SELECTION OF TEETHSELECTION OF TEETH
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.c...
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
The selection of teeth for completeThe selection of teeth for complete
dentures is best understo...
• Teeth should fulfill the following needs :
a. Function well
b. Allow the patient to speak normally
c. Esthetically pleas...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
•Anterior teeth are primarily selected to
satisfy esthetic harmony, whereas the
posterior teeth are primarily selected to
...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
MOLD AND SHADEMOLD AND SHADE
IDENTIFICATIONIDENTIFICATION
(anterior teeth)(anterior teeth)
• Mold guides, mold selectors a...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
•Lincoln dental supply company suggested a
system, LOGIC CODING SYSTEM in which
the universal coded no’s would be provided...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Posterior teethPosterior teeth
Posterior teeth are often identified byPosterior teeth are often identified by
name of the...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
SELECTION OF ANTERIORSELECTION OF ANTERIOR
TEETHTEETHIt is the area of the prosthetic care inIt is the area of the prosth...
Guides for selecting size of anteriorGuides for selecting size of anterior
teethteeth
Size of the faceSize of the face
S...
Size of the faceSize of the face
The average width of maxillary centralThe average width of maxillary central
incisor is ...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Size of maxillary archSize of maxillary arch
Mold selector is used to makeMold selector is used to make
measurements of m...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Incisive papilla and canineIncisive papilla and canine
eminenceeminence
If Canine eminences are discernible, a lineIf Can...
A pointed instument passed on the lineA pointed instument passed on the line
parallel to pupils of eye & diatance isparal...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Maxillomandibular relationsMaxillomandibular relations
Any disproportion in size of mandibular &Any disproportion in size...
Contour of residual ridgesContour of residual ridges
Artificial teeth should be placed to followArtificial teeth should b...
Vertical distance between theVertical distance between the
ridgesridges
The length of teeth is determined byThe length of...
The lipsThe lips
When lips are relaxed & apart, labialWhen lips are relaxed & apart, labial
surfaces of maxillary anterio...
In speech, the incisal edges of maxillaryIn speech, the incisal edges of maxillary
anterior teeth contact the lower lip a...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
FORM OF ANTERIOR TEETHFORM OF ANTERIOR TEETH
FORM AND CONTOUR OF FACEFORM AND CONTOUR OF FACE
SEXSEX
AGEAGE
www.indiand...
Form and contour of faceForm and contour of face
The form of tooth should conform to theThe form of tooth should conform ...
 Indicator may be used to establish facialIndicator may be used to establish facial
outline as follows ;outline as follow...
To determine facial profile, observeTo determine facial profile, observe
relative straightness or curvature of profilerel...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
SEXSEX
Curved facial features are associated withCurved facial features are associated with
feminity & square with mascul...
AGEAGE
Lips lose their curves and cupids bow andLips lose their curves and cupids bow and
teeth wear at the incisal edges...
Colour or shade of anteriorColour or shade of anterior
teethteeth
Colour is the sensation resulting fromColour is the sen...
The position of patient & source of lightThe position of patient & source of light
are important factors in colour select...
If proper shade is hard to establish theIf proper shade is hard to establish the
tooth & shade guide shoud be viewedtooth...
Posterior teeth selectionPosterior teeth selection
Selection of posterior teeth is made inSelection of posterior teeth is...
4. Fulfills requirement neutral zone, which is4. Fulfills requirement neutral zone, which is
a space resulting from the re...
ShadeShade
The shade of posterior teeth shouldThe shade of posterior teeth should
harmonize with the shade of anterior te...
Size and numberSize and number
The size & number of posterior teete areThe size & number of posterior teete are
closely r...
FormForm
The proximal, lingual & buccal surfacesThe proximal, lingual & buccal surfaces
should be contoured like natural ...
Materials for artificial teethMaterials for artificial teeth
Porcelain teethPorcelain teeth
Porcelain teeh has greater we...
Resin teethResin teeth
Resin teeth has natural appearanceResin teeth has natural appearance
Resin teeth has the capablit...
Metal-inert teethMetal-inert teeth
Metal-insert teeth has improved occlusalMetal-insert teeth has improved occlusal
wear ...
