Nutrition symposium


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Nutrition symposium

  1. 1.
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  3. 3. NUTRITION AND ORAL HEALTH Presenters Dr. Prathima Sreenivasan Dr. Giridhar Naidu S Under the able guidance of Prof Dr. Gopakumar R Dept. Oral Medicine & Maxillofacial Radiology A.B.Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Sciences Deralakatte,
  4. 4. Om Bramhmarpanam bramha havi Bramhagna bramhanahutam Bramhaiva tena gantavyam Bramha karma samadhinaa
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  7. 7. Food: Food is what is taken to supply the necessary nutritive elements. Diet: Diet is a prescribed course of eating and drinking in which the amount of food as well as the times at which it has to be taken are regulated by the physician for therapeutic uses. Nutrient: It is a constituent of food or a diet that must be supplied in suitable amounts.
  8. 8. Nutrition: It is the science of foods, the nutrients and other substances therein; their action,interaction and balance in relationship to health and disease.,the process by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports and utilizes. Malnutrition: Impairment of health resulting from a deficiency excess or imbalance of nutrients.
  9. 9. NUTRIENTS MACRONUTRIENTS MICRONUTRIENTS Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water Dietary Fibers Minerals (Micro &Macro) Vitamins
  10. 10. PROTEINS Structure Catalysts Regulation Transportation Clotting of blood Antibodies Contractile proteins Osmotic balance Chemical messengers
  11. 11. CARBOHYDRATES Energy source Regulate protein metabolism Derivatives like glucoronic acid glycerol & glycogen Pentose sugars form nucleic acids
  12. 12. LIPIDS Energy source Cell membrane constituent Biologic metabolites Glycolipids and lipoproteins Precursors of cholesterol,steroids, hormones, Flavor and satiety
  13. 13. Protein Calorie Malnutrition Growth phase (Rat experiments) Shaw & Griffith - smaller molars, delayed eruption Di Orio – Increased caries susceptibility Menaker & Navia – Atrophy of salivary glands Nakamoto & Muller – Retarded mandibular development Post growth phase (Primate experiments) Decreased amylase, sIgA Atrophy of human parotid Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Delayed wound healing Cytologic defects
  14. 14. VITAMINS (Vital Amine) Vitamin A Cellular differentiation, integrity,growth, antikeratinizing, vision Xerostomia, Enamel Hypoplasia, Tooth eruption,cancer Vitamin D Calcium & Phosphorous metabolism Cementum & dentin Vitamin E Antioxidant Vitamin K Clotting factors Bleeding in surgery
  15. 15. VITAMINS Vitamin C Collagen synthesis, adrenal cortical hormones Scurvy, Enamel & dentin defects Vitamin B complex Coenzyme in many biological reactions, DNA synthesis Glossitis, angular cheilitis, RAS, Ulceration, Infection, keratinocyte maturation
  16. 16. MINERALS Calcium Bone, tooth formation , blood clotting, muscle, nerve. Bone density, hypoplasia Phosphorous Bone tooth formation rare Iron Hemoglobin Anemia glossitis, chelitis Zinc Wound healing, Taste, smell,wound healing, Fluorine Bone, tooth formation Susceptibility to dental caries
  17. 17. MINERALS Copper Antioxidant, iron absorption anemia Selenium antioxidant Predisposition Cardiac disease
  18. 18. DIETARY FIBERS They are complex polysaccharides Components cellulose, lignin & non cellulosic polysaccharides Physical Properties Water binding Bile acid binding Cation binding Sources Cereals & millets, Gums, fenugreek, pulses, fruits vegetables
  19. 19. Physiologic effects Increase fecal bulk Decreases nutrient digestion and absorption Reduce glycemic response Hypocholestrolemic effect
  20. 20. WATER Constitutes 50-60% of body weight Universal solvent/ medium for all metabolic reaction Temperature regulation Dissociates into H & OH Lubrication between cells
  21. 21. NUTRITIONAL VALUE Energy requirement: The level of energy intake in relation to expenditure which is most likely to prolong active life. Energy for basal metabolism Energy for physical activity Energy expended during digestion and absorption of nutrients Basal Metabolism: Minimum amount of energy needed to regulate and maintain the involuntary essential processes. BMR: Number of kilocalories expended by the organism per
  22. 22. SDA: Specific dynamic action is the expenditure of calories during the digestion and absorption of food. Calories: Quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 C
  23. 23. Recommended Daily Allowance Carbohydrate 50-70% Protein 1gm/kg/day Fat 20% Vitamin A Beta carotene 750mcg 3000mcg Vitamin D 2.5mcg 5 mcg Vitamin E 10mg Vitamin K 45mcg Vitamin C 40mcg Thiamine 0.5mg/1000
  24. 24. Recommended Daily Allowance Riboflavin 0.6mg/1000 kcal Naicin 6.6mg/1000 kcal Pyridoxine 2mg Pantothenic acid 10mg Folate 100mcg Cyanacobolamine 1mcg Iron 0.9mg 2.8mg Iodine 150mcg Calcium 400-500mg Fluorine 0.5 – 0.8mg/lt Zinc
  25. 25. BALANCED DIET A balanced diet is one which includes all the essential food groups and allows the body to function at an optimal level free from disease and malaise.
