INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Recent
Advances in
Diagnosis and
Treatment
Planning.
Introduction
Original Diagnostic records consisted of
set of study models
and patient’s orthodontic problems
Discovery of ...
Introduction
With the arrival of the cephalometric
technique and its increasing popularity
clarification of the anatomic b...
Introduction

1.

2.

Several reasons for limited validity of the 2D
Cephalometry’s scientific method :
A conventional hea...
Introduction
3.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A significant amount of external error,
known as radiographic projection error, is
associ...
Introduction
4.

5.

Manual data collection and processing in
cephalometric analysis has been shown to
have low accuracy a...
Introduction
Despite these limitations

Various ceph. analyses have been developed to
help diagnose skeletal malocclusions...
Introduction
Integration of computers and ceph
technology in the 1970’s

Complex statistical analysis of growth patterns
a...
Introduction
Various technological aids were introduced.
IMAGING; most important tools used by an
orthodontist to measure ...
Introduction
Despite the diverse image acquisition
technologies currently available

Standards have been adopted in an eff...
Some of the recent advances which have taken
place in the field of diagnosis and treatment
planning are as follows;

www.i...
radiographic image acquisition
3D radiographs
holographs
Arthrography
CT and MRI

II.

Cephalometric application
analysis ...
Imaging and Image acquisition

Images

Conventional
ANALOG PROCESS
Contemporary
DIGITAL PROCESS

www.indiandentalacademy.c...
Imaging and Image acquisition









Necessity :
Manipulation of data on a computer
Facilitating complex analysis
...
Imaging and Image acquisition
Digital Photography:

INPUT

PROCESSING

www.indiandentalacademy.com

OUTPUT
Imaging and Image acquisition




Digital Camera:
uses a CCD (charged coupled device) or a
CMOS (complementary metal oxi...
Imaging and Image acquisition
Image quality

• sensor pixel count
•Tonal range
• color purity
• Lighting etc…..

Compressi...
Imaging and Image acquisition

1.
2.
3.

No. of images stored depend on
Capacity of the storage device
Resolution at which...
Video Imaging.
With the integration of
computers and cephalometric
technology in the 1970s,
complex statistical analyses o...
Video Imaging.
In the VTO of an
orthognathic surgery case,
the clinician classically has
used acetate templates of the
tee...
Video Imaging.
Cut photographs and move the sections in a
way that somewhat simulates the surgical
outcome, but does not a...
Video Imaging.
Cephalometric digitizing programs may be
used in automating these predictions and, in
both cases, single li...
Video Imaging.
Video imaging technology
allows the orthodontist to gather
frontal and profile images and
modify them to pr...
Video Imaging.






Coordinating images and cephalogram:
Digitizing the ceph and then matching the size
of the video ...
Video Imaging.(advantages)






Graphic method of communication with
patients
Formation of visual template in treatm...
Digital Radiographs










Process of data collection
RVG
Dentoptix digital radiographic system
Cephalometric ...
Digital Radiographs

X Ray

Sensor

Data collection:

Electrical
charge

IMAGE
digitizer

• CCDs
• Amorphous Selenium
• Am...
Digital Radiographs (RVG)
Basic Principles:
sensor head

object

x-ray
source
scintillator

CCD

transmitter
converter
amp...
Digital Radiographs (RVG)
CCD -analogy
The charge of the
pixel is proportional
to the amount of
light

www.indiandentalaca...
X-ray imaging with CCD
Scintillator
- converts x-radiation to photons (light)
Fibre optic layer
- conducts photons to CCD
...
Dixi2 scintillation material


x-rays

crystalline




light


x-rays



amorphous 
light

new crystalline
scintilla...
Dixi2 digital intraoral radiography









Dixi2

real time image acquisition
view delay 1 - 4 s
pixel size: 19 /...
Dixi2 digital intraoral radiography








Dixi2

long reach, 27 m to PC
no reset between exposures
fast multiple ex...
Digital Radiographs









DENOPTIX
A radiographic technique which eliminates
silver halide film
Storage Phosphor i...
Digital Radiographs
Phosphor plate:
PROTECTIVE LAYER
PHOSPHOR LAYER

SUPPORT
BACKING LAYER
BAR CODE LABEL

www.indiandenta...
Principle of phosphor plate imaging
Phosphor particles store the x-ray information
laser beam
releases the
stored informat...
Digital Radiographs
Cephs and OPGs : same cassettes can be used
Intensifying screen has to be removed*
Same machine and se...
Digital Radiographs
This digital image can be then manipulated using
various software programs.

Soft tissue filtering can...
Digital Radiographs
Advantages:
1.
2.
3.

4.

Alternative to conventional film
No dark room or scanner required
No chemica...
Digital Radiographs
5.

6.
7.

Environmental friendly; no heavy metal
wastage
Transmission of images
Enlargement of any ar...
Cephalometric Applications
Orthodontic treatment involves synthesizing
functional and esthetic treatment goals.
Ceph. appl...
Cephalometric Applications


Direct digitization;
Analog info. converted into digital info.
Digitizing tablet

Electronic...
Digitizing tablet with cross hair cursor.

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Cephalometric Applications
Modes of digitization;
1.
Point mode:
 Discrete location of individual landmarks
 Location of...
Cephalometric Applications
Stream mode digitization:
 Stream of coordinate points recorded as the
radiographic contour is...
Cephalometric Applications





DIGICEPH
Method for computerized digitization,
analysis and superimposition
13 cephalom...
Cephalometric Applications
Features
 10 image storage data bank. (1 temp and 9
perm)
 Requires a computer, printer, back...
Cephalometric Applications







DIGIGRAPH
Introduced by Dolphin imaging systems
Non-radiographic system
‘Digigraph...
Cephalometric Applications
System design:
The DigiGraph Work Station
is about 5 feet long, 3 feet
wide and 7 feet high.
Th...
Cephalometric Applications
The head holder is suspended from a
beam, supported by a vertical column
attached to the cabine...
Cephalometric Applications

A model board can be inserted into the
head holder, and images of various
views can be recorde...
Cephalometric Applications

A light box can also be attached to the
head holder for imaging headfilms,
wristfilms, laminag...
Cephalometric Applications
The video monitor (Fig. 8) is
attached that can be rotated as the
operator moves.
Images are as...
Cephalometric Applications
Any image appearing on the screen can be
reproduced instantaneously with one of three
"hard cop...
Cephalometric Applications
The digitizing handpiece (Fig. 10) is used to
record cephalometric data while the patient is in...
Cephalometric Applications
Some practices may need
additional work stations where
records are not taken, but can be
viewed...
Cephalometric Applications
procedure

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Cephalometric Applications
Video imaging
Images can include left or right
lateral, frontal full face, standard
intraoral, ...
Cephalometric Applications
Procedure

