................................189 Harmonizing all paths - Smartism.................................189 Ved Vyas extending life of Shankara for 16 more years............190 Adi Shankara Never Rejected Dvaita..............................190 Establishing 4 maths in the four quadrants of our country........192 Adi Shankara's message in a nutshell.............................193 Why Temples are needed if God is omnipresent?....................194 1. Arambha vAda:.................................................195 2. pariNAma vAda.................................................195 3. Vivarta vAda..................................................195 4. ajAta vAda....................................................196 Page 15 of 619
  16. 16. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Shankaracharya only wanted us to rise above dvaita..................................................200 If you walk of Advaita path you will loose all your rasa and Ananda...........................201 Finally followers of Adi Shankara are accused as "Tyrannical people who burned down monastries, destroyed cattle and killed women and children" ....................................202 Advaita Jnana needs no Bhakti....................................................................................202 Difference between Buddhism and Advaita..................................................................206 mAyAvAda and brahmavAda........................................................................................207 Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita, Anu Gita and Yog Vasistha.............208 mAhAvAkya - Sarvam khalu-idam brahma is bramavAda and not mAyAvAda..............210 Brahma Bhaava...........................................................................................................211 Importance of Guru Tatva (Atma Tatva, Brahman).....................................................211 Refuting authority of scripture on basis of dating and classification............................215 All 108 Upanishads are authentic................................................................................218 No purAnA is superior or inferior.................................................................................222 Classifications of Puranas in Padma Purana and Matsya Purana.....222 Interpolations in Padma PurANa...................................222 Shiva is none other than Brahman.................................222 Anya-devata worship, Vaikuntha and param pada in Gita...........................................223 Shiva and adoption of Nahi Ninda Nyaya by acharyas ................................................228 Each form of God has distinctive Personality...............................................................232 Veda or Agama, which is supreme authority?.............................................................232 All schools during Adi Shankara's time were advaitic..................................................234 Dvaita, Visistadvaita and Advaita are steps leading to ultimate truth..........................235 Their logical fallacy is a strawman...............................................................................236 Musings - Other side of coin........................................................................................237 anya-devatA worship, vaikunTha, param-pada, param-dhAma in gItA........................237 Anya-devata Worship..................................................................................................237 Pada............................................................................................................................239 DeSa............................................................................................................................241 viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu....................................................................................243 Page 16 of 619
  17. 17. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Meaning of the word 'bhagavAn' as given in bhAgavat purANa 3.32.31-33.................244 Brahman is both saguNa and nirguNa explains kapila munI in bhAgavat purANa 3.32.34-36...................................................................................................................244 GYAna is param Brahma, it is one without a second and it is nirguNa says bhAgavat purANa........................................................................................................................245 viShNu bhagavAn is the most nearest svarUpa of brahman.........................................246 viShNu is not always caturbhUja viShNu.....................................................................247 Atma bodha upanishad describes caturbhuja viShNu..................................................255 yoga vAsisTha in arjunopAkhyAna explains who should meditate on viShNu as AtmasvarUpa and caturbhuja viShNu..........................................................................257 viShNu is sometimes feminine aspect of brahman.......................................................259 In rudra-hridaya Upanishad, viShNu is said to be umA................................................261 puruSa is not always a person.....................................................................................262 bhagavAn as 'AtmasvarUpa' and GYAnasvarUpa is non-other than nirAkAra brahma. .263 Adi Sankara in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya says one should worship viShNu as Atmarupa.....................................................................................................................265 Siva as supreme brahman says bhAgavat purANa.......................................................266 Siva naTarAja form and five actions............................................................................270 Conclusion...................................................................................................................270 'I' or 'Me' in Gita can be taken as 'Brahman'................................................................271 Advaita bhakti preached by Adi Sankara bhagavapAda................................................279 Krishna, a person, is symbolic representation of nirguNa brahman says aNu gItA......281 Conclusion...................................................................................................................282 Advaita in Shastras......................................................................................................283 Page 17 of 619
  18. 18. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Four mahAvAkyAs - Jiva Brahma aikya........................................................................283 OM...............................................................................................................................285 Advaita in Bhagavad Gita.............................................................................................286 Brahman in Bhagavad Gita...........................................................................................287 Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita.....................................................................287 Bhagavan talks of this world as Mechanical.................................................................288 Bhagavan Krishna explains OM in Bhagavad Gita and Uttara Gita................................288 Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam.....................................289 Advaita in Bhagavat Purana - Kapila Gita.....................................................................292 Advaita in Guru Gita.....................................................................................................295 Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita.........................................................................296 Glories of Param Guru.................................................................................................298 