INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

3
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Mushroom loop
o

Apical addition of wire in archial configuration

o

More patient friendly- reduces the horizontal part
o...
o

Single cuspid retraction, en masse anterior
retraction

o

NiTi intrusion arch, tied piggyback to SS archwire

www.indi...
o

Preformed M loop space closing archwires

o

Preactivation- separating the legs by 3mm.
Gable bends- mesial to increase...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Double keyhole loop
o

Roth treatment mechanics

o

Introduced by John Parker- 0.019 x 0.026

o

Concept



Complete spac...
PG Retraction Spring
o

Poul Gjessing- 1985

o

Controlled tipping- uprightingover long periods of activation

o

Net resu...
o Segment of circle in distal leg- eliminate undesirable
moments acting on 2nd premolar
www.indiandentalacademy.com
PG Retraction Spring
o

For canine retraction- 160gms

o

Double helix separated by 1mm

o

Resist tipping & rotational te...
PG Retraction Spring
o

Controlled incisor retraction

o

Auxiliary molar tube- lateral incisor bracket

o

Twist anterior...
o

Used for retraction of both canine and incisors

o

Incisor segment intrusion- 20-25gms/side

o

Mesial and distal exte...
Opus loop
o

Described by Raymond E. Siatkowski

o

M/F for translation


Individual teeth: 7.1-10.2 mm



Groups of tee...
Opus loop
Disadvantage of gable bend
o

Tipping- translation- uprighting

o

Correct magnitude of residual moments are
dif...
Opus loop
o

Study: design and verify loop design capable of
delivering M/F inherently without adding residual
moments.

o...
Standard Opus 70 loop

M/F ratio on both the ends is equal
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K-SIR LOOP
o

K-SIR – Kalra Simultaneous Intrusion and Retraction

o

Continuous 0.019 x 0.025 TMA archwire

o

Closed loo...
K-SIR LOOP

www.indiandentalacademy.com
K-SIR LOOP

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K-SIR LOOP
o

Trial activation- releases stress built up

o

Reduces the severity of V bend

Neutral position
www.indiande...
K-SIR LOOP
o

Second premolar bypassed- IBD

o

Controlled tipping- bodily-root movement

o

Reactivation 6-8 wks

www.ind...
K-SIR LOOP
Advantages
o

Simplicity of design- ease of fabrication

o

Comfortable to the patient

o

TMA- low forces, low...
A comparative analysis of commonly used retraction
loops in Edgewise mechanics- A FEM Study. Dr.
Chetan V. Jayade


Evalu...
o

Findings of the study

o

Opus loop showed highest M/F ratio

o

‘T’ loop showed lowest LDR

o

Loop height= M/F = F/D ...
Loops Software
o

Program developed by Borland Delphi

o

Simulate any ortho loop connecting 2 brackets

o

AJO 1997- Deme...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Obstacles to space closure
o

Inadequate leveling

o

Damaged brackets

o

Incorrect force levels

o

Interference from op...
Root Torquing
o

Stage III- correction of labio-lingual & mesiodistal root position

o

Torquing assessed by



Visual in...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Tan auxiliary

Boot auxiliary- buccal root torque of molars

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Uprighting springs
o

Size of coil

o

Mini spring- inner diameter of coil- twice the size of
wire diameter- coils tiny- d...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Torquing of rootso

Torquing of roots- twist in the rectangular wire

o

“The equal and opposite reciprocal reactions
(whi...
Torquing of roots1,2,3 progressively
torqued more and
more?

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Torquing of roots-

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Torquing of rootso

Twists in the rectangular archwire seem to be
appropriate only when reciprocal torque is
required on t...
Alternate torquing methods (Thurow)

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Alternate torquing methods
(DeAngelis)
o

Warren Spring
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Alternate torquing methods
(Burstone, Isaacson)

www.indiandentalacademy.com
o

Cantilever spring- En masse root correction

www.indiandentalacademy.com
o

Rectangular loop- separate canine root correction

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www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Conclusion
o

Space closure- fricton/frictionless

o

Anchorage classification

o

Root torquing

www.indiandentalacademy....
Zeal without knowledge is a
runaway horse

www.indiandentalacademy.com
References
1.

Contemporary orthodontics.- William R. Proffit

2.

Modern Edgewise mechanics and the segmented
arch techni...
References
6.

Systemized Orthodontic Treatment Mechanics.McLaughlin, Bennett, Trevisi.

7.