TYPES OF TEETHTYPES OF TEETH
Anatomic teethAnatomic teeth
Anatomic teeth are artificial teeth thatAnatomic teeth are arti...
Non-anatomic teethNon-anatomic teeth
Artificial teeth in which the occlusalArtificial teeth in which the occlusal
surface...
Cusp less teethCusp less teeth
Cuspless teeth are those which areCuspless teeth are those which are
designed without cusp...
Zero-degree teethZero-degree teeth
Zero-degree teeth are prosthetic teethZero-degree teeth are prosthetic teeth
having no...
CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
The selection of teeth and theirThe selection of teeth and their
arrangement to meet estheticarrange...
BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY
 Essentials of complete dentureEssentials of complete denture
prosthodontics –prosthodontics – S...
www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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Selection of teeth/ orthodontics training courses

  1. 1. SELECTION OF TEETHSELECTION OF TEETH INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION The selection of teeth for completeThe selection of teeth for complete dentures is best understood if the anteriordentures is best understood if the anterior teeth are considered seperately fromteeth are considered seperately from posterior teeth.posterior teeth. The teeth are selected so as to rehabilitateThe teeth are selected so as to rehabilitate the occlusion.the occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. • Teeth should fulfill the following needs : a. Function well b. Allow the patient to speak normally c. Esthetically pleasing d. Does not abuse the tissues over residual ridges www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. •Anterior teeth are primarily selected to satisfy esthetic harmony, whereas the posterior teeth are primarily selected to satisfy masticatory requirements. •Size, shape, form, colour and arrangement of teeth should be associated with size, shape, and form of the face. •Physical features, age and sex of individuals should also be considered www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. MOLD AND SHADEMOLD AND SHADE IDENTIFICATIONIDENTIFICATION (anterior teeth)(anterior teeth) • Mold guides, mold selectors and shade guides assist proper selection of complete dentures • Dentsply international inc. has TRUBYTEDentsply international inc. has TRUBYTE bioform mold numbering systems whichbioform mold numbering systems which uses two no’s and one letter on lower leftuses two no’s and one letter on lower left of tooth mounting cardof tooth mounting card www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. •Lincoln dental supply company suggested a system, LOGIC CODING SYSTEM in which the universal coded no’s would be provided for shade and mold of artificial teeth. •Meyerson tooth corporation identifies mold with number and letters. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Posterior teethPosterior teeth Posterior teeth are often identified byPosterior teeth are often identified by name of the particular tooth form.name of the particular tooth form. Specific molds and shades are identifiedSpecific molds and shades are identified by no’s that represent combined mesio-by no’s that represent combined mesio- distal width of 4 posterior teeth and lettersdistal width of 4 posterior teeth and letters to indicate occlusogingival height of tooth.to indicate occlusogingival height of tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. SELECTION OF ANTERIORSELECTION OF ANTERIOR TEETHTEETHIt is the area of the prosthetic care inIt is the area of the prosthetic care in which patient should be given a primarywhich patient should be given a primary responsibility to determine estheticresponsibility to determine esthetic outcome like..outcome like.. Find out what the patient’s teeth were like Select the colour of teeth first Select size of teeth second Select mold of teeth third www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Guides for selecting size of anteriorGuides for selecting size of anterior teethteeth Size of the faceSize of the face Size of the maxillary archSize of the maxillary arch Incisal papilla and canine eminences orIncisal papilla and canine eminences or buccal frenumbuccal frenum Maxillomandibular relationsMaxillomandibular relations Contour of the residual ridgesContour of the residual ridges Vertical distance between ridgesVertical distance between ridges LipsLips www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Size of the faceSize of the face The average width of maxillary centralThe average width of maxillary central incisor is estimated to be 1/16incisor is estimated to be 1/16thth of width ofof width of face between zygomaface between zygoma The maxillary lateral incisors vary more inThe maxillary lateral incisors vary more in size, form and colour thus allowingsize, form and colour thus allowing freedom in selecting teeth from standardfreedom in selecting teeth from standard moldsmolds TRUBYTE tooth indicator determines sizeTRUBYTE tooth indicator determines size of maxillary central incisorsof maxillary central incisors www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Size of maxillary archSize of maxillary arch Mold selector is used to makeMold selector is used to make measurements of maxillary