Guru is above Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva....................................................................299 Fruitlessness of sadhana done without the knowledge of Self.....................................300 Shiva, Shakti and Guru are one and same says Guru Gita ...........................................300 Advaita in Ribhu Gita...................................................................................................301 Advaita in Other Gitas..................................................................................................301 Advaita in Avadhuta (Avadhoot) Gita..........................................................................302 Advaita in Sri Rama Gita also called as sruti-sara-sangraha........................................302 Advaita in Hanumad Gita.............................................................................................302 Advaita in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana...................................................................303 Advaita in Uttara Gita..................................................................................................306 Advaita in Anu Gita......................................................................................................310 Advaita in Uddhava Gita..............................................................................................312 Advaita in AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa and tArA gItA...........................................................313 Page 18 of 619
  19. 19. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita................................................................314 Advaita in Yoga Vasistha.............................................................................................316 Advaita in 10 (ten) mukhya (major) Upanishads........................................................319 Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad.......................................................................320 Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad - I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not deny me......................................................................................................................322 Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad)................................................323 Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad.......................................................................326 Advaita Vedanta in Mundaka Upanishad......................................................................327 Advaita Vedanta in Mandukya Upanishad....................................................................328 Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad......................................................................328 Advaita Vedanta in Aitareya Upanishad.......................................................................329 Page 19 of 619
  20. 20. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad.......................................................................330 Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad..................................................................334 Advaita in other Upanishads........................................................................................336 Svetashvatara Upanishad on Brahman as Ishwara......................................................336 Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad).......................................................338 Advaita Vedanta in subAla Upanishad.........................................................................339 Advaita in nirAlambopaniShad....................................................................................340 Advaita and Ajaata vAda in tejobindu Upanishad........................................................340 Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad...............................................................................340 Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad...................................................341 Advaita Vedanta in Brahma Upanishad.......................................................................343 Advaita Vedanta in Maha Upanishad...........................................................................346 Advaita Vedanta in MahAnArAyaNa Upanishad............................................................346 Advaita Vedanta in jAbAla Upanishad..........................................................................347 Advaita Vedanta in Mudgala Upanishad.......................................................................348 Advaita Vedanta in Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad...........................................................349 Advaita Vedanta in Atma Upanishad............................................................................349 Advaita Vedanta in Sarvasara (Sarva-sara) Upanishad...............................................352 Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad.................................................................354 Advaita Vedanta in Kaivalya Upanishad.......................................................................355 Advaita Vedanta in AdhyAtma Upanishad....................................................................356 Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad...................................................................357 Advaita Vedanta in SarasvatI hradaya Upanishad.......................................................358 Advaita Vedanta in Yog Tatva Upanishad....................................................................358 Advaita Vedanta in NirvANa Upanishad.......................................................................358 External Links..............................................................................................................359 Conclusion...................................................................................................................359 A request to respected readers....................................................................................360 A request to Indians....................................................................................................361 A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya...............................................................362 Random Quotes and Thoughts.....................................................................................365 Page 20 of 619
  21. 21. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Quotes from SAstra-s...................................................................................................365 Amrit Bindu Upanishad................................................................................................365 Tejo Bindu Upanishad..................................................................................................365 AdhyAtma Upanishad..................................................................................................365 Chandogya Upanishad.................................................................................................366 Yoga Chudamani Upanishad explains OM / AUM and Brahman....................................366 Random thoughts........................................................................................................369 Another way to understand Adi Shankara...................................................................369 Notes on karma...........................................................................................................370 Accept all, accept none................................................................................................373 Brahman in Upanishads...............................................................................................376 