Tip-Edge guide and Differenti...
References
11.

The segmented arch approach to space closure.
Charles J. Burstone. Ajo Nov 1982

12.

Segmental approach t...
References
17.

An investigation into the characteristics of PG canine
retraction spring. Eden and Waters. AJO Jan.1994

1...
References
21.

J- Hook Headgear- John Hickam

22.

Continuous arch wire closing loop design,
optimization, and verificati...
26.

Biomechanics of torque- An FEM Investigation.
Dr V. P. Jayade

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Space closure 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Space closure 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com 3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Mushroom loop o Apical addition of wire in archial configuration o More patient friendly- reduces the horizontal part of wire near vestibule o Beta-titanium CNA M loop- 0.017 x 0.025 o Activation upto 5 mm o Reactivation- every 6-8 wks o Bypass premolars, IBD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. o Single cuspid retraction, en masse anterior retraction o NiTi intrusion arch, tied piggyback to SS archwire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. o Preformed M loop space closing archwires o Preactivation- separating the legs by 3mm. Gable bends- mesial to increase anterior moment distal to increase anchorage moment o Torque in distal leg eliminated- wire passive in third order in buccal segment o Loop reactivated until there is atleast 3 mm of space closure o After space closure, wire left in mouth for 1-2 visitsroot uprightingwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Double keyhole loop o Roth treatment mechanics o Introduced by John Parker- 0.019 x 0.026 o Concept  Complete space closure with one set of archwires  Allows operator to select how space will be closed  Activation- cinching wire distal to last molar tube www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. PG Retraction Spring o Poul Gjessing- 1985 o Controlled tipping- uprightingover long periods of activation o Net result- bodily movement o Preformed-0.016 x 0.022 SS o Double ovoid apical helix- 10mm o Smaller occlusally placed helixactivation further closes the loops www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. o Segment of circle in distal leg- eliminate undesirable moments acting on 2nd premolar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. PG Retraction Spring o For canine retraction- 160gms o Double helix separated by 1mm o Resist tipping & rotational tendencies -not correct rotation or extreme inclination o Leveling of buccal segment –must o Activation- every 4 wks o Each activation- 1.5mm of controlled movement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. PG Retraction Spring o Controlled incisor retraction o Auxiliary molar tube- lateral incisor bracket o Twist anterior leg 90˚ - 3mm in front of vertical helix- fit in vertical tube of lateral bracket o Intrusive force- 12-25gms each side o Estimated treatment time- 5-6 months on an avg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. o Used for retraction of both canine and incisors o Incisor segment intrusion- 20-25gms/side o Mesial and distal extensions angulated to build in residual moments o Vertical forces in the posterior segment counteracted by forces of occlusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Opus loop o Described by Raymond E. Siatkowski o M/F for translation  Individual teeth: 7.1-10.2 mm  Groups of teeth: 8.0-9.1 mm o Most closing loops M/F 4-5 mm o To achieve net translation, add residual moment  Gable bends anterior & posterior  Posterior gable band & anterior wire-bracket twist www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Opus loop Disadvantage of gable bend o Tipping- translation- uprighting o Correct magnitude of residual moments are difficult to achieve o Changing areas of stress distribution in the pdl may not yield most rapid, least traumatic method of space closure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Opus loop o Study: design and verify loop design capable of delivering M/F inherently without adding residual moments. o Castigliano’s Theorem: to derive of M/F ratio in terms of loop geometry. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Standard Opus 70 loop M/F ratio on both the ends is equal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. K-SIR LOOP o K-SIR – Kalra Simultaneous Intrusion and Retraction o Continuous 0.019 x 0.025 TMA archwire o Closed loop- 7mm x 2mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. K-SIR LOOP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. K-SIR LOOP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. K-SIR LOOP o Trial activation- releases stress built up o Reduces the severity of V bend Neutral position www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. K-SIR LOOP o Second premolar bypassed- IBD o Controlled tipping- bodily-root movement o Reactivation 6-8 wks www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. K-SIR LOOP Advantages o Simplicity of design- ease of fabrication o Comfortable to the patient o TMA- low forces, low LDR, long range of action o En masse retraction- Shortens treatment timeprevents appearance of unsightly space distal to incisors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. A comparative analysis of commonly used retraction loops in Edgewise mechanics- A FEM Study. Dr. Chetan V. Jayade  Evaluate mechanical behavior of routinely used retraction loops in edgewise