Recent advances in diagnostic aids /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Recent advances in diagnostic aids /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Recent Advances in Diagnostic Aids INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com 1
  2. 2. History Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published his masterpiece De Humani Corporis Fabrica in 1543. Discovery of X rays- Roentgen www.indiandentalacademy.com 2
  3. 3. History W C Roentgen First human radiograph 3 (1845-1925) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. History Original Orthodontic diagnostic records - Study models - Detailed clinical examination - Plaster models of face - Radiographs – Cephalometric,panoramic - Photographs www.indiandentalacademy.com 5
  5. 5. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Imaging Different approaches to diagnostic imaging – Transmission imaging Reflection imaging Emission imaging www.indiandentalacademy.com 6
  6. 6. Imaging and Image acquisition Images Conventional ANALOG PROCESS Contemporary DIGITAL PROCESS www.indiandentalacademy.com 7
  7. 7. Digital Imaging Digital Photography Digital Radiography www.indiandentalacademy.com 8
  8. 8. Digital Photography Digital camera www.indiandentalacademy.com 9
  9. 9. Digital Photography Basic structure www.indiandentalacademy.com 10
  10. 10. Digital Photography Image acquisition www.indiandentalacademy.com 11
  11. 11. Digital Photography CCD - Charged Couple Device (Charge Coupled Device?) CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ADC – Analog to Digital Converter Light Sensor Memory Electric charge www.indiandentalacademy.com ADC 12
  12. 12. Digital Photography Image quality – Pixel (Picture element) Voxel (Volume element) & www.indiandentalacademy.com Spoxel (Space element) 13
  13. 13. Digital Photography Storage of digital images Compression – JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) TIFF (Tag Image File Format) Compression ratio – 3:1 almost no loss 20:1 clinically acceptable Storage media- Magnetic disks Optical or laser disks Optical tape – 1 terabyte (1 million www.indiandentalacademy.com 14 MB)
  14. 14. Digital Photography Advantages of digital photography - Instant viewing of pictures – mistakes can be rectified immediately - No film or processing is required - Manipulation of data on computer - Organization of data - No rolls – saves money in long run - Decreases storage needs www.indiandentalacademy.com - Transmission of data 15
  15. 15. Digital Radiography Digital radiography is possible since Trophy introduced the first Charge coupled device (CCD) in mid- 80’s Patient radiation exposure can be reduced by 30% - 98% www.indiandentalacademy.com 16
  16. 16. Digital Radiography X Ray Sensor Data collection: Electrical charge digitizer Image • CCDs • Amorphous Selenium • Amorphous Silicon • Phosphor plates www.indiandentalacademy.com 17
  17. 17. Digital Radiography RadioVisuoGraphy (RVG)  Imaging done with a CCD  view delay 1 - 4 s  very high resolution  optimal shape and size of the sensor  sensor thickness 4 mm  sensor cable diameter 3 mm www.indiandentalacademy.com 18
  18. 18. Digital Radiography Structure of the sensor Scintillator CCD Fiber optic layer www.indiandentalacademy.com 19
  19. 19. X-ray imaging with CCD Scintillator- converts x-radiation to photons (light) Fibre optic layer - conducts photons to CCD - stops x-radiation pixels CCD- converts photons to electrons (charge) Electronic circuit - amplifies the signal - converts the analog signal www.indiandentalacademy.com to digital 20
  20. 20. Digital Radiography DenOptix - A radiographic technique which eliminates silver halide film - Instead uses Storage Phosphor imaging plates - Advantage over CCD - no rigid sensors and wires,also less expensive www.indiandentalacademy.com 21
  21. 21. Thin,flexible films Low cost laser scanner www.indiandentalacademy.com 22
  22. 22. Phosphor plate: PROTECTIVE LAYER PHOSPHOR LAYER SUPPORT BACKING LAYER BAR CODE LABEL www.indiandentalacademy.com 23
  23. 23. Imaging cycle 1.Load intraoral or panoramic imaging plate 5. Erase imaging plates for reuse 2. Take X ray Image on computer www.indiandentalacademy.com 3. Mount imaging plates in carousel 24 4. Place in scanner & Scan images
  24. 24. Digital images can be manipulated using software filters www.indiandentalacademy.com 25
  25. 25. Advantages - Alternative to conventional film - Same machine and settings used for DenOptix and regular cephs & OPGs - No dark room required - Environment friendly- no heavy metal wastage - Can be reused thousands of times - Transmission of images - Saving staff time www.indiandentalacademy.com 26
  26. 26. Digital Cephalometry Digitization is a process by which analog information is converted into digital form - Direct computer digitization of the ceph. - Indirect computer digitization of the ceph. www.indiandentalacademy.com 27
  27. 27. Digital Cephalometry Indirect digitization Digitizing tablet Electronic pen Mouse Cross hair cursor www.indiandentalacademy.com 28
  28. 28. Digital Cephalometry Digitizing tablet with cross hair cursor  Fine electronic grid- 0.009mm  Two wires arranged in a cross hair pattern embedded in a glass window www.indiandentalacademy.com 29
  29. 29. Digital Cephalometry Digitization  Activated by pressing the button  Location of individual landmarks in a predetermined sequential manner  Visual ceph generated by connecting dots by lines and curves  Once digitization is complete,any analysis can be performed in seconds www.indiandentalacademy.com 30
  30. 30. Digigraph Introduced by Dolphin imaging systems Non radiographic system Video imaging is also possible VTO www.indiandentalacademy.com 31
  31. 31. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation  5 feet long,3 feet wide, 7 feet high.  working area of 25 sq feet.  two video cameras – permanently aimed and focused www.indiandentalacademy.com 32