Brahman and Creation.................................................................................................376 Brahman as substratum of all......................................................................................377 Different Levels of Truths............................................................................................378 Brahman as All.............................................................................................................379 Definition of Purusha...................................................................................................381 NirguNa Brahman as Ishvara.......................................................................................381 Self is Brahman............................................................................................................383 2 Brahmans | Two Brahmans | Two levels of the unmanifested..................................383 Concepts of Advaita in Shastras...................................................................................385 Brahman......................................................................................................................385 Brahman is nirAkAra....................................................................................................386 nirguNa Brahman is higher than saguNa Brahman......................................................386 nirguNa Brahman peaceful..........................................................................................387 Snake-rope example in Minor upanishads....................................................................387 MAyA and Unreality of the world.................................................................................388 Two Levels of Truth.....................................................................................................389 Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad..............................................392 adhyAropa apavAda in tejo bindu upanishad...............................................................396 Jiva is destroyed.........................................................................................................397 Concepts on puruSa.....................................................................................................397 nirvikalp samAdhi in bhAgavat purANa........................................................................398 Conspiracies by East India Co, Max Muller, Wilson, Jones and others..........................400 Conspiracies by East India Company, Asiatic Society and Max Muller..........................401 Disappearance of Pt. Taranath Shastry's 20 Years of research and collection of authentic manuscripts.................................................................................................................402 Max Muller, H.H. Wilson, William Jones, F. E. Partiger et al and Britannica Encyclopedia ....................................................................................................................................404 Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................406 Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru...........................................................................................406 Birth date of Adi Sankara.............................................................................................410 Current SankarAcArya-s (Shankaracharyas)................................................................410 Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara....................................411 Page 21 of 619
  22. 22. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Are all the works attributed to Adi Shankara Bhagavadpad actually his compositions? ....................................................................................................................................411 Conspiracies by East India Company, Asiatic Society and Max Muller..........................411 Unusual capacity of intense mental concentration of Realized Saints and Intuitive Knowledge...................................................................................................................412 annamAcArya......................................................412 Mahavatar Babaji.................................................413 GYAnadeva........................................................413 Swami Vivekananda................................................413 Sriram Sharma Acharya............................................414 Sri Aurobindo....................................................415 Valmiki..........................................................415 Sri Ramakrishna..................................................416 Sri Ramana Maharshi..............................................416 Adi Shankara.....................................................416 Poet and Preacher.......................................................................................................417 Methods of evaluation for determining authenticity....................................................418 Brahma Sutra BhASya as de-facto Standard for comparing works...............................419 Brief list of works attributed to Adi Shankara..............................................................419 Explanation for different writing style than Brahma Sutra BhASya..............................423 As a laymen, what should I do?...................................................................................424 References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama..................426 References (Combined)...............................................................................................426 Puranas.......................................................................................................................427 Puranas: Detailed with verse nos................................................................................428 Upanishads..................................................................................................................430 Ramanaya....................................................................................................................430 Mahabharata................................................................................................................431 Miscellaneous..............................................................................................................431 Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................432 Page 22 of 619
  23. 23. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Contents in Brief..........................................................................................................432 Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma......................................................................439 Smarta and Shanmata.................................................................................................439 Some Personal Thoughts............................................................................................440 Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada was not a Shaiva, nor a Vaishnava, nor a Shakta...........441 smArta - a PUrNa vaidika dharma................................................................................441 Did smArta dharma exist prior to Adi Sankara?...........................................................443 Adi Shankara's Parents were Shiva bhakta-s...............................................................443 Each Form of God has Distinctive Characteristics........................................................444 One-pointedness is necessary.....................................................................................445 But how can attributes which are generally related to Shiva be considered as that of Vishnu, one may