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Cephalometric Applications
Digitizing is done in this order:
1) facial landmarks,
2) mouth-closed intraoral landmarks, and...
Cephalometric Applications
If both lateral and frontal data are being recorded,
the lateral imaging and digitizing are per...
Cephalometric Applications
4. Cephalometric Analysis Display
The program produces any of 14 cephalometric analyses:

www.i...
Cephalometric Applications
•Ricketts lateral
• Ricketts frontal
• Vari-Simplex
• Holdaway
• Alabama
• Jarabak
• Steiner
• ...
Cephalometric Applications
Additional custom analyses may be set up, using any
combination of more than 150 cephalometric
...
Cephalometric Applications
5.Tracing Display
Tracings - displayed immediately;
include planes relevant to the selected
cep...
Cephalometric Applications
6. Visual Treatment Objective
To move part of the picture, simply touch
the light pen to two po...
Cephalometric Applications
The software automatically blends
skin tones and smoothes profile
lines so they are consistent ...
Cephalometric Applications
7. Finishing a DigiGraph Session
At this point, the operator saves the data onto the two 3 ½ "
...
Teleradiology
INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION
Teleradiology is the electronic transmission of
radiological images from one loc...
Teleradiology
When a teleradiology system is used to produce the official
authenticated written interpretation,there shoul...
Teleradiology
GOALS
A. providing consultative and interpretative radiological
services in areas of demonstrated need;
B. m...
Teleradiology
GOALS
D. enhancing educational opportunities for practicing
radiologists;
E. promoting efficiency and qualit...
Teleradiology
EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES
Equipment guidelines cover two basic categories of
teleradiologic systems when used for...
Teleradiology
A. Specific Guidelines
1. Small-matrix systems (computed tomography
(CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
...
Teleradiology
2. Large-matrix systems (digitized radiographic films and
computed radiography):
a. Digitization system: The...
Teleradiology
B. General Guidelines
1. IMAGE MANAGEMENT
Teleradiologic require the use of image management
for optimal per...
Teleradiology
a. capability for the selection of the image sequence for
transmission and display at the receiving site;
b....
Teleradiology
2. TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES AND PATIENT DATA
New technology systems should include the current
version of the ...
Teleradiology
PATIENT DATABASE
For radiological images transmitted by teleradiology, a
database should be available, at ei...
Teleradiology
SECURITY
Teleradiology systems should provide network
and software security protocols to protect the
confide...
Teleradiology (USES)
1. Teleradiology allows timely interpretation of
radiological images
2. Gives greater access to secon...
The introduction of digital image sources in the
1970’s and the use of computers in processing
these images led the Americ...
•This committee, formed in 1983,
•in 1985 published the ACR-NEMA Standards
Publication ..
• with the release of version 3....
The DICOM standard today uses a specific network
protocol utilizing TCP/IP
created a mechanism for identifying Information...
• DICOM defined Information Objects not only for
images but also for patients, studies, reports, and other data
groupings....
DICOM is used or will soon be used by virtually
every medical profession that utilizes images within
the healthcare indust...
Transmission of images done :
•using various forms of Ethernet
• virtual private networks (VPNs),
• within a metropolitan ...
DICOM does not specify functional requirements for an
entire system,
For example, storage of image objects is defined only...
Dentofacial Planner Plus is a powerful treatment
visualization software system.
DFP Plus links digitized lateral cephalogr...
Specifications
Recommended hardware:
Pentium computer, Windows 95, MS-DOS 5.0 or
higher
1 GB hard drive, 16 MB RAM (expand...
Video Cameras;
Recommended features;
S-video output, also known as super VHS or Y-C
video
high pixel count (over 320,000 p...
Cephalometrics
DFP Plus contains all of the cephalometric functionality of
Dentofacial Planner,
A digitized radiograph is ...
Flexible Cephalometric Analysis
DFP and DFP Plus share the unique functionality of
Tools(tm), that provides flexibility in...
- automated lateral facial image manipulation through
linkage to digitized lateral cephalograms. Facial form is
automatica...
Image Review:
• simultaneously showing pretreatment and predicted
images:
Other functions;
•Ceph superimposition and narro...
Cephalometric Hardcopy
generate precise cephalometric hardcopy through the use
of pen plotters, laser printers or ink-jet ...
VISTADENT Image management
system
VISTADENT COMPLETE™
ability to modify an image that is stored in the program,
as well as...
VISTADENT Image management
system
Ideal system requirements;
 win 98 operating system or above
 pentium processor II
64...
Cephalometric Applications
Other attachments
 digital camera or scanner
 RGB camera
Printer ( color)
 CD ROM drive

ww...
VISTADENT Image management
system
Easy to calculate cephalometric analysis.
The Ceph program allows one to trace and
ide...
VISTADENT Image management
system
The VTO feature automatically illustrates
soft tissue changes based on measurements for...
Cephalometric Applications
Procedure;
 input - scanner / digital camera
Photographs and x –rays (tracing) are scanned
sep...
Cephalometric Applications
 Aligning the ceph on the photograph
 Calibration
 Ready for use

www.indiandentalacademy.co...
Arthrography (TMJ)
 Radiographic invasive technique
 uses a radio opaque substance (Tc99 / Ba )
 injected into the join...
Arthrography (TMJ)
Equipment required;
 dental X ray unit
 Syringes ( 27 gauge needle )
 L.A.
 Contrast medium

www.in...
Arthography (TMJ)
Procedure:
1. Anesthesia;
 27 gauge needle with 1ml of 2% lignocaine
 Subcutaneously - 5 mm anterior t...
Arthrography (TMJ)
For the upper compartment;
 5 mm superior to the lower compartment
insertion site.
 The mouth opening...
Arthrography (TMJ)
Patient Positioning ;

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Arthrography (TMJ)
Opacifying the Lower joint;
 a new 27 gauge needle is used
 insert 1cm posterior to the tragus of the...
Arthrography (TMJ)
Opacifying the upper joint;
 27 gauge needle is used
 insert 5mm superior to insertion of the lower
c...
Arthrography (TMJ)
Exposure factors;
 65 kVp for speed of 400 (film)
 40 degree angle ( tomograph)
 Distance of 42” fro...
Arthrography (TMJ)

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Arthrography (TMJ)
Post – Op;
 contrast media aspirated and the spaces should
be irrigated with saline
 patient should b...
Arthrography (TMJ)
This procedure is not used now a days because
of:
 Patient discomfort
 allergic reactions
 chances o...
Arthrography (TMJ)
More recent techniques for TMJ imaging
1. Bones - CT Scanning
2. Joint spaces and disc - MRI

www.india...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Principles:
Magnetism is a dynamic
invisible phenomenon
consisting of discrete
fields of forces...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging


The technique is based on the presence of
specific magnetic properties found within
atomic n...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
When dipoles exposed within a strong electric
field
Orientation in response to the field
Depend...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
When images are displayed; intense signals show
as white and weak ones as black.
Intermediate a...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Equipment;
1.
The Gantry ;houses the
patient. Patient is surrounded
by magnetic coils
2.
Operat...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(TMJ)
The objectives of MRI imaging of the TMJ are;