  26. 26. A balanced diet constitutes the following - Protein 15 % Carbohydrates 60% Fats 25-30% Dietary Fiber
  27. 27. FOOD PYRAMID
  28. 28. NORMAL INDIAN DIET Cereals: Rice, wheat Millets Jowar, bajra, ragi Animal Foods Eggs, milk , fish , meat Vegetables and pulses Roots and tubers, green leaves Fruits Banana, mango, musambi, grapes, apples, oranges, dates Beverages Coffee,tea,cocoa,alcohol Fats and oils Butter, ghee, dalda Condiments Cardamom, garlic, chilies, turmeric
  29. 29. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS History Anthropometry Clinical examination Biochemical evaluation Assessment of dietary intake Vital and health statistics Ecological studies
  30. 30. Excess nutrition Normal nutrition Primary DEFICIENCY Secondary Tissue Depletion Biochemical Lesion Clinical Signs
  31. 31. HISTORY Weight change Immunologic disorders TMJ pain Xerostomia Steroid therapy Head and neck cancer Osteoporosis Herbal medication – eichinacea, ephedra
  32. 32. ANTHROPOMETRIC Weight Height and length Skin fold measurements Other body measurements BMI and Dentate status Body Mass Index : body weight in kg height in mts < 21 natural teeth - obese < 11 natural teeth – underweight
  33. 33. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Dietary supplement Act,1994 • Products intended to supplement the diet • contains a vitamin,mineral,amino acid or other botanicals. • Does not represent conventional food. • Ingested in the form of capsule, powder,softgel etc
  34. 34. FOOD FORTIFICATION Fortification is a public health measure aimed at reinforcing dietary intake of nutrients with additional supplies to prevent or control nutritional disorders in a given area. Example • fortification of salt with iodine. • fortification of wheat with vitamins.
  35. 35. Supplement Oral use Forms Caffeine Ergogenic aid Beverage Capsaicin Pain relief for tooth ache and trigeminal neuralgia Chillies, topical ointments Garlic Treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis
  36. 36. Supplement Oral use Forms Green tea Decreases risk of dental caries, cancer prevention Beverage Lysine Prevents recurrence of aphthous ulcers, herpes labialis Tablets, Topical applications Vitamin C Integrity of gingiva, improved healing Citrus fruits, tablets
  37. 37. ANTOXIDANTS IN VEGETABLES & FRUITS Indoles Carotene Lycopene
  38. 38. Reactive species Antioxidant Singlet oxygen Vit A, E , beta carotene Superoxide free radical Vit E, Beta carotene Peroxyl free radical Vit E, C. Hydrogen peroxide Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase Lipid peroxides Glutathione peroxidase
  39. 39. Free radical Chain reaction PUFA-OO PUFA-OOH TOCOH TOCO PUFA-H Vit Cox Vit cred PUFA-OOH GS-SG GSH H2O2 GSH Superoxide catalase Dismutase H2O GS-SG Superoxide
  40. 40. DISEASE AND NUTRITION Anemia Diabetes Mellitus Cardiac Disease Cancer Liver disease Renal Disease AIDS Acid Peptic Disease
  41. 41. NUTRITION IN ANEMIA Supplements Iron Vitamin B complex Protein, red meat Vitamin C Avoid: High fat Spicy food
  42. 42. OBESITY Overweight: 10- 20 % above desired weight Obese : Excessive amount of adipose Hypercellular Hypertrophied Risk for Cardiac Diseases Diabetes Melitus
  43. 43. NUTRITION IN DIABETES MELLITUS Risk factors High cholesterol Sedentary life style Supplements Regular meal pattern Protein Adequate carbohydrate Fibers
  44. 44. NUTRITION IN CARDIAC DISEASE Risk factors: High salt intake Low potassium, calcium, High cholesterol Alcohol Supplement Omega 3 FA Soybeans Fruits and Vegetables Dietary fiber
  45. 45. DIETARY MODIFICATIONS DASH – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Control diet- reduced fruits and vegetables Fruit and vegetable diet Combination diet BP- 11.4/5.5mm of Hg Cholesterol lowering Hydrogenated oils, sugar- reduce Fish, soluble fiber - increase Sodium Controlled – 2gms/day
  46. 46. NUTRITION IN CANCER Risk Factors: Alcohol Fat Pickled & smoked food Arsenical, lead, cadmium Additives like saccharin, flavonoids Supplement Fruits and vegetable Dietary Fiber Water Vit E and selenium Phytoestrogen
  47. 47. NUTRITION IN RENAL DISEASE Risk factors High protein High sodium Excess fluid intake High cholesterol Supplements Kilocalories – carbohydrates Potassium, calcium, phosphorous Vitamins
  48. 48. NUTRITION IN LIVER DISEASE Risk factors High protein High fat Alcohol Supplements Adequate protein Reduced fat Higher carbohydrate Micronutrients
  49. 49. NUTRITION IN AIDS Cachexia Hormonal imbalance Immunologic changes Supplements High calorie diet Frequent meals Vitamins and minerals
  50. 50. NUTRITION IN ACID PEPTIC DISEASE Risk factors High food quantity Milk Seasonings Coffee Citric acid fruits Alcohol
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  52. 52. Than k you all ! For more details please visit