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Recent advances in orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Recent advances in orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The materials used by orthodontists have changed rapidly in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. As esthetic composite archwires are introduced, metallic archwires will likely be replaced. Because an ideal material has not yet been found, archwires should be selected within the context of their intended use during treatment.
  5. 5. Ideally, archwire are designed to move teeth with light, continuous forces. Such forces may reduce the potential for patient discomfort, tissue hyalinization and undermining resorption When force is applied, the archwire should behave elastically over a period of weeks to months. several properties and characteristics should be considered in the search for the ideal archwire.
  6. 6. Among them are esthetics, biohostability, friction, formability, weldability, resilience, and springback. Currently, orthodontists principally use wires of four major base metal alloys types: Stainless steel Cobalt-chromium-nickel, Nickel-titanium and Beta-titanium
  7. 7. HISTORICAL PRESPECTIVE Gold alloys were first used in orthodontic practice, although these noble metal wires have minimal use currently because of their greater cost. Their compositions were similar to base metal wires precisely to IV gold casting alloy Gold alloy wires had elastic force was much less than that of S.S.
  8. 8. With the advent of Stainless steels in World War I and the refinement of drawing processes to form wires in the late 1930s, gold archwires gradually lost favor to the smaller cross-sectional areas that stainless steel archwires can produce. By 1950s stainless steel alloy was used by most of the orthodontist It has low cost, excellent formability and good mechanical property.
  9. 9. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES STRESS: It is a internal distribution of the load measured as force per unit area. STRAIN: It is the internal distortion produced by the load ,force defined as deflection per unit area. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT OR ELASTIC LIMIT :The point at which first elastic deformation occurs LDR OR STIFFNESS: For a given force deflection within the elastic limit is known as LDR
  10. 10. SPRING BACK: spring back is a measure of how far a wire can deflect without permanent deformation. STIFFNESS: It is a measure of amount of force Required to produce a specific deformation. STRENGTH: STIFFNESS X RANGE RESILIENCE: Represents energy stored capacity of wire which is a combination of strength and springness
  11. 11. FORMABILITY: The ability to bend a wire into desired configuration into loop, coil and stops without fracturing the wire. FLEXIBILITY: The amount which a wire can be strained under going plastic deformation ZERO STRESS RELAXATION: This the ability of the wire to deliver constant high elastic force when subjected to external force or force of occlusion.
  12. 12. SRESS RELAXATION: When a specimen has been deformed and held in a fixed position the stress may diminish, with time this is called as stress relaxation COLD-WORKING: The process of plastically deforming a metal at a temperature below that at which it recrystallizes new grains, which is usually one-third To one-half times its absolute melting point temperature HEAT TREATMENT: General process of using Thermal energy to change the characteristics of metallicalloys as in tempering, precipitation hardening , or annealing (a high-temperature, softening process).
  13. 13. PHASE TRANSFORMATION: A change in the number and/or character of the phases that constitute the microstructure of an alloy by a change in crystalline structure. RANGE - The distance that an archwire can be activated by a specific force, this distance is termed the “working” range. -With regard to elastic property ratios the distance that an archwire can be activated elastically i.e., its elastic range.
  14. 14. EFFCT OF SIZE AND SHAPE ON ELASTIC PROPERTIES Major elastic properties namely-Strength, stiffness and range is substantially effected by a change in the geometry of beam. Cross-section (circular, rectangular or square) and length of the beam are of great significance in determining its properties
  15. 15. EFFECT OF DIAMETER OR CROSS-SECTION Add fig 10-12 pg 335 proffit
  16. 16. EFFECT OF LENGTH AND ATTACHMENT If length of cantilever beam is doubled, its bending strength becomes ½ , and springiness increases by 8 times Length effect on torsion quite differently -springiness and range as length increases -Torsional strength is not effected by length Supported beam on both end has more strength but less springiness
  17. 17. Add fig pg 336 proffit
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  20. 20. This alloy consists of 18%chromium ,8%nickel alloyed with austenitic type of stainless steel. Cr and ni maintains the austenite at room temp.And prevents the conversion fcc structure of austenite to martenisitic cubic lattice structure. By nature austenite is malleable and ductile and martenisite is hard and brittle
  21. 21. BRAIDED AND TWISTED WIRES Very small diameter s.s wire can be braided or twisted together by the manufacturer to form wires for clinical orthodontics. Separate strands may be as small as 0.005 or 0.010, comprised of five or seven wrapped around a central wire of same diameter. It affords extreme flexibility and delivers extremely light forces, full engagement of the arch wire at an early stage.