Determine relationship between the disc a...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(TMJ)
MRI clearly differentiates the soft tissue components .
Short and long echo imaging of th...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(TMJ)
The contrast and appearance of images can be varied
by selecting the field strength and o...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Complications;
Magnetic forces and radio waves - not know
to produce any biological side effect...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging






Contraindications;
Patients with cardiac pacemakers.
Patients with cerebral metallic ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging







Indications
Assessing diseases of the TMJ
Cleft lip and palate
Tonsillitis and ade...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging






Short comings;
Inability to identify ligament tears or
perforations
Dynamics of tissu...
Computed Tomography




Invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield who
was awarded a Nobel prize in 1979
CT is an image display ...
Computed Tomography
Parts of the Equipment;
1.
Scanner ( movable x
ray table + gantry)
2.
Computer system
3.
A display con...
Computed Tomography
Principle;
A x ray source and array of detectors
mounted within the gantry rotate around
the patient d...
Computed Tomography
The tube and detectors are
further angled and
another traverse is
made.
A series of Profiles is built
...
Computed Tomography
Early scanners

translate and rotate system.

Recently developed scanners
stationary
detectors and x r...
Computed Tomography
Radiation dosage

1.536 rad for
a single section
1.8432 rad for

multiple sections
Estimated dose to t...
Computed Tomography
(TMJ)
CT for the evaluation of the TMJ was introduced
by Wegener and colleagues for demonstrating
bone...
Computed Tomography
(TMJ)






Useful in determining changes in
bone density
Primary imaging method when
internal dera...
Computed Tomography
Although CT scans are too expensive and the
radiation dose too high to be appropriate
for orthodontic ...
Computed Tomography






In the treatment of certain craniofacial
deformities. 2D diagnostic records inadequate.
To vi...
Microcomputed Tomography
Principally the same as CT, except that the
reconstructed cross sections are confined
to a much s...
Computerized tooth width
analysis


Introduced by Christopher T.C. Ho and Terrence Freer



Named as Ho-Freer Graphical ...
Computerized tooth width
analysis








Direct input using digital calipers or manual
input using visual basic 3.0
U...
Computerized tooth width
analysis


1.
2.

3.

4.

Advantages:
Less time consuming
Use of digital calipers reduces errors...
What is Invisalign®?
•Invisalign® is the invisible way
to straighten teeth without
braces.
• uses a series of clear
remova...
Invisalign







co-founded by Zia Chishti and Kelsey Wirth in 1997
Based in Sunnyvale, California.*
Align Technolog...
Invisalign






Patient gets the first aligner 6 weeks after the
1st visit
Most treatments require 20 – 60 aligners
w...
Impressions are
made using
Polyvinyl
Siloxane

Impression and bite
send along with a
detailed treatment
plan.

advanced im...
Invisalign
Contraindications;
 patients with severe malocclusions
 All children – growing jaws and erupting teeth
too co...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
Angle Orth...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

the Dolph...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

The purpo...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values





Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

M...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values



Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Ther...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values










Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie B...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values








Daniel Langfordtogether (centric occlus...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values


Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Each s...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values






Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
P...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values




Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
To a...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values




Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Re...
There

was a
statistically significant
mean difference for 18
of the 30 measurements
(p >.0067).
 Eighteen of the
measur...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values



Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Corr...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values







Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen....
www.indiandentalacademy.com
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values



Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Disc...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values


Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.

Measur...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.



The so...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values




Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
pati...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values




Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
deep...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values




Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
The ...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
Conclusion...
A comparison of sonically derived
and traditional cephalometric values
Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.
3. Intraob...
Arthroscopy
First arthroscopic examination of the TMJ
reported by Ohnishi in 1975
Invasive technique
One of the several di...
Arthroscopy
Indications;
1.
Internal derangements
2.
Osteoarthrosis
3.
Examination and biopsy of suspected
neoplastic dise...
Arthroscopy
Equipment;
1.
Small diameter arthroscope (needlescope)
2.
Sharp and blunt trocars
3.
Arthoroscopic sheath
4.
F...
Arthroscopy
Anesthesia
frequently done under G.A – diagnostic
arthroscopy may be done under LA

Auriculotemporal nerve is...
Arthroscopy
Technique;

Patient asked to open mouth

Joint space distended by injection of isotonic
saline in to joint s...
Arthroscopy






3mm vertical skin incision made at the
injection site using a sharp trocar
surrounded by the arthros...
Arthroscopy







