Pontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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Pontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. PONTICS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Contents • • • • • • • • Introduction History Classification Pontic-ridge relationship Pontic fabrication Review of literature Conclusion References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION •The restorations of partially edentulous areas with fixed partial dentures present a particular challenge for the clinician. • Because of their ease of use and favorable long term results, conventional FPDs represent the most popular treatment measure today. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. • The pontic must fulfill the complex roles of replacing the function of the lost tooth, achieving an esthetic appearance, enabling adequate oral hygiene, and preventing tissue irritation. • In addition the pontic must meet certain structural requirements to ensure the mechanical stability of the restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. HISTORY The Histories of fixed and removable partial prosthesis go more or less in hand and it is difficult at times to tell just where to draw the line between these two types from the available data. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. • Replaced tooth was sewed in place by using ligatures made from gold or silver. • Egyptians and Phoeniceans were the pioneers in the field of pontics and were the first to construct dental bridge work. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • These were mostly made of calf bone or ivory. • Kerr and Roger (1877) It is suggested that teeth of ivory and bone secured by copper wire or catgut string were used in China for ages before they were introduced in Europe. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. • It was Mancy in 1928 who laid the foundation to present day FPD design, • However Pierre Fauchard (1923) has often been referred to as the ‘Father of Modern Dental Prosthesis’. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. • In his work in the field of FPD he used what he called ‘Tenons’ which were in reality dowels or pivots screwed into the roots to retain some of the bridges and it is possible that he may have been the first to attach dental bridges to tooth roots by this method. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. • Selberg (1936) pointed out that basic materials had changed but little in the past few years. • These materials were gold or porcelain or a combination of the two. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. He summed up by saying that the restoration must meet the following requirements • Protection • Comfort • Esthetics • Durability • Utility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. DEFINITION The Glossary of prosthodontic terms defines Pontics as “An artificial teeth on a fixed partial denture that replaces missing natural teeth, restores its function and usually fills the space previously filled by the natural teeth.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Tylman defines Pontics as “The suspended member of a fixed partial denture which replaces the lost natural tooth, restores function and occupies the space of the missing tooth.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. • The pontic or artificial tooth is derived from the Latin word Pons,meaning Bridge • It is not a simple replacement,because placing an exact anatomic replica of the tooth in the space would be hygienically unmanageable www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. • • • • • Design of the Prosthetic tooth will be dictated by Esthetics Function Ease of cleaning Maintenance of healthy tissue on edentulous ridge Patient comfort www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Requirements • • • • • Adequate strength Esthetics Color stability Hygiene Should not overload the abutment teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Function • Restore mastication and speech • To maintain tooth relationships • Patients esthetics • Psychological www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  19. 19. Pretreatment Assessment • Pontic space • Residual ridge contour www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Pontic space • When orthodontic repositioning is not possible, increasing the proximal contours of adjacent teeth may be better than making an FPD with undersized Pontics www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  22. 22. Residual Ridge Contour • An ideally shaped ridge has a smooth,regular surface of attached gingiva,which facilitates maintenance of a plaque-free environment. • Its height and width should allow placement of a pontic that resembles the neighbouring teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. • Ideal ridge contours vary depending on the type of pontic to be used • The ideal ridge form allows for pontic forms to be at same level as a gingival margin of the adjacent teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. • Bulky ridge contour • Deficient ridge contour www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. • Loss of residual ridge contour may lead to unesthetic open gingival embrasures(‘black triangles’),food impaction and percolation of saliva during speech www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. • Seibert has classified residual ridge deformities in to three categories • Class I defects-faciolingual loss of tissue width with normal ridge height www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. • Class II defects –loss of ridge height with normal ridge width www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. • Class III defects –a combination of loss in both dimensions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. • Allen et al., modified this classification and included Quantification of the Severity of the Defect • Mild-less than 3mm • Moderate –3-6mm • Severe –greater than 6mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Surgical procedures for ridge augmentation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Roll Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Pouch Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Interpositional Graft www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Onlay Graft www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  40. 