  22. 22. Used at the beginning of the treatment to align labiolingually displaced or rotated anterior teeth. These wires are available with bright smooth finish to give minimal friction. They resist permanent deformation and not unravel when cut. They are cost efficient wires in comparison to titanium wires.
  23. 23. They are available in both round and rectangular shape. Different type of multi-stranded wires are available 1. Triple stranded – 3 wires twisted 2. Coaxial – 5 wires wrapped around a core wire 3. Braded – 8 strand rectangular wire.
  24. 24. Stainless steel arch-wire with soldered brass wire Used for sliding mechanics ADVANTAGES Minimal chair side time. More efficient sliding of arch wire through posterior slot No running out of space for activation
  25. 25. DISADVANTAGES Confusion concerning ideal force level. Tendency to over activate elastic forces. Insufficient force. Damaged or crushed bracket inhibits sliding. Cortical bone resistance due to thinning of bone at extraction site.
  26. 26. AUSTRALIAN ORTHODONTIC ARCH WIRE Claude Arthur j wilcock produced this wire for Dr.P.R.Begg The unique charecteristics of this wire are it is high Tensile austenitic stainless steel. The wire is resistant to permanent deformation , maintaining its activation for max. control of anchorage.
  27. 27. All these properties make this wire very hard and brittle. MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE pulse straightening the wire is pulsed in a special machine which permits high tensile wires to be straightened and drawn in as smaller diametres as possible. The material yeild strength is not altered and the surface has smoother finish so less friction.
  28. 28. PROPERTIES OF WIRE 1. The tensile strength of the P.S wire is 8-12% higher than of S.S so greater resistance to fracture. 2. The LDR was high by 10%for 0.016 ps wire and by 235% to 0.020premium wires indicates that when used for intrusion they deliver significant higher loads 3. High working range and good recovery patterns. 4. Frictional resistence of ps wires were lesser by 50%than s.s wires.
  30. 30. NEWER WILCOCK WIRES Newer grade of wires came to market with superior properties with advent in manufacturing process they are1. PREMIUM - PURPLE 2. PREMIUM PLUS – GOLD 3. SUPREME - BEIGE
  31. 31. PREMIUM GRADE They are more difficult to bend, occasional breakage to be expected. They are efficient to open the bite. PREMIUM PLUS The 0.014 premium plus wire is used in high angle cases to prevent undue molar extrusion and due to less dia.donot produce much force and and ant intrusion(not effective) which is favourable in such cases.
  32. 32. SUPREME Supreme grade wires are used to unravel crowding of ant. teeth,maa,mini uprightining springs They have resistance and yeild diameter near to NI-TI wires and cost wise they are more economic. when used as MAA the lighter forces produced do not tax the anchorage.
  33. 33. Triangular Wire The new stainless steel Tri-Angle wire is an equilateral triangle in cross-section, .030" to a side, with rounded edges. One of the best uses for Tri-Ang wire is in retainers and other removable orthodontic appliances. Various types of clasps made of round wire usually cross the occlusion, creating interferences that can cause patient discomfort. JCO,2001 BY - BROUSSARD
  34. 34. The round wire can act as a wedge to cause inter-proximal spacing, which can disrupt the occlusion, with a potentially adverse effect on longterm stability. Comfort , periodontal health, and appliance stability.