Trocar pushed further
Then exchanged for an arthroscope
2nd puncture created on the canthaltragal ...
Arthroscopy
Provides valuable data that cannot be obtained
by other methods – direct visualization.
Shows a high diagnosti...
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment planning1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment planning1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning.
  3. 3. Introduction Original Diagnostic records consisted of set of study models and patient’s orthodontic problems Discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895. Traditional 2-D cephalographs also known as Roentgenographic cephalometry introduced by Broadbent, 36 years later. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Introduction With the arrival of the cephalometric technique and its increasing popularity clarification of the anatomic basis for malocclusions became possible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Introduction 1. 2. Several reasons for limited validity of the 2D Cephalometry’s scientific method : A conventional headfilm is a 2D representation of a 3D object. Cephalometric analyses are based on the assumption of a perfect superimposition of the right and left sides about the midsagittal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Introduction 3. a) b) c) d) e) A significant amount of external error, known as radiographic projection error, is associated with image acquisition. Size Magnification Distortion Patient positioning Projection distortion * www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Introduction 4. 5. Manual data collection and processing in cephalometric analysis has been shown to have low accuracy and precision. Errors in location of landmarks due to the lack of well defined outlines, hard edges and shadows. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Introduction Despite these limitations Various ceph. analyses have been developed to help diagnose skeletal malocclusions and dentofacial deformities. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Introduction Integration of computers and ceph technology in the 1970’s Complex statistical analysis of growth patterns and dentoskeletal relations were estb. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Introduction Various technological aids were introduced. IMAGING; most important tools used by an orthodontist to measure and record the size and form of craniofacial structures. Traditionally used to record the status quo of limited or grouped anatomical structures . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Introduction Despite the diverse image acquisition technologies currently available Standards have been adopted in an effort to balance the anticipated benefits with the associated costs and risks. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Some of the recent advances which have taken place in the field of diagnosis and treatment planning are as follows; www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. radiographic image acquisition 3D radiographs holographs Arthrography CT and MRI II. Cephalometric application analysis and planning www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Imaging and Image acquisition Images Conventional ANALOG PROCESS Contemporary DIGITAL PROCESS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Imaging and Image acquisition       Necessity : Manipulation of data on a computer Facilitating complex analysis Organisation of data (CT and MRI imaging) Biology: Reduce patient radiation exposure Practicality: Decreases storage needs transmission of images (teleradiology) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Imaging and Image acquisition Digital Photography: INPUT PROCESSING www.indiandentalacademy.com OUTPUT
  17. 17. Imaging and Image acquisition   Digital Camera: uses a CCD (charged coupled device) or a CMOS (complementary metal oxide) semiconductor as a image sensor rather than film. CCDs are small sensors light electric charge www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Imaging and Image acquisition Image quality • sensor pixel count •Tonal range • color purity • Lighting etc….. Compression using JPEG (Joint photographic experts group format) or TIFF(Tag image file format). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Imaging and Image acquisition 1. 2. 3. No. of images stored depend on Capacity of the storage device Resolution at which the picture was taken Amount of compression used.* 3:1 – no loss of information upto 20:1- some loss , but clinically insigf. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Video Imaging. With the integration of computers and cephalometric technology in the 1970s, complex statistical analyses of growth patterns and dentoskeletal relations were established. The speed of computerized cephalometric programs has helped streamline the laborious manual measurement of patient cephalograms and the creation of the visualization treatment objective (VTO). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Video Imaging. In the VTO of an orthognathic surgery case, the clinician classically has used acetate templates of the teeth and jaws to predict orthodontic and surgical movements and the final profile is determined by the reaction of the soft tissue to the hard tissue movements. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Video Imaging. Cut photographs and move the sections in a way that somewhat simulates the surgical outcome, but does not allow the planner to visualize limiting factors such as the dental relationships (overjet) or differential soft tissue reaction to hard tissue movement. Gaps in the manipulated photographs are unavoidable. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Video Imaging. Cephalometric digitizing programs may be used in automating these predictions and, in both cases, single line profile renderings serve as the profile outline of the final treatment goal. Profile line renderings may represent a reasonable feedback system for the orthodontist, but has little cognitive value to the patient. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Video Imaging. Video imaging technology allows the orthodontist to gather frontal and profile images and modify them to project overall esthetic treatment goals The video image is much more realistic than photograph simulation and it is much easier for the patient to comprehend than just the soft tissue profile of a cephalometric tracing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Video Imaging.     Coordinating images and cephalogram: Digitizing the ceph and then matching the size of the video image to it Digitizing the ceph and then sizing the ceph to an existing video image (loss of calibration) Gathering the video image of a ceph through a calibrated video camera and matching it to an existing video image Simultaneous image gathering and ceph. radiography. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Video Imaging.(advantages)      Graphic method of communication with patients Formation of visual template in treatment planning. Quantification of treatment plans. Ease of communication with others of the similar profession Less time consuming and more efficient . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Digital Radiographs          Process of data collection RVG Dentoptix digital radiographic system Cephalometric applications DIGICEPH DIGIGRAPH Dentofacial Planner Vista dent Teleradiography www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Digital Radiographs X Ray Sensor Data collection: Electrical charge IMAGE digitizer • CCDs • Amorphous Selenium • Amorphous Silicon • Phosphor plates www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Digital Radiographs (RVG) Basic Principles: sensor head object x-ray source scintillator CCD transmitter converter amplifier fibre optic layer www.indiandentalacademy.com PC quantizer amplifier receiver
  30. 30. Digital Radiographs (RVG) CCD -analogy The charge of the pixel is proportional to the amount of light www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. X-ray imaging with CCD Scintillator - converts x-radiation to photons (light) Fibre optic layer - conducts photons to CCD - stops x-radiation pixels CCD - converts photons to electrons (charge) Electronic circuit - amplifies the signal - converts the analog signal to digital www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Dixi2 scintillation material  x-rays crystalline   light  x-rays  amorphous  light new crystalline scintillation material no scattering no need for fibre optic layer thicker scintillator can be used more light to CCD better detective quantum efficiency www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Dixi2 digital intraoral radiography        Dixi2 real time image acquisition view delay 1 - 4 s pixel size: 19 / 38 µm (selectable) very high resolution optimal shape and size of the sensor sensor thickness 4 mm sensor cable diameter 3 mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Dixi2 digital intraoral radiography      Dixi2 long reach, 27 m to PC no reset between exposures fast multiple exposures - study templates versatile and easy-to-use Dimaxis software DICOM compatible www.indiandentalacademy.com 0301
  35. 35. Digital Radiographs      DENOPTIX A radiographic technique which eliminates silver halide film Storage Phosphor imaging plates * High costs of scanners (laser) needed to read the images. Adv. over CCDs no wires and rigid sensors. Available in thin flexible films. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Digital Radiographs Phosphor plate: PROTECTIVE LAYER PHOSPHOR LAYER SUPPORT BACKING LAYER BAR CODE LABEL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Principle of phosphor plate imaging Phosphor particles store the x-ray information laser beam releases the stored information exposure A/D digital data erasure of the plate for reuse www.indiandentalacademy.com 0301
