Nutrition /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Nutrition /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. 1 Nutrition INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. 2 Definition  Science of nourishing the body properly or analysis of the effects of food on living organisms.  Relationship between man and his food and implies the psychological and social as well as the physiological and biochemical aspect -Yudkin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. 3 Definition  Science devoted to the determination of requirements of the body for food constituents both qualitatively and quantitatively and to the selection of food in kinds and in quantity to meet these requirements. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. 4 Definition  “The science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein ,their action ,interaction and balance in relation to health and diseases and the processes by which the organism ingest, digest, absorbs, transports ,utilizes and excretes food substances” - Council of food and nutrition of the American Medical Association www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. 5 Historical Background Schneider’s –  Naturalistic era-(400 B.C-A.D 1750)  Chemical analytic era(1750-1900)  Biological era(1900-present) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. 6 Historical Background  Molecular cellular era-(1955 –present)  Guilford -1874 was among the first to advocate that dietary deficiencies could be an underlying cause of dentofacial irregularities www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. 7 Basic function of nutrients-  Supply energy .  To promote growth.  Repair of the body tissues .  Regulate body processes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. 8 Classification -  Carbohydrates  Fatlipid  Proteins  Minerals  Vitamins  Water www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. 9 Carbohydrates  Energy yielding nutrients, is the largest single component ,aside from water ,of most diets.  Composed of – -carbon -hydrogen -oxygen www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. 10 Carbohydrates  Sources- - rice - sweet potato -wheat - honey -bajra - jaggery -pulses -vegetables www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. 11 Carbohydrates Classified as-  Monosaccharides –eg glucose ,fructose ,galactose.  Disaccharides -35% of the dietary carbohydrates eg sucrose , lactose ,maltose  Polysaccharides eg –starch, glycogen ,cellulose www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. 12 Carbohydrates  Digestion mouth – salivary amylase stomach small intestine C www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. 13 Carbohydrates  Sucrose glucose + fructose  Maltose glucose +glucose  lactose glucose +galactose www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. 14 Carbohydrates  Absorption and storage – small intestines stored as glycogen in liver and muscle  Function – main source of energy. 1 gm – 4 kcal of energy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. 15 Carbohydrates  Almost nothing is known of the effect of carbohydrate deficient diet on the oral cavity.  There is a group of disease which represents a primary genetically determined disturbance of the mucopolysaccharide metabolism www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. 16 Carbohydrates  Hurler syndrome-  Head -appears large with prominent forehead -puffy eyelids -nasal congestion with noisy breathing -shortening and broadening of the mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. 17 Carbohydrates - wide intergonial distance - increased arch length from ramus to ramus  dentition-small and misshaped teeth.  Soft tissue –gingival hyperplasia. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. 18 Lipids  These are the most concentrated energy yielding group of nutrients.  Basic structure –molecules of glycerol to which one to three fatty acid molecules www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. 19 Lipids  Sources – -fruits -egg yolk -vegetables -butter - milk - ghee -meat -cereals -fish www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. 20 Lipids  Classified as - saturated -unsaturated  Physical properties – insoluble in water. less dense than water. not affected by temperature. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. 21 Lipids  Digestion- stomach- naturally occurring emulsified fat small intestine-bile is secreted -emulsification www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. 22 Lipids  Pancreatic lipase and intestinal lipase triglycerides diglycerides monoglycerides v www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. 23 Lipids  Absorption and storage digested and divided molecules are taken up from the GIT .  30%-free fatty combine with bile salts  70%-resynthesised immediately to form triglycerides –lymph www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. 24 Lipids Function –  Source of energy -1gm-9kcal.  Satiety value .  Carrier of the fat soluble vitamins.  Source of other essential fatty acids. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. 25 Lipids  Disturbances in the lipid metabolism are not very common but they do occur -Gauchers disease -Neimann Pick disease www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. 26 Proteins  The term proteins mean –”to take first place”-Mulder -1983  Half the dry weight and 20% of the total weight of an adult is protein. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. 27 Proteins  Basic structure – complex substances made up of many amino acids. there are 20 different naturally occurring amino acid that have been identified as the building blocks for body protein. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. 28 Proteins Sources- -wheat - peanut butter -milk - peas -egg white -cottage cheese -legume -rice -boiled ham -oatmeal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. 29 Proteins  Classified as- functional point of view -amino acids -essential amino acids -non essential  Proteins – complete - incomplete www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. 30 Proteins  Digestion and absorption -attached to another substance or surrounded by fat or carbohydrate Stomach – gastric proteases (pepsin) Small Intestine – pancreatic enzymes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. 31 Proteins  30 %-absorbed directly  70%- chain of two or three AA dipeptidases amino acids  Amino acids –enters blood stream www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. 32 Proteins Functions –  Essential for growth-hair,skin,nail  Formation of essential body compounds  Regulation of the water balance  Act as buffers  Protective role  Transport of nutrients. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. 33 Proteins  The inadequate consumption of protein and energy as a result of primary dietary deficiency conditioned deficiency may cause loss of body mass and adipose tissue ,resulting in protein energy malnutrition-  Kwashiorkor  Marasmus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. 34 Proteins  Kwashiorkor – Definition- protein deficiency with sufficient calorie intake. Age-6 months and 3yrs Features -growth failure -wasting of muscles - edema -enlarged fatty liver -serum protein low - flag sign www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. 35 Proteins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. 36 Proteins  Marasmus  Definition –starvation in infants with a overall lack of calorie.  