ask....................................................................................................445 Wrong interpretation of Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada's commentary leads to erroneous conclusion...................................................................................................................448 Lord Shiva and Maa Parvati is Ishvara says Adi Shankara in Kena Upanishad.............449 Lord Shiva is Atman, Brahman and Paramatma, the supreme Self says Adi Shankara in Gita..............................................................................................................................450 Adi Sankara didn't translate 'ISA' as 'rudra' in his gItA bhASya on verse BG 11.15.....451 Adi Shankara's Interpretation of Shiva and Rudra in Vishnu Sahasranama.................452 Introductory verses of Vishnu Sahasranama...............................................................452 Siva-viShNu abheda in intro verses of viShNu samhasranAma....................................453 06 भभतभकतत bhUtabhrut.....................................................................................................457 23 कक शव keSava.............................................................................................................457 25 सवर sarva..................................................................................................................458 26 शवर Sarva..................................................................................................................458 27 शशव Siva...................................................................................................................459 38 शशभभ Sambhu.............................................................................................................460 64 ईशयान ESAna..............................................................................................................460 114 रद Rudra...............................................................................................................461 335 पभरनदर purandara.....................................................................................................462 491 महयादकवन mahadevah..................................................................................................462 582 शयानतन SAntah..........................................................................................................462 Page 23 of 619
  24. 24. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles 584 शयाननतन SAntih..........................................................................................................462 600 शशव Siva.................................................................................................................463 Common names and some selected names in Shiva Sahasranama..............................463 Shiva and Vishnu.........................................................................................................465 Shiva and Brahma.......................................................................................................466 Shiva and Krishna........................................................................................................466 Shiva and Kurukshetra...............................................................................................466 Shiva's Macrocosmic form (VirATa SvarUpa)...............................................................467 Some Qualities of Shiva...............................................................................................467 Shiva and deluge.........................................................................................................467 Shiva is everything......................................................................................................468 Shiva as Brahman........................................................................................................468 Shiva as ParamAtmAn.................................................................................................469 Shiva and Linga...........................................................................................................469 Adi Shankara Praises Lord Shiva as Para Brahman in Dakshinamuirty Stotram...........470 Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada on OM, Shiva and Paramatma in Mandukya Upanishad. .472 Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada Praises Shiva (Shambho) as Ishvara and confirms non- duality with the Lord...................................................................................................474 Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada Praises explains Namah Shivaya in Shiva PanchAkshara Mantra.........................................................................................................................474 Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada in Veda Sara Shiva Stavan praises Shiva as supreme.....475 Adi Shankara equates Atman with both Vishnu and Shiva in Vivek Chudamani...........476 Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva appear to be different due to mAyA says Adi Shankara in mAyA panchakam........................................................................................................477 praSnottara ratna mAlikA defines who is the supreme God.........................................478 Adopting of Double Standards by Rival Schools..........................................................479 Non-Duality of Shiva-Vishnu stated by Madhusudan Sarasvati....................................480 Non-Duality of Shiva-Vishnu in Suta SamhitA of Skanda PurANa.................................481 Ganesha is Self Born says Shiva in Linga PurANa........................................................483 VinAyaka in Shankara BhASya 9.25.............................................................................484 Maa Bhavani is supreme in Soundarya Lahiri...............................................................484 Shiva-Vishnu (Narasimha) abheda in Narasimha Purva Tapaniya Upanishad..............485 Shiva-Vishnu (Narasimha) abheda in Narasimha Uttara Tapaniya Upanishad.............485 Conclusion...................................................................................................................487 Authentic Upanishads and Gitas..................................................................................488 Page 24 of 619
  25. 25. Understanding Advaita - TOC – with subtitles Preface........................................................................................................................488 A word about muktikA upanishad................................................................................489 A word about SrI VidyAraNya svAmI...........................................................................491 SrI VidyAraNya svAmI cites Muktika Upanishad (MuktikopaniSat) in PanchdaSI 4.68 493 All 108 upanishads commented by upanishad brahma yOgI........................................494 Upanishads commented by SankarAnanda, bhArtItirtha, appayya dikshita, bhAskararAya and nArAyaNa tIrth...............................................................................494 Some more details about upanishads..........................................................................494 Ten Principle Upanishads.............................................................................................496 Other Authentic Upanishads - Part of 108 Upanishads of MuktikopaniSat...................497 Other Authentic Upanishads - Not a Part of 108 Upanishads of MuktikopaniSat..........500 Authentic Upanishads Commented by SrI NArAyaNa tIrtha.........................................501 Upanishads Commented by lahirI mahASaya...............................................................503 Upanishads of Doubtful Authenticity............................................................................504 Fake