40. Alveolar architecture preservation technique www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. CLASSIFICATION According to Shillingburg et al Pontics are classified : 1. Depending on the shape of the pontic contacting the tissues 2. Depending on the materials. 3. Depending upon the manufacturer’s design www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. On Shape i. Saddle/Ridge Lap pontic ii. Modified ridge Lap iii.Hygienic iv. Conical v. Ovate pontic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Pontics may be also classified depending on Material used • Metal ceramic • Cast metal • Resin processed to metal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. TRUPONTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. INTERCHANGEABLE FACINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. HARMONY FACING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL FACING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. REVERSE PIN FACING www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  52. 52. PIN FACING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. According to Rosenstiel et al Pontic designs are classified into two general groups: 1) THOSE THAT CONTACT THE ORAL MUCOSA 2) THOSE THAT DO NOT THE ORAL MUCOSA . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. A. Mucosal contact B. No mucosal contact 1. Ridge lap 1.Sanitary 2. Modified ridge lap 2. Modified sanitary (hygienic) 3. Ovate 4. Conical www.indiandentalacademy.com (hygienic)
  55. 55. . PONTIC SELECTION The design of pontic for a specific FPD is determined by 1.Retainers 2.Esthetics 3.Occluso-gingival Height and Mesio-distal Width of Edentulous Area 4.Ridge Resorption and Contour www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. SADDLE OR RIDGE LAP PONTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  58. 58. MODIFIED RIDGE LAP PONTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  61. 61. Stein RS: Pontic- residual ridge relationship: A research report. J Prosthet Dent 1966; 16: 251 Shaldon Stein in 1966 did a study on the pontic residual ridge relationship. The purpose of his study was: To determine the frequency and the nature of tissue reaction of underlying residual ridge mucosa to specific pontic designs. To compare the frequency and the nature of tissue reactions of the residual ridge mucosa to various materials used in pontic constructions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. This 1966 Stein classic article on pontic design was largely responsible for a change in philosophy from a “sanitary” shape design to what is now commonly called a “modified ridge lap” design. The modified ridge lap design in the anterior region & in the posterior region offer minimal tissue contact, gives acceptable cosmetic value, proper cheek support, and accessibility for adequate oral hygiene. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. He postulated certain specifications for pontic design Posterior pontic design – a correctly designed pontic should have 1. All surfaces should be convex, smooth and properly finished. 2. Contact with the buccal contiguous slopes should be minimal (pin point) and pressure free (modified ridge lap). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. 3. Occlusal table must be in functional harmony with the occlusion of all of the teeth. 4. Buccal and lingual shunting mechanism should conform to those of the adjacent teeth. 5. The overall length of buccal surface should be equal to that of the adjacent abutments or Pontics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Anterior pontic design – a correctly placed anterior pontic should have 1. All surfaces should be convex, smooth and properly finished. 2. Contact with the labial mucosa should be minimal (pin point) and pressure free (lap facing). 3. The lingual contour should be in harmony with adjacent teeth or Pontics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. SANITARY OR HYGIENIC PONTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  68. 68. Perel M L : A modified sanitary pontic. J Prosthet Dent 1972; 28: 587 Morton L Perel in 1972 described a modified sanitary pontic which has a free archway design and is concave mesiodistally. Proximally the solder joints of the pontic are elongated. This addition increases the strength of what is considered to be the weakest part of any posterior fixed prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Antony H L: A sanitary “ Arc- fixed partial denture” : Concept and technique of pontic design. J Prosthet Dent 1983; 50: 338 Antony H L in 1983 described a technique of pontic design for extreme resorption of alveolar ridge. In this the undersurface of the pontic was shaped slightly convex or flat bucco-lingually to aid in complete disruption of dental plaque with dental floss or interproximal toothbrushes. The flat undersurface allowed easy cleaning from either the lingual or buccal aspect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Conical www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  72. 72. OVATE PONTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Techniques available for this Immediate Pontic Technique (or) Socket Preservation Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  81. 