orthodontic brackets - part 1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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orthodontic brackets - part 1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. EVOLUTION OF ORTHODONTIC BRACKETS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. All contemporary fixed appliance arebased on the Angles design from the 20 th centaury “Father Of Orthodontist” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Pierre Fauchard’s Orthodontic appliance-1728 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Dwinelles Jackscrew-1849 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Angle’s Jackscrew www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Angles Retraction screw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. According To Angle- A standard appliance must have five important properties-1. Simple2. Stable3. Efficiency4. Delicate5. Inconspicuous www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Historical perspective In 1907 - E-arch Four basic designs-1. Basic E arch.2. Ribbed E arch.3. E arch without threaded ends.4. E arch with hooks. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. The E Arch applianceBasic E arch Ribbed E Arch www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. E Arch Without Treaded Ends www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. E Arch With Hooks www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. DrawbackDentition was enlarged in all dimensionsby tippingOnce the retention appliance wasdiscarded various degree of malocclusionresulted www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Pin and tube-1910Bands were put on all theteeth with a vertical tube intowhich soldered pin from thearchwire was placed .Advantage-good axialcontrolDisadvantage -limited m-dcontrol-difficult www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. The Ribbon Arch-1915Brackets wereintroduced withappliance.Tube of the pin wasmodified to providevertically positionedrectangular slot.A ribbon arch of 10x20gold wire was placed inthis slot . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. BRACKET-was introduced byBRACKET- DR E H ANGLE 1916THUROW-as an orthodontic attachmentsecured to a tooth for the purpose ofengaging an arch wire .As an attachment that serves to deliverthe necessary tooth moving forces . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Edgewise ApplianceAngle oriented the slotfrom vertical tohorizontal and insertedrectangular wire into it.This provided thesolution to the problemscaused by the previousappliance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Begg ApplianceThis was developed by Dr P.R.Begg 1956It utilizes the ribbon arch type bracketsand was manufactured to accept 016’round wireWire was held in position with the lockpins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Begg Appliance Bracket design – -modified ribbon arch bracket- .020 x .045 slot www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Begg Appliance Lock pins –Safety lock pinsDouble safety pinHook pin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Evolution of the edgewise brackets Original angle bracket was made up of a soft gold with . 22 x .28 slot. It was .050 wide and was soldered to gold band material . Angle soldered gold eyelets in appropriate positions on the band. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. To overcome this problem – two edgewise brackets were used on the same toothThis provide a good rotational control.Disadvantage-perfect alignment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Twin BracketJoining together of two edgewise brackets“SIAMESE TWIN BRACKET”The space between two brackets wasapprox 0.050Initially for upper central incisors andmolars.Terminology was changed to -“TWINBRACKET”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Twin Bracket They are available in four sizes-1. Extra wide2. Standard3. Intermediate4. Junior Solid bracket-posterior bracket 0.100’” wide in dimension. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Twin Brackets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Curved Base Twin BracketCurving of the base of the twin bracket toconform to the curvature of the canine andthe premolar teeth.Besides the advantage of twin bracketoffering rotational and greater axial controlit also incorporated what is termed as “ POSITIVE CONTROL” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Curved Base Twin Bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Rotational control of twin bracketThe actual mechanism is by deflection ofthe archwire.The more resilient the archwire the morereadily it can be tied into the twin bracket.However 100% control cannot be obtainedFinal 10% desired rotation has toaccomplished by additional means. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Lewis bracketThis was the next development forbringing about efficient tooth rotation.He soldered auxiliary rotation arm thatabutted against the bracket itself and thusoffered a lever arm to deflect archwire androtate the teeth.Present day lewis bracket is a one piecebracket with rotational wings which isequivalent to original edgewise bracketwith single width feature. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Regular Lewis Bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Lewis bracket Advantage –1. 100% desired tooth rotation .2. Overcorrection3. Error in bracket placement . Curved Lewis bracket advantage-1. Increase contact with band .2. Reduces trapping of the food. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Lewis bracketVertical slot lewis bracketfurther refinement wasdone by incorporating a 020x020 vertical slotAdvantage-uprighting spring to correctaxial inclination. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Steiner bracketThis bracket incorporated flexible rotationarms and therefore did not rely entirely onthe resiliency of archwire for tooth rotation.It uses a single width edgewise bracketand has the inherent advantage anddisadvantage of the same . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Broussard BracketWas designed by “Grayford broussard”Modified edgewise bracket in which thereis addition of 0.0185 x 0.046 slot –toaccept 0.018 auxiliary wireBrackets are patented by the R.M.company .Utilizes the two force technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Broussard Bracket Features –-quick wing-vertical slot-round corners, smooth surface-two horizontal slot-special torque brackets.- 0,7 ˚,17˚,22˚-insert pin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. The Straight Wire Appliance Andrews classified brackets into three types-1. Non programmed appliance-a set of brackets designed the same for all tooth types ,relying totally on wire bending.2. Partly programmed appliance- a set of brackets designed with some in built features ,but always require some wire bending. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. The Straight Wire Appliance3. Fully programmed appliance- a set of brackets designed to guide teeth directly to their goal positions with unbent wires. Standard brackets. Transition brackets. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Terminologies www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Non Programmed Edgewise Bracket Feature www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. The Straight Wire Appliance Design shortcomings –1. Bracket base perpendicular to bracket stem.2. Bracket bases are not contoured.3. Slots are not angulated4. Bracket stem are of equal faciolingual thickness.5. Maxillary molar offset is not built in.6. Bracket sitting techniques are unsatisfactory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. The Straight Wire Appliance1. Bracket base perpendicular to bracket stem. -this feature causes problems of slot inclination and occlusogingival position www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. The Straight Wire Appliance2. Bracket bases are not contoured.- Occlosogingivally the base of a non- programmed brackets is flat . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. The Straight Wire Appliance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Slots are not angulatedMesio distal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. The Straight Wire Appliance3. Slots are not angulated- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. The Straight Wire Appliance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. The Straight Wire Appliance4. Bracket stem are of equal faciolingual thickness.- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. The Straight Wire Appliance5. Maxillary molar offset is not built in. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. The Straight Wire Appliance6. Bracket sitting techniques are unsatisfactory. Various authors have their own way of positioning the brackets.-Tweed recommends sitting brackets in specified number of millimeters from the incisal edge.-Holdaway advocates that the bracket sitting should altered according to the malocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. The Straight Wire ApplianceAccording to Jarabak bracket sites forinclination should be determined by theshape of the crown.Saltzman recommends except for themaxillary lateral incisor ,brackets shouldbe located in the middle third of the crown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. The Straight Wire Appliance1. According to Andrews suitable bracket site has three criteria- No interference with either gingiva or with opposing tooth. Angulation and inclination of the crown . Middle of each bracket site must share the same plane of surface when the teeth in the arch are optimally positioned. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. The Straight Wire ApplianceFully programmed appliance-- Slot-siting feature- Convenience feature- Auxiliary feature www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. The Straight Wire Appliance Slot siting feature-Feature 1- mid transverse planes of the slot stem and crown must be the same.Feature 2-base of the bracket for each tooth type must have same inclination as the facial plane of the crown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. The Straight Wire ApplianceFeature 4- mid sagittal plane of the slot stem and crown must be same.Feature 5 -the plane of the bracket base at its base point must be identical to the facial plane of the crown at the FA point.Feature 6 - base should match the m-d contour of the tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. The Straight Wire ApplianceFeature 7 - the vertical component should be parallel to one another.Feature 8 – all slots point must have same distance between them and the crown embrasure line. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. The Straight Wire Appliance Convenience feature-.1. The gingival tie wings of the post Brackets extend farther laterally .2. Base are inclined .3. Facial surface of the incisor and canine brackets are designed to parallel their bases.4. In mandibular brackets the tie wings are designed with least amount occlusofacial prominence5. Bracket identification. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Convenience feature- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. The Straight Wire Appliance Auxiliary feature –- Power arms- Hooks- Face bow tubes- Utility tubes- Rotational wings www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. The Straight Wire Appliance Fully programmed translation brackets- Are used when bodily movement of the teeth is required . If they are not available ,teeth will not be within 2˚ or 0.5 mm of where they should be at the conclusion of the treatment . They have all the qualities of the standard brackets plus few other feature . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. The Straight Wire ApplianceCounterbuccolingual tip- a slot sittingfeature for maxillary molar thatcounteracts buccolingual tip duringtranslation and then overcorrect.Countermesiodistal tip –a slot sitingfeature that counteracts mesial or distaltipping during translation and thenovercorrects.Counterrotation – a slot siting feature thatcounteracts rotation during translation andthen overcorrects , www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. The Straight Wire Appliance Translation problems – Translation- “uniform movement of the body in a straight line”. However bracket is placed in wrong place in two ways-1. It is occlusal .2. It is located laterally . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. The Straight Wire Appliance Translation problems www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. The Straight Wire Appliance Lever Effects Of An Optimal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. The Straight Wire Appliance Translation solutions- lever www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. The Straight Wire Appliance Lever common to all edgewise brackets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. The Straight Wire ApplianceCounterrotationSlot rotation plus mesiodistal slot length plusarchwire flex plus mesial or distal force equalscounterrotation and rotation overcorrection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. The Straight Wire ApplianceCountermesiodistaltipSlot angulation plusmesiodistal slot lengthplus power arm lengthplus activatedarchwire and www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. The Straight Wire Appliance •Counter mesio distal tip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. The Straight Wire ApplianceCounterbuccolingual tip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. The Straight Wire Appliance Translation bracket categories –1. Minimum translation brackets –requiring a translation of 2 mm or less2. Medium translation brackets – requiring a translation of more than 2mm but less than 4 mm3. Maximum translation brackets -requiring a translation of more than 4 mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. THANK YOU FOR WATCHINGFOR MORE DETAILS PLEASE VISIT www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com