Upanishads..........................................................................................................504 Upanishads with known SAkhA-s (shakhas)................................................................505 References made by Adi Shankara in Brahma Sutras...................................................508 Conclusion - A personal opinion...................................................................................509 Authentic Gitas............................................................................................................510 Authenticity of Puranas, Up-puranas and Sthala Puranas............................................517 Controversial verses in padma purANa........................................................................517 Another Classification in padma purANa - a better one................................................519 Opinion of pUrvAcArya-s..............................................................................................521 Greatness of Siva in padma purANa.............................................................................525 Greatness of Siva in bhAgavat purANa........................................................................527 Verses in Siva gItA similar to anya-devatA verses in bhagavad gItA (9.25)...............527 Interpolations in padma purANa..................................................................................529 Interpreting 'tamas'....................................................................................................530 purANa-s cannot contradict vedA-s which glorify rudra...............................................532 Few thoughts about creation, trinity, and words bhagavAn and deva (devatA)...........536 nArAyaNa and the 'Na' factor.......................................................................................537 vaiSnava objections.....................................................................................................539 Moral of story is more important than story and adopting nAhI nindA nyAya..............543 Literal meaning should not be taken............................................................................544 No purANa is superior or inferior.................................................................................545 upa-purANa-s and sthala purANa-s are authentic too - in words of kAnchi paramAcArya ....................................................................................................................................547 References and Sources...............................................................................................549 Sources for reading.....................................................................................................549 Page 25 of 619
  26. 26. Understanding Advaita - Introduction Introduction शवशदतयाधखिलशयास्त्रसभधयाजलधक मशहतरोपशनषतत कधथितयाथिरशनधक | हृदयक कलयक शवमलश चरणश भव शशकर दकशशक मक शरणमत || - तरोटकयाषकश -1 O Thou, The Knower Of All The Milk-Ocean Of Scriptures! The Expounder Of The Topics Of Great Upanisadic Treasure-Trove! On Thy Faultless Feet I Meditate In My Heart. Be Thou My Refuge O preceptor, Sankara. I meditate on Your pure lotus feet in my heart | O Preceptor Shankara, be my refuge. - toTakAShTaka.m - 1 Namaste Fellow Advaitins, This site is dedicated to fellow Advaitins and aims at giving clear picture of Advaita, Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin, Dispelling Doubts, accusations by other Vedantic schools, Giving References of Shastras that Support Advaita, as taught by GauDapadAchArya, Adi Shankara, his successors and other modern saints following Traditional Advaita. A special page has been dedicated to understand a unique traditional teaching passed on to and by Shri Gaudapadacharya and Adi Shanakracharya ji. This method was re-discovered by Sri Sacchidanandendra Saraswati Swami of Holenarsipur. It is called adhyAropa apavAda. Site is divided into 3 main categories: PART I: Advaita Vedanta This part is theoretical in nature. It is written in simple and easy to understand language without much use of quoting shastra-s except the last part which clears accusations on advaita. This part Page 26 of 619
  27. 27. Understanding Advaita - Introduction is not of polemical nature. a. Understanding Advaita • This section attempts to correctly project Advaita. • Explains basic concept of Advaita along with common terminology and definition of basic terms used in advaita, as defined by Adi Shankara in his PrakaraNa grantha-s. • It also goes into subtler details, in brief, which can be useful for sincere advaitins who regularly meditate for attaining moksha. • Some FAQs are also included Advaita teaches to go beyond maayaa, beyond attributes and be free from concepts of duality and non-duality, beyond (worldly and scriptural) knowledge and ignorance. Advaita also teaches that everything else that you see is Brahman. b. adhyAropa apavAda - A Consistent Traditional Teaching This part deals with unique Traditional way of teaching as passed on to and by by Shri Gaudapadacharya and Adi Shanakracharya ji. According to Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati, it is the only consistent method of teaching. c. Meditative Journey of an Advaita Vedantin This part deals with Meditative journey of an Advaita Vedantin. It explains meditation on OM and method of negation i.e. Neti - Neti along with other subtle points. d. Advaita, Creation and it's practicability This part explains questions related to theories of creation w.r.t advaita vedanta and practical application of advaita vedanta. Page 27 of 619
  28. 28. Understanding Advaita - e. Q and A e. Q and A Simple explanation of basic concepts given in Q and A format • Siva-viShNu-abheda f. Musings - Other Side of Coin In this page, we have presented musings which represent 'other side of coin' of certain concepts which are generally taken to [obviously] mean a specific thing. Words like param dhAma, param pada, param gati, bhagavAn, deva, ISvara, paramAtmA all point to one thing - brahman. param dhAma is param jyoti, or consciousness which is GYana param dhAma is not vaikuntha, but bhagavAn himself g. viShNu and caturbhuja viShNu This page explains that it is not necessary that whenever the word 'viShNu' is used, it always means caturbhuja holding with discuss, conch, mace and lotus. viShNu bhagavAn, as deity of preservation is different from paramAtmAn viShNu, which is GYAnasvarUpa or AtmasvarUpa or cidAtmA. When instructions are given to meditate on viShNu as AtmasvarUpa or sUtrAtmA, antaryAmin, cidAtmA or GYAnasvarUpa, it is always nirguNa brahman, pure consciousness and not caturbhuja viShNu i.e. viShNu bhagavAn as a person. h. Siva-viShNu abheda As the name suggests, this page is dedicated to explaining Siva-viShNu abheda in SAStra-s. Page 28 of 619
  29. 29. Understanding Advaita - Introduction i. Clearing Accusations & Doubts This part attempts to clear doubts, accusations and correct misunderstandings. Advaitins are taught to remain calm and neutral when someone verbally attacks them. Every sincere seeker practices his / her path with full faith and devotion. Personal attack can be ignored, but what if it someone attacks the very faith you are practicing? For new comers this will be quite a shock. • Vaishnavas wrongly accuse Adi Shankaracharya being a mayavadi and a hidden Buddhist. • They accuse of Advaita being non-vedic. • They incorrectly say that Avaita is maayaavaad, though it is brahmavaad (niraakaara and vivarta and ajaata vaad) • Some of them even go on to say that Adi Shankara was a demon who walked on earth and anyone following his teachings will be doomed. • Some even go further that followers of Shankara as "tyrannical people who burned down monasteries, destroyed cattle and killed women and children" - source Wikipedia article on Advaita Vedanta, refer to Dvaita --> search for 'kill' and you will find the above statement The purpose of writing this article is that I tried to find the truth and had to spend much time to collect facts that conclude: Advaita, as taught by Adi Shankara is authentic and is consistent with Vedas, upanishads, Puranas and Bhagavad Gita. Hitting back at accusers is avoided, as we are taught to feel compassion and not hatred. One cannot have lower animal emotions if one wants to progress in spirituality. I just want to convey the correct understanding to fellow advaitins so that when anyone tries to defame or accuse Advaita or Adi Shankara, they know it’s a strawman. No one correctly practising Advaita, as taught by Adi Shankaracharya and his preceptors and vedic Rishis will be doomed, in fact, he will be freed from the miserable cycle of birth and death and will sit on the pinnacle of truth. Page 29 of 619