mechanotherapy  9 different loop designs evaluated for assessing M/F ratio and F/D rates when subjected to horizontal activation forces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. o Findings of the study o Opus loop showed highest M/F ratio o ‘T’ loop showed lowest LDR o Loop height= M/F = F/D rate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Loops Software o Program developed by Borland Delphi o Simulate any ortho loop connecting 2 brackets o AJO 1997- Demetrios Halazonetis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Obstacles to space closure o Inadequate leveling o Damaged brackets o Incorrect force levels o Interference from opposing teeth o Soft tissue resistance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Root Torquing o Stage III- correction of labio-lingual & mesiodistal root position o Torquing assessed by  Visual inspection of appearance of teeth  Palpation of roots  From radiographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Tan auxiliary Boot auxiliary- buccal root torque of molars www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Uprighting springs o Size of coil o Mini spring- inner diameter of coil- twice the size of wire diameter- coils tiny- difficult to grip o Midi spring- incisors 0.010”,canines-0.012” o Maxi spring- 4 times wire diameter www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Torquing of rootso Torquing of roots- twist in the rectangular wire o “The equal and opposite reciprocal reactions (which generally cause undesirable opposite movements of adjacent teeth) are commonly disregarded”. o Biomechanics of torque- An FEM investigationDr. V. P. Jayade www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Torquing of roots1,2,3 progressively torqued more and more? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Torquing of roots- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Torquing of rootso Twists in the rectangular archwire seem to be appropriate only when reciprocal torque is required on the adjacent teeth, but beware of high moments. (‘Use undersize wires’- Thurow) o “twists” in the rectangular wire for attaining torque should be employed judiciously, and not indiscriminately. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Alternate torquing methods (Thurow) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Alternate torquing methods (DeAngelis) o Warren Spring www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Alternate torquing methods (Burstone, Isaacson) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. o Cantilever spring- En masse root correction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. o Rectangular loop- separate canine root correction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Conclusion o Space closure- fricton/frictionless o Anchorage classification o Root torquing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Zeal without knowledge is a runaway horse www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. References 1. Contemporary orthodontics.- William R. Proffit 2. Modern Edgewise mechanics and the segmented arch technique.-Dr. Charles J. Burstone 3. Biomechanics in clinical orthodontics- Ravindra Nanda 4. Biomechanics and Esthetic strategies in clinical orthodontics- ravindra Nanda 5. Biomechanics in clinical orthodontics- Michael R. Marcotte www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. References 6. Systemized Orthodontic Treatment Mechanics.McLaughlin, Bennett, Trevisi. 7. Tip-Edge guide and Differential straight- arch technique.-Peter C. Kesling 8. Refined Begg for modern times.- Dr. V. P. Jayade 9. The Alexander Principle. Contemporary concepts and principles.- R. G. Wick Alexander 10. Bio-Efficient 11. Therapy.- Anthony Viazis Fricker www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. References 11. The segmented arch approach to space closure. Charles J. Burstone. Ajo Nov 1982 12. Segmental approach to mandibular molar uprighting.- Roberts, Cracker, Burstone 1982 mar 13. Biomechanical design and clinical evaluation of new canine retraction spring. Poul Gjessing. AJO May 1985 14. Effect of ph on chain elastics- AJO 1990 nov 15. Use of vertical loops in retraction system- Apr 1991 16. Clinical considerations in the use of retraction mechanics. Julie Ann Stagger, JCO June 1991 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. References 17. An investigation into the characteristics of PG canine retraction spring. Eden and Waters. AJO Jan.1994 18. T-loop position and anchorage control. Kuhlberg and Burstone. AJO 1997 19. Design and test orthodontic loops using your computer. Demetrious J. Halazonetis. AJO Mar 1997 20. Ongoing Innovations in Biomechanics & Materials for the New Millennium- Robert P. Kusy 21. Simultaneous intrusion and retraction of anterior www.indiandentalacademy.com teeth. Varun Kalra. JCO 1998
  57. 57. References 21. J- Hook Headgear- John Hickam 22. Continuous arch wire closing loop design, optimization, and verification. Part I & II. Raymond E. Siatkowski. AJO Oct. 1997 22. A comparative analysis of commonly used retraction loops in Edgewise mechanics- A FEM Study. Dr. Chetan V. Jayade 23. Experimental evaluation of frictional resistance in the posterior segment using different wires and posterior attachments- Dr. Ashwini Joshi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. 26. Biomechanics of torque- An FEM Investigation. Dr V. P. Jayade www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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