  32. 32. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation Head holder  More comfortable  Ear rods and forehead & posterior head pieces www.indiandentalacademy.com 33
  33. 33. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation  Model board inserted in head holder to record images www.indiandentalacademy.com 34
  34. 34. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation  Light box can also be attached for imaging panoramic radiographs,etc www.indiandentalacademy.com 35
  35. 35. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation  Attached video monitor – can be moved  Images,text,numerical data can be displayed,stored, modified using a light pen or computer keyboard www.indiandentalacademy.com 36
  36. 36. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation Output devices  Sony video imager – makes 5”X 7” colour prints in 60 seconds  Polaroid freeze frame camera – polaroid prints in 10 seconds  Hewlett Packard paintjet printermakes 8”X10” colour copies in 4-8 minutes www.indiandentalacademy.com 37
  37. 37. Digigraph The Digigraph Workstation  Digitizing handpiece with removable,sterilizable tips  Landmark location is recorded in 3 dimensional coordinates(x,y,z)  The time it takes the sound to reach each of the microphones determines the landmark location. www.indiandentalacademy.com 38
  38. 38. Digigraph Procedure Select cephalometric analysis to be performed www.indiandentalacademy.com 39
  39. 39. Digigraph Procedure Digitization www.indiandentalacademy.com 40
  40. 40. Digigraph Procedure  Digitizing done in order – 1.Facial landmarks 2.Mouth closed intraoral landmarks 3.Intraoral landmarks requiring a disposable bite opener to be inserted  Indirect digitization – www.indiandentalacademy.com 4.Extrapolated landmarks 41
  41. 41. Digigraph Cephalometric analysis display - Any of the 14 cephalometric analyses • Downs • Rickets lateral • Burstone • Rickets frontal • McNamara • Vari-Simplex • Tweed • Holdaway • Grummons frontal • Alabama • Standard lateral • Jarabak • Standard frontal • Steiner www.indiandentalacademy.com 42
  42. 42. Digigraph Tracing display - Additional custom analyses may be set up - Observed value is shown with patient norm- adjusted for age, sex,race and head size – and standard deviations from norm www.indiandentalacademy.com 43
  43. 43. Digigraph Visual Treatment Objective (VTO) To move part of the picture, simply touch the light pen to two points on the screen, at opposite extremes of the area to be moved. www.indiandentalacademy.com 44
  44. 44. Digigraph The software automatically blends skin tones and smoothes profile lines so they are consistent with the surrounding tissue. “Before and after" format www.indiandentalacademy.com 45
  45. 45. Digigraph Finishing the Digigraph session At this point the data is saved on two 3 ½ " floppy disks – one given to pt. and the other disk for office record. www.indiandentalacademy.com 46
  46. 46. Computed Tomography Introduced in medicine in early 70’s Slice like images are referred to as tomograms and a computer is necessary to generate the pictures; hence the name – Computed Tomography www.indiandentalacademy.com 47
  47. 47. Computed Tomography Equipment - Scanner (movable X ray table + gantry) - Computer system - Display console www.indiandentalacademy.com 48
  48. 48. Computed Tomography Principle An image of a layer within the body is produced while the images of the structures above and below that layer are made invisible by blurring www.indiandentalacademy.com 49
  49. 49. Computed Tomography A pencil beam is used in CT www.indiandentalacademy.com 50
  50. 50. Computed Tomography Scan geometries - Early scanners – translation+rotation - Contemporary scanners – rotation only www.indiandentalacademy.com 51
  51. 51. Computed Tomography Scan geometries www.indiandentalacademy.com 52
  52. 52. Computed Tomography CT measurement geometry www.indiandentalacademy.com 53
  53. 53. Computed Tomography Detector system Two types of detector i.Ionization chamber (Gas filled chamber with electrodes) ii.Scintillation detectors (Solid crystalline dielectric) www.indiandentalacademy.com 54
  54. 54. Computed Tomography Clinical applications High radiation exposure and high cost has prevented its use in Orthodontics. But in certain situations benefits outweigh risks.  In severe craniofacial deformities where 2D diagnostic records are inadequate  Treatment predictions with 3D computer tomographic skull models  TMJ examination www.indiandentalacademy.com CT image 55
  55. 55. Computed Tomography TMJ examination CT for the evaluation of the TMJ was introduced by Wegener and colleagues for demonstrating bone abnormalities within the TMJ. www.indiandentalacademy.com 56
  56. 56. Computed Tomography TMJ examination  Useful in determining changes in bone density  Primary imaging method when internal derangement or arthrosis is suspected – clinical diagnosis is not always sufficient.  Has advantages when planning treatment or operations on jaws and TMJ diseases and deformities. www.indiandentalacademy.com 57
  57. 57. Micro Computed Tomography  Principally the same as CT, except that the reconstructed cross sections are confined to a much smaller area.  Significantly reduces radiation dosage.  Used to measure bone connectivity in all 3 dimensions and even record anisotropy – till now not possible even with histology www.indiandentalacademy.com 58
  58. 58. Micro Computed Tomography Clinically used to evaluate alveolar remodelling (osteoblastic/osteoclastic activity) as well as bone dehiscences and root resorption www.indiandentalacademy.com 59
  59. 59. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com 60

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