  30. 30. Understanding Advaita - PART II: Advaita in shastras PART II: Advaita in shastras This part contains quotes from shastras supporting the theory of advaita vedanta, a. Advaita in Shastras Shastras are an authority, any path has to be consistent with them. Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita are the pillars of Sanatana Dharma. Hence Reference to advaita teachings in shastras has to be pointed out. References from various smritis (bhagavad Gita, Guru Gita, Uttara Gita, Shiva Gita and other lesser known Gitas) and shrutis (major and minor upanishads) are given. References from Srimad Bhagavatam are also quoted. This part has been the most difficult, not because it is tough to get details, but it has put me in a fix. I am trying to prove, acknowledge that Advaita is authentic and Adi Shankaracharya is genuine. After collecting references from shastras that teach Advaita, we can say, 'Yes Advaita is authentic, consistent with Vedas and Adi Shankara was one of the greatest proponent of traditional advaita' This word Yes, gives me pain. It show the acknowledgement. I feel it is an insult to the entire system and the great beloved acharya Shri Adi Shankara, as a ajnani cannot judge a jnani, nor one should try to. This site is my silent response. It's an attempt to give correct picture and leave it's discretion to the reader. More than a response, I have created this site as I do not want others to waste time collecting references from shastras. After going through this website, questioning and acknowledgment should be replaced by Faith and one should say, 'Advaita is authentic, consistent with Vedas and Adi Shankara was one of the greatest proponent of traditional advaita' Even if one person would speak the above statement from heart, my humble attempt will be fulfilled. Page 30 of 619
  31. 31. Understanding Advaita - Introduction b. Brahman in Upanishads This page is a collection of words connected to Brahman in shastras. c. Concepts of Advaita in Shastras This page attempts to find advaitic concepts like Brahman, Atman, etc from shastras. d. Random Quotes and Thoughts This page is a collection of random but useful quotes from Shastras. It may also have some other useful information other than quotes from shastras. PART III: Conspiracies against Bhartiyas a. Conspiracies against Bhartiyas British East India Company wanted to rule India. In this quest they setup Asiatic Society with 24 + members, like H.H. Wilson, Jones and others to interpret our shasras in a demeaning way. They also hired Max Muller to interpret shastras in a wicked way. they also made attampts to demean our deva bhASa sanskrit and tried to create Pro-Indo-Euro Language as the mother of all languages including Sanskrit. They fabricated a myth called Aryan Invasion theory. Dharm Chakravarty Swami Prakashananda Saraswati had decoded their ways and have presented scientific proofs to support his claims in exposing so-called western scholar, Indologists and Linguists having hidden agenda to destroy our culture and our shastras. These men also corrupted our dharma sAstra-s and grihya sUtra-s and bhavishya purANa. Unfortunately their line of thinking are still followed today. This page is a must read for all Hindus. PART IV: Adi Shankara - A Jagadguru a. Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru Logical reasoning given as to why Adi Sankara is called as Jagadguru. Page 31 of 619
  32. 32. Understanding Advaita - a. Adi Sankara - A Jagadguru PART V: Works of Adi Shankara This page attempts to support works attributed to Adi Shankara and his preaching of smArta dharma. a. Questioning Authenticity of works attributed to Adi Shankara This part attempts to show the reason why some scholars do not consider the works attributed to Adi Shankara are genuinely acharya's creation and finding limitations in their adopted process for critical examination of works. b. References cited by Adi Shankara in his Bhashya on Vishnu Sahasranama This part lists references cited by Sri Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada in his Vishnu Sahasranama bhashya. c. Adi Shankara Preached Smarta Dharma This part attempts to support the common belief that Adi Shankara preached smArta dharma. PART VI: Authentic Shastras a. Authentic Upanishads and Gitas Page 32 of 619
  33. 33. Understanding Advaita - Introduction Traditionally there are 108 upanishads. Some scholars do not accept all 108 upanishads listed in Muktika Upanishad. This part tries to under the reason behind their claim and the method adopted by them for critical study of any shastra before accepting it as a genuine shruti. b. Authenticity Puranas, Up-Puranas and Shala Puranas Logical reasoning is provided from advaita POV in support of claim that all purANa-s are authentic. Verses in padma purANa-s classifying purANa-s into sAttvika, rAjasika, tAmasika are refuted by quoting another classification given in padma purANa. Other reasons like comparing purANa-s with mAhAbhArata and vedA-s and vedAnta are given in support of claim. Lastly, whatever good you find is my Guru's Grace and whatever negative you find is my own. May this humble attempt bring inner peace to Fellow Advaitins and other sincere spiritual seekers. May we all move beyond the realm of vaad-vivaad is my humble prayer. || ॐ तम नमयाशम रभरमत परम || Aum Indiaspirituality Amrut Lets begin our journey by Understanding Advaita Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah || Om Shri Guru Sharanam || Om Shri Ramakrishna Sharanam || Om Shri Ramana Maharshi Sharanam || Om Shri Adi Shankara Sharanam || Om Shri Paramatmane Namah Page 33 of 619
  34. 34. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita Understanding Advaita Salutations to Param Guru - Guru Gita Let us begin with salutations to our Guru who is none other than Sat-Chit-Anand Atma / Brahman यस्य पसयादयादहमकव सवर मय्यकव सवर पररकनलपतश च | इतथिश शवजयानयाशम सदयातमरपश तस्ययाशशघ्रिपदश पणतरोतोऽनस्म शनतयमत || By whose grace that one realizes “I am everything, everything is superimposed in me, I offer my salutations and worship to my self-realised Satguru’s lotus feet. (215) कभ लश धनश बलश शयास्त्रश बयानधवयास्सरोदरया इमक | मरणक नरोपयभजयनतक रभररककरो शह तयारकन || Family traditions, wealth, strength, shastras, relatives, brothers, - none of these are useful to you at the time of death. Satguru is the only saviour. (188) अजयानशतशमरयानधस्य शवषययाकयानतचकतसन | जयानपभयापदयानकन पसयादश कभ र मक पभरो || O Lord, by the gift of the light of knowledge, may Thy blessings be bestowed on me, whose eyes are covered by the cataracts of ignorance, and whose mind is captured by sense pleasure. (216) Refer Glories of Param Guru What is Advaita Vedanta The word 'Advaita' ( अदवैत ) means non-duality. It is a philosophy which describes that there is only Page 34 of 619