castsmeasurements of maxillary casts Measurements are made from crest ofMeasurements are made from crest of incisal papilla to hamular notches & fromincisal papilla to hamular notches & from one hamular notch to oppositeone hamular notch to opposite The combined length of three legs ofThe combined length of three legs of triangle in mm is used on selectortriangle in mm is used on selector Excessive loss of bone influence sizeExcessive loss of bone influence size mostly lengthmostly length www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Incisive papilla and canineIncisive papilla and canine eminenceeminence If Canine eminences are discernible, a lineIf Canine eminences are discernible, a line can be placed on the cast distalcan be placed on the cast distal termination of eminencetermination of eminence If not discernible, attachment of buccalIf not discernible, attachment of buccal frenum can be used.frenum can be used. Another method to locate distal of canineAnother method to locate distal of canine eminence is to use occlusal rim. Patient iseminence is to use occlusal rim. Patient is asked to relax with lip touching afterasked to relax with lip touching after placing rimplacing rim www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. A pointed instument passed on the lineA pointed instument passed on the line parallel to pupils of eye & diatance isparallel to pupils of eye & diatance is measured between the marks followingmeasured between the marks following the contour of arch measured in mm.the contour of arch measured in mm. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Maxillomandibular relationsMaxillomandibular relations Any disproportion in size of mandibular &Any disproportion in size of mandibular & maxillary arches influence length, width &maxillary arches influence length, width & position of teethposition of teeth In protruded mandibles, face is longer thusIn protruded mandibles, face is longer thus requires longer teethrequires longer teeth In retruded mandible the mandibularIn retruded mandible the mandibular anterior teeth are smalleranterior teeth are smaller www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Contour of residual ridgesContour of residual ridges Artificial teeth should be placed to followArtificial teeth should be placed to follow the contour of residual ridges that existedthe contour of residual ridges that existed when natural teeth where presentwhen natural teeth where present Resorption of the maxillaResorption of the maxilla AnteriorAnterior - vertical & palatal direction- vertical & palatal direction posteriorposterior - vertical & medial direction- vertical & medial direction Resorption of the mandibleResorption of the mandible AnteriorAnterior - vertical & lingual direction- vertical & lingual direction posteriorposterior - vertical & slightly lingual- vertical & slightly lingual www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Vertical distance between theVertical distance between the ridgesridges The length of teeth is determined byThe length of teeth is determined by available space between existing ridgesavailable space between existing ridges Denture bases that simulate oral mucosaDenture bases that simulate oral mucosa are referred to as characterized,are referred to as characterized, personalised or natural appearingpersonalised or natural appearing www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. The lipsThe lips When lips are relaxed & apart, labialWhen lips are relaxed & apart, labial surfaces of maxillary anterior teeth supportsurfaces of maxillary anterior teeth support the upper lipthe upper lip When teeth are in occlusion & lips areWhen teeth are in occlusion & lips are together, the labial, incisal third oftogether, the labial, incisal third of maxillary anterior teeth supports themaxillary anterior teeth supports the superior border of lower lipsuperior border of lower lip www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. In speech, the incisal edges of maxillaryIn speech, the incisal edges of maxillary anterior teeth contact the lower lip at theanterior teeth contact the lower lip at the junction of moist & dry surface ofjunction of moist & dry surface of vermillion border & can be bestvermillion border & can be best demonstrated when letter “F” as in “fiftydemonstrated when letter “F” as in “fifty five” is pronouncedfive” is pronounced The properly contoured maxillary occlusalThe properly contoured maxillary occlusal rims will include this position as incisalrims will include this position as incisal edge position & will aid in determiningedge position & will aid in determining length of teethlength of teeth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. FORM OF ANTERIOR TEETHFORM OF ANTERIOR TEETH FORM AND CONTOUR OF FACEFORM AND CONTOUR OF FACE SEXSEX AGEAGE www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Form and contour of faceForm and contour of face The form of tooth should conform to theThe form of tooth should conform to the contour of face as considered from labial,contour of face as considered from labial, mesial, distal & incisal aspectsmesial, distal & incisal aspects Tooth viewed from frontal aspect shouldTooth viewed from frontal aspect should conform general outline of face whereasconform general outline of face whereas viewed from mesial or distal shouldviewed from mesial or distal should conform to the contour of profileconform to the contour of profile www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31.  