  38. 38. Digital Radiographs Cephs and OPGs : same cassettes can be used Intensifying screen has to be removed* Same machine and settings can be used for DENOPTIX and regular Cephs and OPGs . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Digital Radiographs This digital image can be then manipulated using various software programs. Soft tissue filtering can be done afterwards with the software www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Digital Radiographs Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Alternative to conventional film No dark room or scanner required No chemicals, film mounts or film required Saving staff time www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Digital Radiographs 5. 6. 7. Environmental friendly; no heavy metal wastage Transmission of images Enlargement of any area of interest www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Cephalometric Applications Orthodontic treatment involves synthesizing functional and esthetic treatment goals. Ceph. applications offer various treatment planning procedures. Various methods of cephalometric analysis; 1. Hand tracing and direct measurements 2. Direct computer digitization of the ceph. 3. Indirect computer digitization of the ceph. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Cephalometric Applications  Direct digitization; Analog info. converted into digital info. Digitizing tablet Electronic pen mouse Cross hair cursor www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Digitizing tablet with cross hair cursor. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Cephalometric Applications Modes of digitization; 1. Point mode:  Discrete location of individual landmarks  Location of landmarks in a predetermined sequential manner  Visual ceph. generated by connection of dots by lines and curves.  Close to accurate landmark identification www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Cephalometric Applications Stream mode digitization:  Stream of coordinate points recorded as the radiographic contour is traced  Stream controlled by programmable options  Digitizing cursor or mouse to be used  More technique sensitive than point mode  Less time consuming  Landmark identification is less accurate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Cephalometric Applications    DIGICEPH Method for computerized digitization, analysis and superimposition 13 cephalometric analysis Developed by Centre for Bio-medical Engineering, IIT, Delhi and dept. of Dental Surgery, AIIMS, Delhi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Cephalometric Applications Features  10 image storage data bank. (1 temp and 9 perm)  Requires a computer, printer, backlit hipad digitizer and digiceph software  Uses point mode of digitization www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Cephalometric Applications       DIGIGRAPH Introduced by Dolphin imaging systems Non-radiographic system ‘Digigraph workstation’ Video images also possible VTO Reduces time required for records. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Cephalometric Applications System design: The DigiGraph Work Station is about 5 feet long, 3 feet wide and 7 feet high. The main cabinet contains the electronic circuitry, and the patient sits next to the cabinet in an adjustable chair similar to those used with cephalometers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Cephalometric Applications The head holder is suspended from a beam, supported by a vertical column attached to the cabinet (Fig. 5). more comfortable than cephalometer head holders, allowing the patient to remain in the holder for several minutes. Ear rods and forehead and posterior head pieces are used to minimize patient movement. The ear rods can be removed so that facial and intraoral images can also be recorded while the patient is sitting in the adjustable chair. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Cephalometric Applications A model board can be inserted into the head holder, and images of various views can be recorded (Fig. 6) . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Cephalometric Applications A light box can also be attached to the head holder for imaging headfilms, wristfilms, laminagraphic films, and panoramic x-rays (Fig. 7). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Cephalometric Applications The video monitor (Fig. 8) is attached that can be rotated as the operator moves. Images are as sharp as those on a standard color television. The images, text, and numerical data can be displayed, stored, and modified using either a light pen or a standard computer keyboard. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Cephalometric Applications Any image appearing on the screen can be reproduced instantaneously with one of three "hard copy" output devices: • Sony video imager— makes 5 " x 7 " color prints in 60 seconds (Fig. 9). • Polaroid freeze-frame camera— produces Polaroid prints in 10 seconds; a 35mm slide back can be added to make slides, which can be sent out for processing. • Hewlett Packard Paintjet printer— makes 8 " x 10 " paper color copies in 4 to 8 minutes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Cephalometric Applications The digitizing handpiece (Fig. 10) is used to record cephalometric data while the patient is in the head holder. The removable, sterilizable tip of the handpiece is placed directly on the patient to record a series of facial and intraoral landmarks. As each landmark is located, the handpiece button is depressed and the location is recorded in threedimensional coordinates (x,y,z). Each time the handpiece button is depressed, an audible sound is picked up by an array of four microphones on the beam. The time it takes the sound to reach each of the microphones determines the landmark location. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Cephalometric Applications Some practices may need additional work stations where records are not taken, but can be viewed, modified, or analyzedConsultation Station (Fig. 11) it can be placed in the orthodontist's private office. It is built on casters and can easily be moved from chair to chair in the operatory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Cephalometric Applications procedure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Cephalometric Applications Video imaging Images can include left or right lateral, frontal full face, standard intraoral, or dental casts. These can be viewed on the monitor singly or in traditional groupings (Fig. 14). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Cephalometric Applications Procedure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Cephalometric Applications Digitizing is done in this order: 1) facial landmarks, 2) mouth-closed intraoral landmarks, and 3) intraoral landmarks requiring a disposable bite opener to be inserted. There is a fourth category that is not digitized directly: 4) extrapolated landmarks. Such frequently used points as sella, incisor root apices, and anterior nasal spine cannot be measured directly from the patient using the digitizer. Locations of these points are calculated by the program based on the locations of other related landmarks, using specific mathematical algorithms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Cephalometric Applications If both lateral and frontal data are being recorded, the lateral imaging and digitizing are performed first. Then the patient is removed from the head holder while it is rotated to the frontal position. An experienced operator can perform a lateral or frontal imaging and tracing in approximately two minutes. At this point, the patient is no longer required to be present. The information is ready to be analyzed by the orthodontist. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. Cephalometric Applications 4. Cephalometric Analysis Display The program produces any of 14 cephalometric analyses: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Cephalometric Applications •Ricketts lateral • Ricketts frontal • Vari-Simplex • Holdaway • Alabama • Jarabak • Steiner • Downs • Burstone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Cephalometric Applications Additional custom analyses may be set up, using any combination of more than 150 cephalometric measurements programmed into the Work Station. The observed value is shown along with the patient norm— adjusted for age, sex, race, and head size— and standard deviations from the norm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Cephalometric Applications 5.Tracing Display Tracings - displayed immediately; include planes relevant to the selected cephalometric analysis; An advantage - is that the nonlinear distortion associated with radiographs is eliminated. - all points are recorded in a direct, oneto-one manner, allowing precise superimposition of patient tracings over video images (Fig. 19). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Cephalometric Applications 6. Visual Treatment Objective To move part of the picture, simply touch the light pen to two points on the screen, at opposite extremes of the area to be moved. The computer draws a box with the two points at opposite corners (Fig. 20A). Then, by touching the light pen to another spot on the screen, the boxed image is moved to that spot (Fig. 20B). Boxes can be moved vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, or they can be rotated about any point. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Cephalometric Applications The software automatically blends skin tones and smoothes profile lines so they are consistent with the surrounding tissue. "before and after" format (Fig. 21). The light pen can also be used for freehand drawing over any video image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Cephalometric Applications 7. Finishing a DigiGraph Session At this point, the operator saves the data onto the two 3 ½ " patient disks . The information on the two disks is identical, but one is a backup. These disks - stored All the information for one patient's treatment usually fits on a 3½" disk. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Teleradiology INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Teleradiology is the electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Teleradiology When a teleradiology system is used to produce the official authenticated written interpretation,there should not be a significant loss of spatial or contrast resolution from image acquisition through transmission to final image display. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Teleradiology GOALS A. providing consultative and interpretative radiological services in areas of demonstrated need; B. making services of radiologists available in medical facilities without on-site radiologist support; C. providing timely availability of radiological images and radiologic image interpretation in emergent and nonemergent clinical care areas; www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Teleradiology GOALS D. enhancing educational opportunities for practicing radiologists; E. promoting efficiency and quality improvement; and Teleradiology is an evolving technology. New goals will continue to emerge. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Teleradiology EQUIPMENT GUIDELINES Equipment guidelines cover two basic categories of teleradiologic systems when used for rendering the official authenticated written interpretation: small matrix size and large matrix size. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Teleradiology A. Specific Guidelines 1. Small-matrix systems (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and digital fluorography): a. Digitization system: These systems require 0.5k x 0.5k x 8 bits array or better. b. Display System: These systems require a 0.5k x 0.48k x 8 bits array or better. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Teleradiology 2. Large-matrix systems (digitized radiographic films and computed radiography): a. Digitization system: These systems require a 2k x 2k x 12 bits array or better. b. Display system: These systems should be 2k x 2k x 8 bits array or better. . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Teleradiology B. General Guidelines 1. IMAGE MANAGEMENT Teleradiologic require the use of image management for optimal performance. Both matrix systems should include: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Teleradiology a. capability for the selection of the image sequence for transmission and display at the receiving site; b. capabilities for use at the transmitting station that must include patient name, identification number, date and time of examination, institution of origin, type of examination, degree of compression (if any), and brief patient history; and www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Teleradiology 2. TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES AND PATIENT DATA New technology systems should include the current version of the ACR image data format standard and the DICOM network standard. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Teleradiology PATIENT DATABASE For radiological images transmitted by teleradiology, a database should be available, at either the transmitting or receiving site, that includes: a. patient name, identification number, and date; b. type of examination; and c. type of images. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Teleradiology SECURITY Teleradiology systems should provide network and software security protocols to protect the confidentiality of the patient images and data. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Teleradiology (USES) 1. Teleradiology allows timely interpretation of radiological images 2. Gives greater access to secondary consultations and to improved continuing education. 3. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images. 4. Appropriately utilized: can improve access to quality radiological interpretations and thus significantly improve patient care. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. The introduction of digital image sources in the 1970’s and the use of computers in processing these images led the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) to form a joint committee in order to create a standard method for the transmission of medical images and their associated information. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. •This committee, formed in 1983, •in 1985 published the ACR-NEMA Standards Publication .. • with the release of version 3.0 a name change - Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. The DICOM standard today uses a specific network protocol utilizing TCP/IP created a mechanism for identifying Information Objects as they are acted upon across the network. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. • DICOM defined Information Objects not only for images but also for patients, studies, reports, and other data groupings. • With the enhancements made in DICOM (Version 3.0), came the development and expansion of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and its interfacing with medical information systems. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. DICOM is used or will soon be used by virtually every medical profession that utilizes images within the healthcare industry. These include cardiology, dentistry, endoscopy, mammography, opthamology, orthopedics, pathology, pediatrics, radiation therapy, radiology, surgery, etc. DICOM is even used in veterinary medical imaging applications. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Transmission of images done : •using various forms of Ethernet • virtual private networks (VPNs), • within a metropolitan area (often using ATM), • by modem • and via satellite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. DICOM does not specify functional requirements for an entire system, For example, storage of image objects is defined only in terms of what information must be transmitted and retained, not how images are displayed or annotated. DICOM can be considered as a standard for communication across the “boundaries” between heterogeneous applications, devices and systems. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Dentofacial Planner Plus is a powerful treatment visualization software system. DFP Plus links digitized lateral cephalograms to digital facial images - move the skeletal and dental components of the cephalometric tracing - the cephalometric profile and the facial image are automatically transformed to represent the predicted facial form. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Specifications Recommended hardware: Pentium computer, Windows 95, MS-DOS 5.0 or higher 1 GB hard drive, 16 MB RAM (expandable to 32 MB) Tseng ET-4000 graphics adapter Microsoft bus mouse backup system - tape or zip drive 2 serial ports, a parallel port 800 x 600, 1024 x 768 graphics resolution Supported digitizers:www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Video Cameras; Recommended features; S-video output, also known as super VHS or Y-C video high pixel count (over 320,000 pixels) charge coupled device (CCD); generally found in Hi-8 cameras through-the-lens (TTL) macro auto-focus for ease of focus when acquiring intraoral images white balance control www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Cephalometrics DFP Plus contains all of the cephalometric functionality of Dentofacial Planner, A digitized radiograph is used as the starting point for a wide variety of cephalometric analyses and superimpositions, growth estimation, orthodontic treatment planning and surgical prediction. Soft tissue profile changes are automatically computed and displayed during treatment planning manipulations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. Flexible Cephalometric Analysis DFP and DFP Plus share the unique functionality of Tools(tm), that provides flexibility in customizing the work. Tools - mix and match measurements from several different analyses into one or more personalized cephalometric analyses. easily add new landmarks, measurements and graphical reference lines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. - automated lateral facial image manipulation through linkage to digitized lateral cephalograms. Facial form is automatically transformed in response to interactive hard tissue manipulations: Incisor retraction, advancement Maxillary orthopedics Functional appliance therapy Mandibular auto- or counter-rotation LeFort 1 maxillary surgery Mandibular advancement, setback Total or anterior sub-apical osteotomy Genioplasty www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Image Review: • simultaneously showing pretreatment and predicted images: Other functions; •Ceph superimposition and narrow review •Overlay ceph tracing on image •Semi-transparent image superimposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. Cephalometric Hardcopy generate precise cephalometric hardcopy through the use of pen plotters, laser printers or ink-jet printers. Tracing size can be varied so that multiple tracings can be generated per page, in either portrait or landscape orientation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. VISTADENT Image management system VISTADENT COMPLETE™ ability to modify an image that is stored in the program, as well as the ability to do Visual Treatment Objective (VTO). Images can easily be manipulated to show treatment objectives by using standard editing features such as cut and paste or more advanced features like the Smile Library. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. VISTADENT Image management system Ideal system requirements;  win 98 operating system or above  pentium processor II 64 MB RAM 1GB hard disk space www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Cephalometric Applications Other attachments  digital camera or scanner  RGB camera Printer ( color)  CD ROM drive www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. VISTADENT Image management system Easy to calculate cephalometric analysis. The Ceph program allows one to trace and identify your points directly from a scanned X-RAY. After points and tracings are entered they can easily be edited for accuracy purposes. Then Tracings, Analysis and Measurements can all be printed on one page with the image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. VISTADENT Image management system The VTO feature automatically illustrates soft tissue changes based on measurements for most orthodontic treatment as well as many surgeries. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Cephalometric Applications Procedure;  input - scanner / digital camera Photographs and x –rays (tracing) are scanned separately  digitizing the ceph - stream mode i) Using a digitizing tablet ii) On screen tracing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Cephalometric Applications  Aligning the ceph on the photograph  Calibration  Ready for use www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Arthrography (TMJ)  Radiographic invasive technique  uses a radio opaque substance (Tc99 / Ba )  injected into the joint space to enhance the contrast between disc and the space www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. Arthrography (TMJ) Equipment required;  dental X ray unit  Syringes ( 27 gauge needle )  L.A.  Contrast medium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Arthography (TMJ) Procedure: 1. Anesthesia;  27 gauge needle with 1ml of 2% lignocaine  Subcutaneously - 5 mm anterior to tragus  Open mouth 1 finger – forward, inward and upward - till contact with posterior lateral aspect of the condyl.  Inject 0.4ml in the lower compartment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. Arthrography (TMJ) For the upper compartment;  5 mm superior to the lower compartment insertion site.  The mouth opening should be more www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. Arthrography (TMJ) Patient Positioning ; www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. Arthrography (TMJ) Opacifying the Lower joint;  a new 27 gauge needle is used  insert 1cm posterior to the tragus of the ear  Needle is placed on skin overlying the condyl  mouth should be open at this time  0.5 – 1ml injected www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Arthrography (TMJ) Opacifying the upper joint;  27 gauge needle is used  insert 5mm superior to insertion of the lower compartment needle  mouth should be open more than halfway  After contacting bone, withdraw 1 -2mm and inject 1- 1.5ml www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. Arthrography (TMJ) Exposure factors;  65 kVp for speed of 400 (film)  40 degree angle ( tomograph)  Distance of 42” from source www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. Arthrography (TMJ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. Arthrography (TMJ) Post – Op;  contrast media aspirated and the spaces should be irrigated with saline  patient should be informed about the pain and if it remains persistent - medication www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. Arthrography (TMJ) This procedure is not used now a days because of:  Patient discomfort  allergic reactions  chances of disc perforation  time consuming  relatively high radiation exposure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. Arthrography (TMJ) More recent techniques for TMJ imaging 1. Bones - CT Scanning 2. Joint spaces and disc - MRI www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Principles: Magnetism is a dynamic invisible phenomenon consisting of discrete fields of forces. Magnetic fields are caused by moving electrical charges or rotating electric charges. Images generated from protons of the hydrogen nuclei.* Essentially imaging of the water in the tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com 