  35. 35. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita one reality and one truth i.e. Brahman. All else is not real, not eternal and is of transient nature. Brahman is changeless, formless, indivisible, unchanging, immutable, beyond guna-s (attributes), beyond the reach of 5 senses, mind and beyond the realms of mAyA (मयायया). A + Dvaita (अ + दवैत)= Advaita Dvaita (दवैत) = Duality, A-Dvaita = not- duality = non-duality Vedanta means the end parts of Vedas, which contains the essence of Vedas. Here the end part is to be taken as essence and not literally 'end' part. Hence, Advaita Vedanta can be defined as a marg (path) which teaches the essence of vedas that there is one supreme reality (non-dual) - NirguNa Brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह). Advaita Vedanta teaches that this world is transient, temporary, adobe of sorrows, and mithya (शमथ्यया). It is due to the power of God's Maya (illusion) that this world looks different than Brahman. Brahman alone is reality. Advaita asks one to raise from Sharira bhava (शरमर भयाव) to Jiva bhava (जमव भयाव) to Atma Bhava (आतम भयाव). According to Advaita, Jiva (जमव) and Shiva (शशव, brahman, ब्रह ) are not different. Entire advaita can be summed up in half verse as ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन - ब्रह जयानयावलममयालया - २० Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" - Brahma Jnanavali mala- 20 Brahman (ब्रह, the Absolute) is alone real; this world is unreal; the Jiva (जमव) or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman (ब्रह). The full verse is ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन अनकन वकदश सच्छयास्त्रशमशत वकदयानतशडतनणडमन - - ब्रह जयानयावलममयालया - २० Page 35 of 619
  36. 36. Understanding Advaita - What is Advaita Vedanta brahma satyam jaganmithyA jIvo brahmaiva nAparah anena vedyam sacchAstram iti vedAntaDiNDimah–Brahma Jnanavali mala- 20 20. Brahman (ब्रह) is real, the universe is mithya (शमथ्यया), it cannot be categorized as either real or unreal. The jiva (जमव) is Brahman (ब्रह) itself and not different. This should be understood as the correct SAstra (शयास्त्र). This is proclaimed by Vedanta. This half verse is also found in nirAlambopanishad: ब्रह सतयश जरननमथ्यया जमवरो ब्रहवैव नयापरन (शनरयालमबरोपशनषद - २८) "Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" - nirAlambopaniShada - 28 (Niraalamba Upanishad - 28) Brahman (ब्रह, the Absolute) is alone real; this world is unreal; the Jiva or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman. Adi Shankaracharya was one of the greatest proponent of Advaita Vedanta. Though most people stick to Brahma satya, jagat mithyA, Adi Shankara did not stop at jagat mithya, he went on the say that Jagat satyam. This Jagat satyam is not from dual point, but from atma sthiti (आतमनस्थिशत). It is conveyed by another mahAvAkya (महयावयाक्य), sarvam khalu-idam brahma (सवर खिलभ इदश ब्रह) i.e. everything else is (also) brahman. Important concepts of Advaita Vedanta that one frequently comes across are 1. Brahman Satyam 2. Jagat MithyA 3. Jiva and Brahman are not Different 4. Brahman due to it's mAyA appears as this world. 5. Everything else is also Brahman 6. Atman is Sat-Chit-Ananda and not different from Brahman. Page 36 of 619
  37. 37. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita Basic Concepts of Advaita in Points Talking in more detail, here are some basic concepts of advaita: 1. Brahman is the only reality i.e. Truth is one. (ekam Sat - Rig Veda 1.164.46) 2. Brahman is beyond 3 guna-s (शत्रिरभणयातमत), time, space, mAyA (मयायया), and 5 senses. 3. Brahman is one without a second. There is no duality in Brahman (ब्रह) 4. Brahman is without beginning and end. 5. Brahman is indescribable, indivisible, undivided, peaceful, immutable, infinite, subtlest and omnipresent. 6. Brahman is nirAkAra (शनरयाकयार). 7. Brahman is Sat-Chit-Ananda Svarupa (सनच्चदयाननद स्वरप) 8. Brahman is jnana Svarupa (जयान स्वरप). 9. Brahman has independent existence and does not depend upon anything else 10. Brahman when working through mAyA (मयायया), it's illusionary power, is called as saguNa brahman (सरभण ब्रह) or Ishwara (ईशवर) 11. mAyA (मयायया) is mithyA (शमथ्यया) i.e. it is neither real nor completely unreal. Though it is unreal, it appears to be real. 12. Both Ishwara and Jiva have upAdhi-s (उपयाधध) 13. Ishwara (SaguNa Brahman, सरभण ब्रह) is not different than Brahman (ब्रह) and is not under the spell of mAyA (मयायया) i.e. bound by mAyA (मयायया) whom Ishwara controls. 14. mAyA (मयायया) does not have independent existence. It depends upon and rest upon Brahman (ब्रह) 15. Jiva is the same Brahman which associates itself with avidhA mAyA (अशवधया मयायया) i.e. panchamahAbhuta (पञ्चमहयाभभत). 16. Ishwara has 6 upAdhi-s (उपयाधध), but is not bound by it. 17. When upAdhi-s (उपयाधध) of both jiva (जमव) and Ishwara (ईशवर) are removed, what is left is NirguNa Brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) or simply Brahman (ब्रह). Page 37 of 619
  38. 38. Understanding Advaita - What is Advaita Vedanta 18. Perceiving duality (दवैत) is due to error in perception. Technically Jiva (जमव) is not different than Shiva (Brahman, शशव, ब्रह) 19. Atman (आतमया) is Sat-Chit-Ananda (सनच्चदयाननद) and not different from Brahman (ब्रह). 20. 'I' atma when associates with jiva gets trapped into this samsAra (सशसयार), when it associates itself with Brahman (ब्रह) it merges into brahman (ब्रह) loosing it's individual identity. 21. There are three levels of truths - vyavahArika satya (व्यवहयाररक सतय), prAtibhAsika satya (पयाशतभयाधसक सतय) and pArmArthIk satya (पयारमयाधथिरक सतय) 22. Jiva was never separated from Brahman as Brahman is indivisible. 23. mAyA (मयायया) or jiva (जमव) or jagat (जरत) does cease to exist in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवरकलप समयाधध). In other words, existence of mAyA (मयायया), jiva (जमव) and jagat (जरत) are negated in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवरकलप समयाधध) 24. Jnana (जयान) cannot be given as one is already Brahman (ब्रह). Atman (आतमया) is Brahman (ब्रह). Only ajnana (अजयान, ignorance) can be removed. 25. Though mAyA (मयायया) is beginning-less (अनयाशद) it's ends in Jnana (जयान) i.e. it's existence is negated in nirvikalpa samAdhi (शनशवरकलप समयाधध). 26. Existence of Jiva is not eternal 27. After negation of what is 'not this' Neti-Neti (नकशत-नकशत) i.e. nA-iti - nA-iti (नया-इशत - नया-इशत) meaning 'not-this, not-this', that which is not atman (आतमया) or is different than 'I' (अहमत), only pure consciousness remains. To explain these concepts, Adi Shankara out of compassion created prakaraNa grantha-s (पकरण ग्रनथित). PrakaraNa grantha-s are introductory texts that give definitions of key concepts of Advaita (अदवैत). Other than Adi Shankara, his disciples and successors have also created some prakaraNa grantha-s and written commentaries (bhashya-s, भयाष्य) and annotations (vArttika, वयाधत्तरक). Others have named commentary as dipikA (शदशपकया) or chandrikA (चननदकया), some call it as bhava prakAsha (भयाव पकयाश). Sub commentary is called as laghu dipikA (लघभ शदशपकया), as used by some recent commentators. Page 38 of 619
  39. 39. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita Tatva Bodh (ततव बरोध) is the first text that should be referred. Later Vivek Chudamani (शववकक चभणयामशण) should be referred. Atma Bodh (आतम बरोधत), aparokshAnubhuti (अपररोकयानभभभशत) is also very useful. PanchAdashi (पशचयादशम) by vidyAraNya Swami (शवदयारणय स्वयाशम ) is considered as manual of advaita. Other prakaraNa grantha-s are NAishkarmya Siddhi (नवैष्कमयर धसशद) by SureshvarAchArya (सभरकशवरयाचयायर) and vAkya vritti (वयाक्य वकधत्त) by Adi Shankara. Tatva Bodh (ततव बरोध) defines basic concepts and terms used in advaita (अदवैत). It answers questions like What is Jiva (जमव) What is Atman (आतमया) What is Brahman (ब्रह) What is Mithya (शमथ्यया) What is Nitya (शनतय) and a-nitya (अशनतय) What is satya (सतय) and a-satya (असतय) PanjikaraNa prakriyA (पञ्चमकरण पशकयया) - creation of this world, bodies - gross (sthUla, स्थिभल शरमर) and subtle (sUkshma, सभकम शरमर), mana (मन), antakaraNa (अनतनकरण) etc are explained. Vivek Chudamani, though a prakaraNa grantha (पकरण ग्रनथि) is very long comprising of 582 sloka-s (verses). Even though it is a prakaraNa granth (पयाकरण ग्रनथि) , it contains indepth knowledge and is considered as capable of giving moksha if studied thoroughly. In advaita Vedanta, one meditates on the SELF and establishes himself in the true nature. Some of them call it meditation on the absolute Brahman. A vedantin does not consider himself different from the God / Atman / Brahman. Hence he meditates with ananya bhAva (अननय भयाव), i.e. I am not different from Brahman. ( अ+anya = अ+अनय = अननय. a +anya = ananya, not+different = not- different). Followers of advaita practice meditation on Aum / Om or practice Self Enquiry as prescribed by Sri Ramana Maharshi. Page 39 of 619