  35. 35. Bonded lingual retainers Special plier for Tri-ang wire bending
  36. 36. NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES Andersen G.F and co workers introduced the use of NITI alloys for orthodontic use in 1970s It consists of conventional NITI (55% nickel 45%titanium) ,resulting in 1 : 1 ratio of these elements,cobalt is added to achieve desirable properties.
  37. 37. UNIQUE PROPERTIES Shape memory effect - The combination of thermoelasticity and pseudoelasticity in which, following a force-induced phase transformation, the reverse transformation occurs, when the archwire temperature is increased to oral temperature Pseudoelasticity - The mechanical analog of thermoelasticity in which, at constant temperature, the austenitic-to-martensitic phase transformation occurs with increasing applied force. As the force is subsequently removed, the reverse phase transformation occurs.
  38. 38. Thermoelasticity - The thermal analog of pseudoelasticity in which the martensitic phase transformation occurs from austenite as the temperature is decreased. This phasetransformation can be reversed by increasing the temperature to its original value. Phase transformation temperature – 1. Martensitic- on cooling ,Ms and Mf temperature are the temp. at which the transformation to martensite begins and is completed.
  39. 39. 2.Austenitic- On heating As and Af are temp. at which the transformation to austenite begins and Compeleted. 3.Rhombohedral- It is a intermediate R-phase which is formed during Martensite-Austenite phase, it also has Rs and Rf phase.
  40. 40. SUPER ELASTIC WIRES Nitinol wire is work hardened during the manufacturing process which induces the martenistic phase into the alloy hence super elasticity is not exhibited by the nitinol wire. The super elastic property of some niti wires has been attributed to phase transformation from Austenitic form to Martenistic form of niti when stress reaches certain level during activation.
  41. 41. Upon deactivation the reverse phase transformation from martenistic to austenitic structure takes place. It is thus necessary for the manufacturer to leave ni-ti in austenitic structure for super elastic behaviour. The new super elastic ni ti (a-ni-ti) wires are significantly different from earlier work hardened ni ti(m-ni-ti)and from s.s The combination of super elasticity and shape memory makes these archwires comfortable for the patients even as rect. intial arch wires.
  42. 42. Since the stiffnes increases and the wire becomes more efficient towards the end of the movement the clinician should not change the wire too often,a two month appoint. interval is sufficient or remove and place the same arch wires at monthly interval which will return them to their intial activation level. Intial rect super elastic wires fully engaged for rotation correction, alignment,levelling.
  43. 43. The original super elastic arch wires ,the round sentalloy wires are available in light,medium,and heavy force levels. Neo-sentalloy wires at levels of 100,200,300 grams of forces. The second generation ,squre or rectangular bio force wires provides 80 gm of force in central incisor region for tooth alignment and as much as 320gm of force in molar region for initial leveling.
  44. 44. The new bio force ion guard has 3micron nitrogen coating that is produced by ion bombardment of wire surface which reduces friction, breakage and nickel release. The most versatile wire of simultaneous alignment and leveling.
  45. 45. CHINESE NITI In1985 dr. burstone c.j. reportedof an alloy the chinese ni-ti developed by dr.tien hua chang. This alloy has unique charecteristics and offers significant potential in the design of orthodontic appliances. It has low TTR than nitinol its history of little work hardening in a parent phase which is austenitic yield mechanical properties that differ significantly from nitinol.
  47. 47. Because of this high range of action and spring back chinese ni-ti is applied when large deflections are required. It has sprinback that is 4.4 times more compared to stainless steel and 1.6 times that of nitinol. Stiffness of this wire is 73%that of s.s and 36% that of nitinol. These wires are highly suitable if low stiffness is required and large deflections are needed.
  48. 48. JAPANESE NITI In 1986 miura f.etal reported Japanese NITI ,developed by furukowa electric 1978 It posses excellent spring back ,shape memory ,super elasticity. The delivered a constant force over an extended portion of deactivation range and less likely to under go permanent deformation.