  118. 118. Magnetic Resonance Imaging  The technique is based on the presence of specific magnetic properties found within atomic nuclei containing protons and neutrons, Inherent property of rotating about their axis Causes a small magnetic field to be generated around the electrically charged nuclei. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. Magnetic Resonance Imaging When dipoles exposed within a strong electric field Orientation in response to the field Depending on density and spatial relation Signal interpreted and image produced www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. Magnetic Resonance Imaging When images are displayed; intense signals show as white and weak ones as black. Intermediate as shades of gray. Cortical bone and teeth with low presence of hydrogen are poorly imaged and appear black. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment; 1. The Gantry ;houses the patient. Patient is surrounded by magnetic coils 2. Operating console ; where the operator controls the computer and scanning procedure 3. Computer room network. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (TMJ) The objectives of MRI imaging of the TMJ are;  Determine relationship between the disc and Temporal and mandibular components of the TMJ  Detect inflammation, hematoma and effusion for the soft tissue components www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (TMJ) MRI clearly differentiates the soft tissue components . Short and long echo imaging of the TMJ enables identification of the positional relationships between the disc and the condyl www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (TMJ) The contrast and appearance of images can be varied by selecting the field strength and other factors. Special head holders have been designed which facilitates orientation of the patient and reduces patient movement during imaging. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Complications; Magnetic forces and radio waves - not know to produce any biological side effects in man. Non invasive technique and can be used in most patients.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. Magnetic Resonance Imaging     Contraindications; Patients with cardiac pacemakers. Patients with cerebral metallic aneurysm clips. Slight movement of the clip could produce bleeding Stainless steel and other metals produce artifacts ; obliterate image details of the facial area.* www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. Magnetic Resonance Imaging       Indications Assessing diseases of the TMJ Cleft lip and palate Tonsillitis and adenoiditis Cysts and infections Tumors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. Magnetic Resonance Imaging     Short comings; Inability to identify ligament tears or perforations Dynamics of tissue joint not possible Cannot be used in patients suffering from claustrophobia. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. Computed Tomography   Invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield who was awarded a Nobel prize in 1979 CT is an image display of the anatomy of a thin slice of the body developed from multiple x- ray absorption measurements made around the body’s periphery. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. Computed Tomography Parts of the Equipment; 1. Scanner ( movable x ray table + gantry) 2. Computer system 3. A display console www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131. Computed Tomography Principle; A x ray source and array of detectors mounted within the gantry rotate around the patient during each scan. Detectors record the attenuation values of the beam emerging from the patient Information from each traverse is a Profile www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. Computed Tomography The tube and detectors are further angled and another traverse is made. A series of Profiles is built up. The computer analyses the data and an image is produced. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. Computed Tomography Early scanners translate and rotate system. Recently developed scanners stationary detectors and x ray tube rotates around the patient both the detectors and x ray tube rotate in synchrony www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. Computed Tomography Radiation dosage 1.536 rad for a single section 1.8432 rad for multiple sections Estimated dose to the centre of the condyl with CT is 180mR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. Computed Tomography (TMJ) CT for the evaluation of the TMJ was introduced by Wegener and colleagues for demonstrating bone abnormalities within the TMJ. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. Computed Tomography (TMJ)    Useful in determining changes in bone density Primary imaging method when internal derangement or arthrosis is suspected – clinical diagnosis is not always sufficient. Has advantages when planning treatment or operations on jaws and TMJ diseases and deformities. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. Computed Tomography Although CT scans are too expensive and the radiation dose too high to be appropriate for orthodontic applications Certain situations, benefits outweigh the risks www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. Computed Tomography    In the treatment of certain craniofacial deformities. 2D diagnostic records inadequate. To visualize outcome of certain surgical procedures 3D reconstruction of images and viewing of the final images via Monitor or processed via Milling machines or Stereolithography. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. Microcomputed Tomography Principally the same as CT, except that the reconstructed cross sections are confined to a much smaller area. Significantly reduces radiation dosage. Used to measure bone connectivity in all 3 dimensions and even record anisotropy – till now not possible even with histology. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. Computerized tooth width analysis  Introduced by Christopher T.C. Ho and Terrence Freer  Named as Ho-Freer Graphical analysis of tooth width Discrepancy (GATWD)  Base line data obtained from pre treatment orthodontic casts 9 percentage ratios relating max teeth to mand. teeth were derived.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. Computerized tooth width analysis     Direct input using digital calipers or manual input using visual basic 3.0 Upto 24 tooth width measurements can be done Caliper used is a Mitutoyo 6”/ 150mm , with tapered beaks Connected to a Mitutoyo digimatic mini processor IBM compatible computer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. Computerized tooth width analysis  1. 2. 3. 4. Advantages: Less time consuming Use of digital calipers reduces errors during transfer of measurements Mathematical calculations done by the computer Eliminates reference to standard value tables www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. What is Invisalign®? •Invisalign® is the invisible way to straighten teeth without braces. • uses a series of clear removable aligners to straighten teeth without metal wires or brackets. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. Invisalign      co-founded by Zia Chishti and Kelsey Wirth in 1997 Based in Sunnyvale, California.* Align Technology the treatment procedure is handled by the computer technicians in Pakistan - process takes 3 weeks to a month. After approval from the orthodontist, specifications are transmitted to the manufacturing plant in Mexico www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. Invisalign     Patient gets the first aligner 6 weeks after the 1st visit Most treatments require 20 – 60 aligners worn for 2 weeks each Should be taken off only for eating and brushing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. Impressions are made using Polyvinyl Siloxane Impression and bite send along with a detailed treatment plan. advanced imaging technology transforms plaster models into a highly accurate 3-D digital image. A computerized movie called ClinCheck® depicting the movement of teeth from the beginning to the final position is created. Procedure After wearing all of the aligners in the series, customized set of aligners are made from From the approved file, these models, sent to the laser scanning to build a doctor, and given to the set Invisalign® uses of patient. Pt to wear each actual models that reflect aligner for about two each stage of the weeks. www.indiandentalacademy.com treatment plan. Using the Internet, the doctor reviews the ClinCheck file - if necessary, adjustments to the depicted plan are made.