  40. 40. Understanding Advaita - What is Advaita Vedanta sAdhaka-s are requested to study these prakaraNa granth-s before taking up Bhagavad Gita. This is necessary to understand Gita from Advaita standpoint. Since you will find the explanation of basic terminology and concepts from these books, detailed explanation is not intended here. Lets understand these terms in brief. References from Shastras may be given in future if time permits. Some key words in Advaita are: • Brahman or nirguNa Brahman (ब्रह, शनरभरण ब्रह) • Ishwara or saguNa Brahman (ईशवर, सरभण ब्रह) • mAyA and mithyA (मयायया, शमथ्यया) • jagat (जरत) • jIva (जमव) • Atma or Atman (आतमया) • nitya-anitya (शनतय - अशनतय) • moksha (मरोक) • Three types of vAsanA-s (वयासनया) and their renunciations • Three types of truth: vyavahArika satya, prAtibhAsika satya and pArmArthika satya. Lets take understand one by one. Brahman Advaita defines two Brahmans, saguNa (सरभण) and nirguNa (शनरभरण). When simply written 'brahman' it means nirguNa brahman. NirguNa brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) Page 40 of 619
  41. 41. Understanding Advaita - Understanding Advaita NirguNa brahman is a considered as formless, indivisible, unchanging, attributeless, beyond mAyA and peaceful. Brahman is Sat-Chit-Anand Here people wrongly interpret the word nirguNa (attributeless) as sunya (zero) or void or blank. Brahman is not a negative state. Upon careful study of Gita and Upanishads, it can be understood that brahman is beyond guNa-s (रभणयातमत). Brahman is one without second, it is supreme, peaceful and Sat-Chit-Anand (सतत-शचतत-आननद). Brahman is said to be inexpressible, meaning that words cannot describe it, 5 senses cannot experience it. So one has to go beyond the realm of senses, mind and mAyA to experience oneness with Brahman. If one says that 'I am experiencing peace' then one is defining Brahman which is beyond 5 senses. A better word is Brahman is peace. It is true that Brahman cannot be defined, but for the sake of explanation, rishis have made attempts to describe brahman in a dual tone so that disciple can finally rise above duality and abide in Brahman. The knower of Brahman is none other than Brahman itself. Here nirguNa brahman is not to be considered as negative. It is ananda svarupa (आनशद स्वरप), but you are not different to experience it. Hence the word non-dual is used to indicate that there is no duality of observer (दृषया, witness) and object of observation (दृशय). To observe, witness, experience or see anything one has to be conscious of it. e.g. to see a car, your consciousness has to be in the physical body, else if you are day dreaming, even if car is in front if you, you cannot see it. In the same way to experience or be a witness, consciousness has to be present i.e. one has to be aware of 'object of observation'. Hence there is duality. After the object of observation has merged into observer only pure consciousness remains. But how can the object merge. Because it is just a mental projection, a false perception due to illusion of mAyA (मयायया). When one knows the art of discriminating real and unreal and see the source, one sees Brahman everywhere. Hence it is said that the knower of Brahman is not different that Brahman itself. Hence it is said that sarvam khalu-idam Brahman (सवर खिलभ इदश ब्रह) - whatever else you see is also Brahman or everything (else) is Brahman. It is not different from you, it is not separate from you. If it is made of same material as you are but yet you are different, then it would falsify the definition of Brahman being indivisible and immutable. Hence you cannot say that 'I am the part and Brahman is full'. The concept of qualitatively same but quantitatively different will violate shruti and hence cannot be accepted. If you say that - this is a rose flower. It means that you are not rose flower. Hence you are different than rose flower. In the same way when you say that 'Hi I am Amrut', you use to word 'I' and not 'this'. Please note the difference. Here 'I' is associated with physical body, as our consciousness is strongly associated with physical body. Hence we do not say that 'This is Amrut' (even though recently we do say - this is Amrut, is is grammatically incorrect) Anything that is not you is pointed as 'This', which is said as 'idam' in sanskrit. The path of advaita is self enquiry. It is called as path of negation - 'Neti - Neti' (नकशत - नकशत). nA-iti, nA-iti (नया-इशत, नया- इशत) means 'not this, not this'. Idea is to separate or dis-associate or detach 'I' from that Page 41 of 619
  42. 42. Understanding Advaita - NirguNa brahman (शनरभरण ब्रह) is not 'I'. Hence it is called as path of negation (of non self). Please note that one cannot negate oneself. One cannot deny one's own existence as any time. 'I' cannot be negated, only that is different from 'I' can be negated. After negating which is 'not you', like peeling off layers of onion, what is left is emptyness, just you. Empty means nothing more remains to be negated. Now nothing that can be seen is left. In other words, there is no 'drashya pdArtha' (visible object or object of observation). Kindly note that in this process, observer is not negated, hence only the observer remains. Let us understand this with the help of another example. Name and form are interconnected. There is no form, which does not have a name and there is no name which does not have a form. Brahman is called so only for understanding and explanatory purpose. The moment we here name of object, we visualize it's shape. For example - 'Tree'. As soon as I speak the word 'Tree', a shape appears in front of you. A small demonstration will help understand better. When is say, 'This is a mango tree', mango tree appears in front of you. Now remove, the name which is 'mango tree'. What remains is just a shape. Now remove shape. Only the knowledge that this was mango tree remains. Nothing is in front of you. In other words, the object of observation 'Mango Tree' is absent. Only the observer remains. There is no second. The thing that remains is just knowledge. Hence Atman is called as Jnana-svarupa (of nature of giving knowledge). But one can only be aware of anything if one is conscious of it. Hence Atman is pure consciousness. Consciousness is the one which is responsible for any knowledge. In other words consciousness has the quality or nature of giving knowledge. Hence Atman is also called as Prakash-svarupa (of nature of light). Light also has nature of giving knowledge. We want to find our wrist watch, but cannot find it as the room is dark. When you switch on light, you can locate your wrist watch. Light has nature of giving knowledge. It should be noted that Atman is not light, but of nature of light in a sense that both light and Atman has nature of giving. In other words, Atman is responsible for any kind of knowledge. Kindly note that the observer himself is not negated, only object of observation is negated. It is said that in Jnana driSTi (जयान दृशष) i.e. in state of Atma- Jnana, samsAra (सशसयार) is negated. Please note that the word used is 'negated' and not 'destroyed'. Hence one reaches to a conclusion, 'Aham brahmAsmi' (अहश ब्रहयानस्म) meaning 'I am Brahman' - a mahavakya. Since this 'I' is nothing but pure consciousness, it reflects another mahAakya - PrajnAnam Brahma (पजयानश ब्रह) meaning 'consciousness is brahman'. You began this journey by being in duality and you thought that 'I' is different from Brahman, Hence Guru instructs you into a mahAvAkya 'tat tvam asi' (:!

×