  49. 49. It generates a physiological tooth movement bcoz of relatively constant force delivered for a long period of time during the deactivation of the wire This super elasticity can be produced by stress and not by temp.difference Heat treatment at 500deg centigrade for 5 minutes produced optimum super elasticity,this method is inconvenient for clinical use So, anew type of heat treatment reported by fujio miura which is known as derht(direct electric resistence heat treatment)
  50. 50. The chinese ni-ti and japanese ni-ti have a basic austenitic grain structure and have a advantage of transition in the internal structure with out requiring a significant temp. change to accomplish this.
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  54. 54. In 1993, Hanson combined the mechanical advantages of multistranded cables with the material properties of superelastic wires to create a superelastic nickel titanium coaxial wire. This wire, called Supercable, comprises seven individual strands that are woven together in a long, gentle spiral to maximize flexibility and minimize force delivery. JCO 1998 ,BY- JEFF BERGER
  55. 55. FORCE DELIVERY TEST A three-point bending test was carried out to compare the force delivery of .016", .018", and .020“ Supercable with that of common nickel titanium initial archwires. Instron universal testing machine was used for load deflection test. All arch wires were loaded with a maximum deflection of 4 mm, and then unloaded slowly
  56. 56. STUDY RESULTS .016" and .018" Supercable wires exerted only 36-70% of the force of .014" solid nickel titanium wires. Comparing wires of the same diameter, .016" Supercable demonstrated 65% less force than . 016" solid superelastic wires while .018" Supercable exerted 78% less force than .018“ solid superelastic archwires.
  57. 57. CLINICAL USES OF SUPER CABLE .016" and .018" Supercable wires were the only ones that tested at less than 100g of unloading force over a deflection range of 1-3mm. Supercable thus demonstrates optimum orthodontic forces for the periodontium, as described by Reitan and Rygh.
  58. 58. Relatively large archwire like 0.18” can be placed at the starting of treatment. When cutting Supercable, always use a sharp distal end cutter (No. 619). A dull cutter tends to tear the component wires and thus unravel the wire ends. END STOP
  59. 59. ADVANTAGES • Improved treatment efficiency. • Simplified mechanotherapy. • Elimination of archwire bending.] • Flexibility and ease of engagement regardless of crowding. • No evidence of anchorage loss.
  60. 60. • A light, continuous level of force, preventing any adverse response of the supporting periodontium. • Minimal patient discomfort after initial archwire placement. • Fewer patient visits, due to longer archwire activation.
  61. 61. DISADVANTAGES • Tendency of wire ends to fray if not cut with sharp instruments. • Tendency of archwires to break and unravel in extraction spaces • Inability to accommodate bends, steps, or helices. • Tendency of wire ends to migrate distally and occasionally irritate soft tissues as severely crowded or displaced teeth begin to align.
  62. 62. It is a new orthodontic wire designed by M.F.TALASS It has high esthetic apperance with unique mechanical properties. (manufactured by ORMCO) It is made of clear optical fiber, it comprises 3 layers 1. A silicon dioxide core that provides the force for moving teeth. JCO,1992 BY- M.F.TALASS
  63. 63. 2. A silicon resin middle layer that protects the core from moisture and adds strength. 3. A stain-resistant nylon outer layer that prevents damage to the wire and further increases its strength. The wire can be either round or rectangular and is manufactured in various sizes.
  64. 64. Mechanical properties It has wide range of action and the ability to apply light, continuous force. Sharp bends must be avoided, since they could fracture the core. Optiflex has practically no deformation.
  65. 65. It is a highly resilient archwire that is especially effective in the alignment of crowded teeth. Optiflex possess 5 advantages, in terms of esthetics Optiflex is the most esthetic orthodontic arch wire. Optiflex is completely stain resistant. The arch wire will not stain or loose its clean look even after several weeks in the mouth.
  66. 66. optiflex is very effective in moving the teeth using light continuous force. It exerts about ½ the force in comparison with other wire. Optiflex is very flexible and can be used in severely crowded teeth. Due to its superior mechanical properties, optiflex can be used with any bracket system.