Indicator may be used to establish facialIndicator may be used to establish facial outline as follows ;outline as follows ; a)a) Place the tooth indicator on thePlace the tooth indicator on the patient’s face allowing the nose to comepatient’s face allowing the nose to come through the center of trianglethrough the center of triangle b)b) Centre pupils of eye & all the indicatorCentre pupils of eye & all the indicator with center line coinciding medial line ofwith center line coinciding medial line of faceface  In square form the sides of face willIn square form the sides of face will follow vertical lines of indicatorfollow vertical lines of indicator  In tapering face, sides of face fromIn tapering face, sides of face from forehead to the angle of jaw will taper atforehead to the angle of jaw will taper at an inward diagonal.an inward diagonal.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. To determine facial profile, observeTo determine facial profile, observe relative straightness or curvature of profilerelative straightness or curvature of profile by checking forehead, base of nose &by checking forehead, base of nose & point of chin.point of chin. If these points are in a line, profile isIf these points are in a line, profile is straight.straight. If these points are recessive profile isIf these points are recessive profile is curvedcurved www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. SEXSEX Curved facial features are associated withCurved facial features are associated with feminity & square with masculinityfeminity & square with masculinity Form of teeth vary as features varyForm of teeth vary as features vary www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. AGEAGE Lips lose their curves and cupids bow andLips lose their curves and cupids bow and teeth wear at the incisal edges &teeth wear at the incisal edges & interproximal surfaces.interproximal surfaces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Colour or shade of anteriorColour or shade of anterior teethteeth Colour is the sensation resulting fromColour is the sensation resulting from stimulation of retina of eye by light wawesstimulation of retina of eye by light wawes of certain lengthof certain length Shade is degree of darkness of a colourShade is degree of darkness of a colour with reference to its mixture with blackwith reference to its mixture with black Two principal colours yellow & grey areTwo principal colours yellow & grey are evident.evident. Yellow is evident in gingival third & grey inYellow is evident in gingival third & grey in incisal thirdincisal third www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. The position of patient & source of lightThe position of patient & source of light are important factors in colour selectionare important factors in colour selection Teeth should be observed from differentTeeth should be observed from different angles to make certain that shadows doangles to make certain that shadows do not influence colournot influence colour Patients mouth should not be opened tooPatients mouth should not be opened too widewide White light is suitableWhite light is suitable www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. If proper shade is hard to establish theIf proper shade is hard to establish the tooth & shade guide shoud be viewedtooth & shade guide shoud be viewed from a distance of 6 to 8 feetfrom a distance of 6 to 8 feet Harmony should be there between colourHarmony should be there between colour of teeth & colour of skin, hair & eyesof teeth & colour of skin, hair & eyes If teeth are allowed to remain in guideIf teeth are allowed to remain in guide holder held to one side of nose of patientholder held to one side of nose of patient the that is in harmony wii be recognisedthe that is in harmony wii be recognised www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Posterior teeth selectionPosterior teeth selection Selection of posterior teeth is made inSelection of posterior teeth is made in such a way so that it fulfills the followngsuch a way so that it fulfills the followng requirements:requirements: 1. Permits the tongue & cheeks to function1. Permits the tongue & cheeks to function effectively during speech and msticationeffectively during speech and mstication 2. More acceptable esthetically2. More acceptable esthetically 3. Make it easy for patients to get adapted3. Make it easy for patients to get adapted to denturesto dentures www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. 