Working length in root canal treatment /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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Working length in root canal treatment /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. WORKING LENGTH DETERMINATION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. WORKING LENGTH DETERMINATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. DETERMINATION OF WORKING LENGTHThe determination of an accurate working length isone of the most critical steps of endodontic therapy.The cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the rootcanal system cannot be accomplished accuratelyunless the working length is determined precisely. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Diagrammatic view of the periapex. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS &TERMINOLOGYthe endodontic Glossary as “the distance from a coronalreference point to the point at which canal preparationand obturation should terminate,” The ideal apical reference point in the canal, the “apicalstop,”The anatomic apex is the tip or the end of the rootdetermined morphologically,The radiographic apex is the tip or end of the rootdetermined radiographically. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. The apical foramen is the main apical opening of theroot canal. It is frequently eccentrically located awayfrom the anatomic or radiographic apex. Kuttler’s investigation showed that this deviation occurredin 68 to 80% of teeth . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. The apical constriction (minor apical diameter) is the apical portion of the root canal having thenarrowest diameter. This position may varybut is usually 0.5 to 1.0 mm short of the center of theapical foramen.The minor diameter widens apically to the foramen (majordiameter) and assumes a funnel shape. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. The cementodentinal junction is the region where thedentin and cementum are united, the point at which thecemental surface terminates at or near the apex of atooth.It must be pointed out, however, that thecementodentinal junction is a histologic landmark thatcannot be located clinically or radiographically. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Clinical ConsiderationsBefore determining a definitive working length, the coronalaccess to the pulp chamber must provide a straight linepathway into the canal orifice. Modifications in access preparation may be required topermit the instrument to penetrate, unimpeded, to theapical constriction. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. To achieve the highest degree of accuracy in workinglength determination, a combination of several methodsshould be used. 1.RADIOGRAPHIC METHOD. 2.DIGITAL TACTILE METHOD. 3.PAPER POINT EVALUATION METHOD. 4.ELECTRONIC METHOD. 5.AVERAGE LENGTH METHOD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. METHODS OF DETERMINING Radiographic Apex Location.Materials and Conditions.:1. Good, undistorted, preoperative radiographs showingthe total length and all roots of the involved tooth.2. Adequate coronal access to all canals.3. An endodontic millimeter ruler.4. Working knowledge of the average length of all of the teeth.5. A definite, repeatable plane of reference to ananatomic landmark on the tooth, a fact that shouldbe noted on the patient’s record. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. A.Do not use weakened enamel walls or diagonal lines of fractureas a reference site for length-of-tooth measurement.B,Weakened cusps or incisal edges are reduced to a well-supported tooth structure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. DIAGNOSTICRADIOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. WEINE”S RECOMENDATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. PAPER POINT METHOD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. ELECTRONIC METHOD electrode APEX LOCATOR Lip attachmentwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. APEX LOCATORSThe scientific basis for apex locators originated withresearch conducted by Suzuki in 1942. PRINCIPLEHis in vivo research on dogs using direct currentdiscovered that the electrical resistance between theperiodontal ligament and the oral mucosa was aconstant value of 6.5 kilo-ohms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. All apex locators function by using the human bodyto complete an electrical circuit. One side of the apexlocator’s circuitry is connected to an endodonticinstrument.The other side is connected to the patient’s body,either by a contact to the patient’s lip or by anelectrode held in the patient’s hand. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. This classification is based on the type of current flow andthe opposition to the current flow, as well as the number offrequencies involved.First-Generation Apex Locators. First-generationapex location devices, also known as resistance apexlocatorsmeasure opposition to the flow of direct currentor resistance.When the tip of the reamer reaches theapex in the canal, the resistance value is 6.5 kilo-ohmscombination apex locator and pulp vitality tester. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Second-Generation Apex Locators. Second-generationapex locators, also known as impedance apex locators,measure opposition to the flow of alternatingcurrent or impedance. Inoue developed the Sono-Explorer, one of the earliest of the second-generationapex locators. Digipex, Exact-A- pex,foramatronIv www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. THIRD GENERATION the impedances offered by the circuit to currents of differing frequencies will change relative to each other. This is the principle on which the operation of the “third-generation” apex locators is based. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. ROOT ZX www.indiandentalacademy.com

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