  147. 147. Invisalign Contraindications;  patients with severe malocclusions  All children – growing jaws and erupting teeth too complicated for the computer to model www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Angle Orthodontist 1997 No. 5, 365 - 372: The cephalometric technique is the standard used by orthodontists to assess skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue relationships. However, this technique exposes patients to radiation, preventing orthodontists from taking frequent cephalograms to assess growth and to monitor treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. the Dolphin Imaging Company developed the DigiGraph™, a nonradiographic cephalometric method that uses sound waves and mathematical algorithms But its accuracy as a cephalometric alternative has not been adequately investigated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. The purpose of this study was to compare the values obtained by traditional cephalometrics with those obtained by the DigiGraph technique,for 30 well-known measurements, and then to assess the repeatability (intraobserver comparison) and reproducibility (interobserver comparison) for both techniques. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values    Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Materials and methods Patients starting or finishing orthodontic treatment at the University of Washington lateral cephalogram. a DigiGraph analysis was performed for each consenting patient. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. There were no exclusionary criteria. The sample consisted of 70 patients, 41 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 18.2 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values        Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Standard cephalograms were obtained using the following criteria: Anode-to-subject distance of five feet. Subject-to-film distance of five inches. A kVp setting of 78 and a mA setting of 100. Kodak Lanax Regular film with an exposure of 0.1 second. A cephalostat with a light indicator was used to orient the patient‘s head so that Frankfort horizontal was parallel to the ground. A dodger was used to enhance the soft tissue profile. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values     Daniel Langfordtogether (centric occlusion) and Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. The patients closed their teeth relaxed their lips to provide the most correct reproduction of lip morphology. The lateral cephalograms were traced by hand on acetate paper using a mechanical pencil with a 0.5 mm diameter lead. Landmarks were identified for each cephalogram, and 30 angular and linear measurements were calculated by hand, using a protractor and millimeter ruler. Measurements were made to the nearest 0.5 mm or degree. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values  Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Each subject was digitized in the manner described in the DigiGraph operations manual. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values    Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Patients were asked to bring their teeth together (centric occlusion) and to relax their lips. The appropriate landmarks were digitized in the following order: (1) facial landmarks, (2) mouth-closed intraoral landmarks, and (3) mouth-open intraoral landmarks. The fourth category of landmarks cannot be digitized directly (e.g., sella turcica) and are computed by mathematical algorithms. The desired analysis (e.g., Steiner, Downs) was selected and the linear and angular measurements were computed by the DigiGraph system. The average time to digitize a patient once was approximately 10 minutes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. To assess the intraobserver error, 15 randomly selected subjects were immediately digitized a second time by the primary examiner. The corresponding cephalograms were traced a second time after a 2week interval. To assess interobserver error, 15 subjects were chosen at random, and immediately following the initial procedure, a second examiner, independently digitized the patients. The second examiner also independently traced the corresponding cephalograms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  158. 158. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values    Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Results Differences in techniques The means, mean differences, and standard deviations of the differences for the two techniques are listed in Table 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  159. 159. There was a statistically significant mean difference for 18 of the 30 measurements (p >.0067).  Eighteen of the measurements had standard deviations equal to or greater than +/- 4.0 degrees/millimeters. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  160. 160. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Correlation of methods Correlation coefficients between both methods were calculated (Table 1). Twenty-eight of the 30 variables had statistically significant correlation coefficients (r> .37), but only four had correlation coefficients greater than 0.80. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values     Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Repeatability / Reproducibility the DigiGraph angular and linear mean error values were two to three times that of the cephalogram mean error values. For both angular and linear measurements, the interobserver error for the two methods was greater than the intraobserver error. For all the intraobserver measurements, there was greater agreement for the traditional cephalometric values than for the DigiGraph values. Except for Steiner's soft-tissue convexity, interoperator measurements for the cephalogram show greater reproducibility. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Discussion; Sixty percent of the variables had mean differences between methods that were statistically significant. The greatest differences were found for the measurements involving sella, orbitale, A-point, and incisor position. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values  Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Measurements relying on soft-tissue landmarks, which were digitized directly, showed no difference between techniques. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen.  The sonically generated values consistently showed less agreement between examiners.  -while two consecutive digitizations were taken for each patient, only one cephalogram was taken. - a single cephalogram was traced twice. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. patients were asked to remain in the DigiGraph head positioner between digitizations. - a head-holder can minimize movement but cannot prevent it superficial skeletal landmarks such as orbitale are not digitized directly, but necessitate palpation and firm pressure.- not being able to directly visualize a landmark increases the likelihood of identification error. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. deep skeletal structures, such as sella turcica and the root apices, are derived from mathematical algorithms, which can only estimate the position of the true landmark. only the subject's right-sided structures are digitized, any asymmetry that is projected on the cephalogram will not be represented by the DigiGraph. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values   Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. The concept of a nonradiographic technique to perform cephalometric analyses is encouraging, but the diagnostic information must be comparable to the traditional technique If a three-dimensional analysis can be developed based on landmarks that can be digitized directly, perhaps the DigiGraph can be an adjunct to the lateral cephalogram. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  169. 169. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. Conclusions 1. Eighteen of 30 sonically generated measurements were statistically different from the radiographically generated measurements; however, the differences for some measurements may not be clinically significant. The soft tissue variables revealed no significant difference between the two techniques. 2. The regression analyses showed low correlations for all measurements except lower incisor to NB (mm), Ricketts' esthetic line, and Steiner‘s soft tissue convexity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  170. 170. A comparison of sonically derived and traditional cephalometric values Daniel Langford Hall, Anne-Marie Bollen. 3. Intraobserver and interobserver errors were found with both techniques, but overall repeatability and reproducibility were greater for the radiographically generated measurements. 4. The DigiGraph's soft tissue measurements involving landmarks that were digitized directly were comparable to those obtained by the radiographic cephalometric analysis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  171. 171. Arthroscopy First arthroscopic examination of the TMJ reported by Ohnishi in 1975 Invasive technique One of the several diagnostic methods and not a substitute for a thorough case history, clinical examination and indirect imaging. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  172. 172. Arthroscopy Indications; 1. Internal derangements 2. Osteoarthrosis 3. Examination and biopsy of suspected neoplastic disease and 4. Investigation of post traumatic complains www.indiandentalacademy.com
  173. 173. Arthroscopy Equipment; 1. Small diameter arthroscope (needlescope) 2. Sharp and blunt trocars 3. Arthoroscopic sheath 4. Fiber optic cable 5. Light source 6. Video documentation sets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  174. 174. Arthroscopy Anesthesia frequently done under G.A – diagnostic arthroscopy may be done under LA  Auriculotemporal nerve is blocked, posterior to the condylar neck. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  175. 175. Arthroscopy Technique;  Patient asked to open mouth  Joint space distended by injection of isotonic saline in to joint space  3ml for upper compartment and 1.5 for lower compartment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  176. 176. Arthroscopy     3mm vertical skin incision made at the injection site using a sharp trocar surrounded by the arthroscopic sheath The lateral capsule is punctured Resistance felt as the capsule is penetrated Sharp trocar is exchanged for a blunt one www.indiandentalacademy.com
  177. 177. Arthroscopy      Trocar pushed further Then exchanged for an arthroscope 2nd puncture created on the canthaltragal line 5mm ant. And 3mm inferior the arthroscope sheath A 2mm diameter cannula is inserted . Joint continuously irrigated during the procedure with saline or Ringer’s solution. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  178. 178. Arthroscopy Provides valuable data that cannot be obtained by other methods – direct visualization. Shows a high diagnostic accuracy and low risk of postoperative complications www.indiandentalacademy.com
  179. 179. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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