4. Fulfills requirement neutral zone, which is4. Fulfills requirement neutral zone, which is a space resulting from the removal ofa space resulting from the removal of posterior teeth & loss of bone fromposterior teeth & loss of bone from residual ridgesresidual ridges www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. ShadeShade The shade of posterior teeth shouldThe shade of posterior teeth should harmonize with the shade of anterior teethharmonize with the shade of anterior teeth It is advisable to select slightly lighterIt is advisable to select slightly lighter shade for the premolars if they areshade for the premolars if they are arranged estheticallyarranged esthetically www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Size and numberSize and number The size & number of posterior teete areThe size & number of posterior teete are closely related to usageclosely related to usage The buccogingival dimension of artificialThe buccogingival dimension of artificial teeth should be less than that of naturalteeth should be less than that of natural teeth to reduce size of food tableteeth to reduce size of food table The anterioposterior dimensions ofThe anterioposterior dimensions of posteriors are determined by edentulousposteriors are determined by edentulous area between distal of mandibular cuspidsarea between distal of mandibular cuspids & ascending area of mandible& ascending area of mandible www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. FormForm The proximal, lingual & buccal surfacesThe proximal, lingual & buccal surfaces should be contoured like natural teethshould be contoured like natural teeth When eccentric jaw movementsWhen eccentric jaw movements occurs,either cusp or monoplane teethoccurs,either cusp or monoplane teeth can be usedcan be used www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Materials for artificial teethMaterials for artificial teeth Porcelain teethPorcelain teeth Porcelain teeh has greater wearPorcelain teeh has greater wear resistanceresistance Porcelain teeth has better retention ofPorcelain teeth has better retention of surface polish & finishsurface polish & finish Porcelain teeth do not bond to denturePorcelain teeth do not bond to denture base resinbase resin Porcelain teeth may produce click inPorcelain teeth may produce click in function & can accumulate stain aroundfunction & can accumulate stain around gingival margingingival margin www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Resin teethResin teeth Resin teeth has natural appearanceResin teeth has natural appearance Resin teeth has the capablity to bond toResin teeth has the capablity to bond to most heat cured denture base resinsmost heat cured denture base resins Resin teeh has less wear resistance,whichResin teeh has less wear resistance,which can result in reduced vertical dimension ofcan result in reduced vertical dimension of occlusionocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Metal-inert teethMetal-inert teeth Metal-insert teeth has improved occlusalMetal-insert teeth has improved occlusal wear resistancewear resistance Metal-insert teeth are not noisy asMetal-insert teeth are not noisy as porcelain teethporcelain teeth Metal-inserted teeth are costly, and theyMetal-inserted teeth are costly, and they may not be as esthetic as other artificialmay not be as esthetic as other artificial teethteeth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. TYPES OF TEETHTYPES OF TEETH Anatomic teethAnatomic teeth Anatomic teeth are artificial teeth thatAnatomic teeth are artificial teeth that closely resemble the anatomic form ofclosely resemble the anatomic form of natural unabraded teethnatural unabraded teeth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Non-anatomic teethNon-anatomic teeth Artificial teeth in which the occlusalArtificial teeth in which the occlusal surfaces are not copies from natural form,surfaces are not copies from natural form, but are given forrms that,seem morebut are given forrms that,seem more nearly to fulfill the requirements ofnearly to fulfill the requirements of mastication,tissue tolerance etcmastication,tissue tolerance etc www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Cusp less teethCusp less teeth Cuspless teeth are those which areCuspless teeth are those which are designed without cuspal prominances ofdesigned without cuspal prominances of masticatory surfacesmasticatory surfaces www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Zero-degree teethZero-degree teeth Zero-degree teeth are prosthetic teethZero-degree teeth are prosthetic teeth having no cusp angles in relation to thehaving no cusp angles in relation to the horizontal planehorizontal plane www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION The selection of teeth and theirThe selection of teeth and their arrangement to meet estheticarrangement to meet esthetic requirements demand artistic skill inrequirements demand artistic skill in addition to scientific knowledge.addition to scientific knowledge. There are no rules of thumb for thisThere are no rules of thumb for this procedure; however, there are anatomicprocedure; however, there are anatomic landmarks and manufactured aids thatlandmarks and manufactured aids that can be used as guides.can be used as guides. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY  Essentials of complete dentureEssentials of complete denture prosthodontics –prosthodontics – Sheldon winklerSheldon winkler  Textbook of complete dentures –Textbook of complete dentures – charles M. Heartwellcharles M. Heartwell  Prosthodontic treatment for edentulousProsthodontic treatment for edentulous patients –patients – BoucherBoucher  Dental laboratory procedures (completeDental laboratory procedures (complete dentures) –dentures) – Robert M.MorrowRobert M.Morrow www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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