  67. 67. When using optiflex, certain precautions should be undertaken Optiflex arch wires must be tied into the bracket with elastomeric ligatures. Metal ligatures should never be used since they fracture the glass core. Sharp bend similar to those placed in metal arch wire should never be attempt with optiflex. These bends will immediately fracture the core.
  68. 68. It is recommended to use the (501) mini distal end cutter. (AEZ) This cutter is especially designed to cut all 3 layers of optiflex in the proper manner. Inform your patient about the nature of optiflex and its structure.Make sure they understand that rough diet can harm the arch wire and delay treatment progress. Do not “cinch back” optiflex. You really don’t need an cinch back since friction between elastomeric ligatures and the outer surface of the arch wire will eliminate unwanted sliding of the arch wire.
  69. 69. Clinical applications It is used in adult patient who wishes that their braces not be really visible for reason related to personal concern or professional consideration. It should be used in non-extraction cases as, it is not the ideal wire for cuspid retraction in extraction cases optiflex has been disappointed in retracting canine due to its limited ability to control the distal tipping and labio lingual rotation of the retracted cuspids.
  70. 70. Optiflex can be used in pre-surgical stage in cases, which require orthodontic intervention. Optiflex arch wire combined with translucent brackets to create ultimate esthetics appliance. Optiflex is available in 6 to 10 inch straight lengths of 0.017”and 0.021” Optiflex arch wire showed low load deflection rates reaching the proportional limit much earlier when compared to other wires (braided stainless steel, niti, cooper niti), It exerts 0.4698 grams for a defection of 4.46 mm.
  71. 71. Marsenol is a tooth colored nickel titanium wire manufactured by glenroe technologies.It is E.T.E. coated nickel titanium. (Elastomeric poly tetra flor ethylene emulsion). Marsenol exhibits all same working characteristics of an uncoated super elastic nickel titanium wire.
  72. 72. The coating adhesive to the wire remains flexible. The wire delivers constant forces over long periods activation and is fracture resistant. Leveling by extrusion (relative intrusion) Exaggerated curve of spee in the maxillary arch wire and reverse curve of spee is placed in the lower arch wire REVERSE CURVE ARCH WIRE
  73. 73. LEE WHITE WIRE Lee white wire, manufactured by Lee pharmaceuticals is resilient stainless steel or nickel titanium arch wire bonded to a tooth colored Epoxy coating, suitable for use with ceramic and plastic. The epoxy is completely opaque and does not chip, peel, stain or discolors.
  74. 74. organic polymer retainer wire made from 1.6mm diameter round polytheline terephthalate. This material can be bent with a plier, but will return to its original shape if it is not heat–treated for a few seconds at temperature less than 230°C (melting point). JCO,1996 BY- MIEKO WATANABE
  75. 75. In prefabricating the QCM retainer wires, the anterior portion of the wire and the “wave” portion are heat-treated at about 150°C immediately after bending. Patients who have worn esthetic ceramic or plastic brackets during orthodontic treatment are likely to want esthetic retainers after treatment, so these wires are used for esthetic maxillary retainers Various parts of QMC retainer
  76. 76. Wire after heat-treated it displayed little deformation. More shrinkage during heating was observed in the posterior segment of the arch wire. QMC WRAP-AROUND RETAINER STEPS IN FABRICATION 2. 1.
  77. 77. 3. 4. 5.
  80. 80. New Version of Esthetic Retainer (QMC) New esthetics organic polymer. The new version, easy to fabricate and fit to the dental arch. It requires no special tools or instruments only and ordinary hair dyer.
  81. 81. It consists : - Anterior plastic part - A flat organic polymer wire with 10° labial torque is attached to 0.032” stainless steel posterior arms, each 11cm long. Plastic portion comes in three intercanine widths, with or without activating omega loops in the posterior arms.
  82. 82. Thank you For more details please visit