81. Advantages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Jacques L B et al: Tissue sculpturing: An alternative method for improving esthetics of anterior fixed prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 1999; 81: 630 L.B. Jacques et al in his article describes a technique for the improvement of esthetics with conditioning of tissue beneath the pontics by displacing tissue with a treatment restoration. Lateral displacement of tissues under gradual, controlled pressure enhances the interdental papilla which improves esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Daniel E , H Spiekermann: A review of esthetic pontic design options. Quintessence Int 2002;33:736-746 In 2002 Daniel Edelhoff et al did a review of the different clinical and technical options that are available for designing esthetic and functional pontics for anterior region. He mentions the use of Gingiva coloured ceramics, all-ceramic gingival masks and gingival prosthesis to achieve maximum esthetics in the anterior region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. GINGIVA-COLORED CERAMICS If augmentative measures are contraindicated or undesirable, small alveolar deficiencies and missing papillae can be reconstructed by restorative measures. First, the exact shade of the gingiva has to be established. This can be accomplished with special gingival shade guides that are supplied with the different commercially available pink veneering materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. The basal surface must demonstrate a convex shape similar to the ovate pontic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. ALL-CERAMIC GINGIVAL MASKS Separately fabricated ceramic gingival masks can be used to make subsequent adjustments in permanently placed restorations. This method is particularly suitable for patients with a local alveolar ridge defect that has not been corrected by augmentation of the soft tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. For this purpose, an impression is taken of the labial surface of the restoration using a customized tray and a medium viscosity polyether material. The color of the gingiva is determined with an individually fabricated shade guide. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  89. 89. Donald A B : The design of multiple pontics. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 46: 634 Donald in 1981 did a study for designing multiple pontics. He said that in multiple pontics, placement of a V-shaped notch between the pontics on their tissue aspect (an inter-pontic embrasure) serves no useful purpose. It acts as a niche to collect plaque and interrupts the smooth passage of dental floss along the tissue surface of the pontics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. The principle of “fusing” multiple Pontics on their tissue aspect to give a smooth, unbroken surface can be applied to fixed partial dentures in maxillary posterior,and mandibular anterior and posterior region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. His design principle should also be used routinely for the maxillary anterior segment, using pink porcelain to fill inter-pontic embrasures which also enhances esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. BIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS The biologic principles of pontic design pertain to the maintenance and preservation of the residual ridge, abutment and opposing teeth, and supporting tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. RIDGE CONTACT Pressure free contact between the pontic and the underlying tissue is indicated to prevent ulceration and inflammation of the soft tissues. If any blanching of the soft tissues is observed in try-in, the pressure area should be identified with a disclosing medium (i.e pressure indicating paste) and the pontic recontoured until tissue contact is entirely passive. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. This passive contact should occur exclusively on keratinized attached tissue. When a pontic rests on mucosa, some ulcerations may appear as a result of the normal movement of the mucosa in contact with the pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Positive ridge pressure may be due to excessive scraping the ridge area on the working cast. This was once promoted as a way to improve the appearance of the pontic ridge relationship. However, because of the ulceration that inevitably results when flossing is not meticulously performed, the concept is not recommended, unless done as previously described as an ovate pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Cavozos E : Tissue response to fixed partial denture pontics. J Prosthet Dent 1968; 20: 143 Cavazos in 1968 did a study to demonstrate that the adaptations of pontic to the ridge or the amount of “relief” (scraping of the cast provided) on the cast is highly significant and directly proportional to the amount of unfavourable tissue change. 1)Absolute minimal (0.0 to 0.25mm of cast scraping) produced no tissue changes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. 2)When the cast scraping was increased to 1mm, tissue changes were produced varying from mild inflammation to acute ulceration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. PONTIC MATERIAL 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Any material chosen to fabricate the pontic should provide: Good Esthetic Results Where Needed Biocompatibility Rigidity Strength to Withstand Occlusal Forces Longevity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Occlusal contacts should not fall on the junction between metal and porcelain during centric or eccentric tooth contacts, nor should a metal ceramic junction occur in contact with the residual ridge on the gingival surface of the pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Investigations into the BIOCOMPATIBILITY of materials used to fabricate pontics have centered on two factors : 1. The effect of the materials and 2. The effects of surface adherence. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. Glazed porcelain is generally considered the most biocompatible of the available pontic materials Although the critical factor seems to be the material’s ability to resist plaque accumulation (rather than the material itself). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. Also its remarkable tissue tolerance, when contacting the gingival has played an important part in advanced fixed bridge work. High fusing porcelain when correctly glazed will display surface traits remarkably close to those of a natural tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Well polished gold is smoother, less prone to corrosion, and less retentive of plaque than an unpolished or porous casting. However, even highly polished surfaces will accumulate plaque if oral hygiene measures are ignored. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Although glazed porcelain looks very smooth, when viewed under a microscope, its surface shows many voids and is rougher than either polished gold or acrylic resin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  106. 106. OCCLUSAL FORCES Can be reduced by : Reducing the buccolingual width of the pontic by as much as 30% Analysis reveals that forces are lessened only when chewing food of uniform consistency and that a mere 12% increase in chewing efficiency can be expected from a one-third reduction of pontic width. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. The accidental biting on a hard object or by parafunctional activities like bruxism create potentially harmful forces on the FPD These forces are not reduced by narrowing the occlusal table. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. Narrowing the Occlusal Table may • Impede or even preclude development of a harmonious and stable occlusal relationship. • It may cause difficulties in plaque control • May not provide proper cheek support. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. • One exception is if the residual alveolar ridge has collapsed buccolingually. • Reducing pontic width may then be desired, thereby lessening the lingual contour and facilitating plaque control measures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS Mechanical problems may be caused by • Improper Choice of Materials • Poor Frame Work Design • Poor Tooth Preparation • Poor Occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. • When metal ceramic pontic are chosen, extending porcelain onto the occlusal surfaces to achieve better esthetics should also be carefully evaluated. • In addition to its potential for fracture, porcelain may abrade the opposing dentition if the occlusal contacts are on enamel. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. OCCLUSAL SURFACE The occlusal surface of the pontic should roughly correspond with that of the tooth it replaces. In posterior region it is important that it be confined within the margins of the abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. • • • • • However width of the pontic required will be governed by factors Esthetics Length of Span The Strength of the Abutment Teeth The Ridge Form Occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. It has also been advised that the occlusal surface should not be narrowed Arbitarily since this may create • Food impaction • Plaque retention situation (similar to that of malposed teeth) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. The cusp tip-to-cusp tip width of a posterior pontic should be the same width as the original missing tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. AVAILABLE PONTIC MATERIALS • • • • Some fixed partial dentures are fabricated entirely Metal Porcelain Acrylic Resin A Combination of Metal and Porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. Acrylic resin veneered Pontics have had limited acceptance because of their reduced durability (wear and discoloration). The newer indirect composites, based on high inorganic filled resins and the fiber reinforced materials have revived interest in composite resin and resin-veneered Pontics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. METAL CERAMIC PONTICS • The framework must provide a uniform veneer of porcelain • Excessive thickness of porcelain contributes to inadequate support and predispose to eventual fracture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. This is often true in the cervical portion of an anterior pontic. A reliable technique for ensuring uniform thickness of porcelain is to wax the fixed prosthesis to complete anatomic contour and then accurately cut back the wax to a predetermined depth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. The metal surfaces to be veneered must be smooth and free of pits. Surface irregularities will cause incomplete wetting by the porcelain slurry, leading to voids at the porcelain metal interface that reduce bond strength and increase the possibility of mechanical failure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. Sharp angles on the veneering area should be rounded. Any deformation of the metal frame work at the junction can lead to chipping of the porcelain. Therefore , occlusal centric contacts must be placed at least 1.5mm away from the junction. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. RESIN-VENEERED PONTICS • Historically, acrylic resin-veneered restorations had deficiencies that made them acceptable only as longer term provisionals. • Dimensional change from water absorption and thermal fluctuations (thermo cycling)occurs because of the relatively high surface area/volume ratio of the thin resin veneer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. • The resin was retained by mechanical means (e.g.undercuts). • Continuous dimensional change of the veneers often caused leakage at the metal-resin interface, with subsequent discoloration of the restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE RESIN PONTICS • Composite resins can be used in fixed partial dentures without a metal substructure. • A substructure matrix of impregnated glass or polymer fiber provides structural strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. The physical properties of this system, combined with its excellent marginal adaptation and esthetics, make it a possible metal free alternative for FPD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. Mahesh chauhan .,natural tooth pontic fixed partial denture using resin composite-reinforced glass fibers (quintessence int 2004;35:549-553) • Glass fibers reinforced with resin composite can be used as a bonded external framework to support a patient’s own natural anterior tooth that is due for extraction.The extracted tooth,after root sectioning,serves as a “natural tooth pontic”,while glass-fiber bonding simultaneously splints periodontically weak abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  133. 133. ESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS • The Gingival Interface • Incisogingival Length • Mesiodistal Width www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. THE GINGIVAL INTERFACE Therefore merely duplicating the facial contour of the missing tooth is not enough If the original tooth contour were followed, the pontic would look unnaturally long incisogingivally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  136. 136. • The modified ridge-lap pontic is recommended for most anterior situations • A properly designed, modified ridge lap provides the required convexity on the tissue side, with smooth and open embrasures on the lingual side for ease of cleaning. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. If a pontic is poorly adapted to the residual ridge, there will be an unnatural shadow in the cervical area that looks odd and spoils the illusion of a natural tooth. In addition, recesses occurring at the gingival interface will collect food debris, further betraying the illusion of a natural tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  139. 139. INCISOGINGIVAL LENGTH The height of a tooth is immediately obvious when the patient smiles and shows the gingival margins. An abnormal labiolingual position or cervical contour, however, is not immediately obvious. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  142. 142. MESIODISTAL WIDTH . The features of the contra lateral tooth should be duplicated as precisely as possible in the pontic, and the space discrepancy can be compensated by altering the shape of the proximal areas. The retainers and the pontic can be proportioned to minimize the discrepancy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  145. 145. PONTIC FABRICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  160. 160. Cone placement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. Cuspal ridges superimposed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. Cones ,Cuspal,Triangular ridges www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. Cones ,Cuspal,Triangular ridges&marginal ridges www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. Occlusal morphology www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. CUT BACK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. CONCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. The pontic design is said to determine the success or failure of a bridge. Designs that allow easy plaque control are especially important to a pontic’s long term success. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. Minimizing tissue contact by maximizing the convexity of the pontic’s gingival surface is essential. Consideration is needed to create a design that combines easy maintenance with natural appearance and adequate mechanical strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  169. 169. REFERENCES 1. Rosenstiel S F et al : Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, ed 3, Missouri, Mosby Inc, pg 513 2. Shillingburg H T et al : Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics, ed 3, Chicago , Quintessence Publishing, pg 485 3. Shillingburg H T et al : Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics, ed 2, Chicago , Quintessence Publishing, pg 387 4. The Glossary of Prosthodontic terms : J Prosthet Dent 1999; 81 5. Antony H L: A sanitary “ Arc- fixed partial denture” : Concept and technique of pontic design. J Prosthet Dent 1983; 50: 338 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  170. 170. 6. Cavozos E : Tissue response to fixed partial denture pontics. J Prosthet Dent 1968; 20: 143 7.Curtis M B: Current theories of crown contour, margin placement and pontic design. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45: 268 8.Daniel Edelhoff, H Spiekermann: A review of esthetic pontic design options. Quintessence Int 2002;33:736-746 9.Donald A B : The design of multiple pontics. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 46: 634 10. Jacques L B et al: Tissue sculpturing: An alternative method for improving esthetics of anterior fixed prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 1999; 81: 630 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  171. 171. 11.Parkinson C.F: Pontic design of posterior fixed partial prosthesis; is it a microbial misadventure? J Prosthet Dent 1984; 51; 51-54. 12. Perel M L : A modified sanitary pontic. J Prosthet Dent 1972; 28: 587 13. Porter CB: Anterior pontic design; a logical progression. J Prosthet Dent 1984; 51; 774-776. 14. Stein RS: Pontic- residual ridge relationship: A research report. J Prosthet Dent 1966; 16: 251 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  172. 172. THANK YOU www.indiandentalacademy.com