Age-infants under 1 yr of age  Feature-wasting of all tissues -no edema -no hepatic enlargement -monkey like face www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. 37 Vitamins  Defined as organic substances not made by the body ,which is soluble in either fat or water and ordinarily is needed in only minute quantities to act in a variety of metabolic reactions.  Classified as- water soluble fat soluble www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. 38 Vitamins Fat soluble Water soluble  Intake is in excess Minimal storage of of daily body needs dietary excess  Not excreted Excreted in urine  Deficiency symptoms Develop rapidly slow to develop  Not absolutely necessary Must be supplied in diet  Contain C,H,Oxygen N,Co,S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. 39 Vitamins  Vitamin A  Acidic ,alcoholic, aldehyde form.  Sources –spinach - carrot, broccoli -peas ,cabbage - milk ,cheese -butter, meat ,fish -egg, beef www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. 40 Vitamins  Functions- -Vision –role in dark adaptation and vision in dim light -Growth-studies have shown that animals deprived of vita A cease to grow once the reserves are depleted. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. 41 Vitamins  Deficiency-night blindness -keratinzation of cornea -bitots spots - xerosis conjunctiva - xeropthalmia - complete blindness -loss of sense of taste www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. 42 Vitamins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. 43 Vitamins  Dentition-disturbances in differentiation and growth of developing teeth -calcification of teeth -retardation of eruption - disturbances in periodontal tissues. -failure to form tooth enamel. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. 44 Vitamins  Vitamin D - Group of compounds called as cholicalceferol. - Source – - Endogenous synthesis-sunlight - Exogenous synthesis-deep sea fish ,fish oil, butter, milk. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. 45 Vitamins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. 46 Vitamins  Function-  Maintain normal plasma level of calcium and phosphorus.  It is necessary for all animals with a bony skeleton ,since it facilitates absorption and utilization calcium and phosphorus for bone formation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. 47 Vitamins  Deficiency of vit D- 1.Rickets in growing child -craniotabes -harrisons sulcus -Rickets rosary -pigeon chest -Bow legs -Knock knees www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. 48 Vitamins  Diagram www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. 49 Vitamins 2.Osteomalacia –in adults -osteoid matrix which is laid down fails to mineralize -vague bony pain -muscular weakness -frequent fractures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. 50 Vitamins  Vitamin E-  Anti sterility factor  Sources –vegetable oils, yellow cornmeal, wheat bread, egg ,butter .  Role in human nutrition is poorly understood. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. 51 Vitamins  Vitamin K  Basic structures consist of a group called as quinones  Sources-green vegetables -fruits  Function-it is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. 52 Vitamins  Vitamin C(ascorbic acid)  Sources-citrus fruits –orange ,lemon ,grape ,certain vegetables.  Function- -formation of the collagen . -normal formation of dentin. -utilization of iron and calcium . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. 53 Vitamins  Lesions of vit C deficiency-Scurvy  Haemorrhagic diasthesis  Skeletal lesions  Delayed wound healing  Teeth and gums. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. 54 Vitamins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. 55 Vitamins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. 56 Vitamins  B complex-these consist of a group of essential compounds which are biochemically unrelated but occur together in some foods  Sources-green leafy vegetables,cereals ,yeast ,liver, and milk. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. 57 Vitamins  Thaimine(B1)  Function-carbohydrate metabolism.  Deficiency-beri beri  Dry beri beri-neuromuscular symptoms weakness, paresthesia, sensory loss,polyneuritis.  Wet beri beri-CV involvement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. 58 Vitamins  Riboflavin(B2)  Function-cellular respiration  Deficiency-ocular lesions -cheilosis ,angular stomatitis -glossitis. -dermatitis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. 59 Vitamins  Niacin  Function-metabolism of fat  Deficiency-pellagra-dermatitis. -diarrhoea. -dementia. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. 60 Vitamins  Pyridoxine(B6)  Function-exact function not known -fat and protein metabolism -transmission of neural impulse  Deficiency-dermatitis -glossitis -angular stomatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. 61 Minerals  Macronutrient elements-calcium -phosphorus -potassium -sodium  Micronutrient elements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. 62 Minerals Calcium  Inert inorganic element which is associated with bone and tooth formation.  1.5-2.5 wt –of the adult body  99% of the hard tissue.  Sources-milk and milk products green leafy vegetables legumes citrus fruitswww.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. 63 Minerals  Function – 1. Bone formation. 2. Tooth formation. 3. Essential for growth 4. Blood clotting. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. 64 Minerals Abnormalities of Ca Metabolism –  Osteoporosis-middle aged women decreased density of bone shortening stature bone fractures  Osteomalacia –decrease in the mineral content lack of Vit D. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. 65 Minerals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. 66 Minerals Phosphorus  1% of the total body weight.  Major constituents of bone and teeth  Regulates the release of energy in the form of ATP. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. 67 Clinical Implications www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. 68 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth Nutrition and Skeletal Maturation  Studies have shown  “prolonged nutritive failure in growing child result in retardation of bone growth centers in the hand and wrist radiographs”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. 69 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Malformations and prenatal deficiencies- Dietary intake of the expectant mother is directly related to the condition of the infant at birth.  Warkany –showed riboflavin-cleft palate, shortening of mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. 70 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Evans ,nelson-showed acute folic acid deficiency-cleft palate. Nutrition and teeth-  Local effect  Systemic effect www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. 71 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Role of fluorides-  Anticariogenic factor.  Long continued exposure to excessive amounts may result –dental fluorosis -skeletal fluorosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. 72 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Increased density of various bones .  Increased calcification of ligaments, tendons and vague pain in small joints of the hands and feet  In the most severest form –stiffening of the spine virtually making the patient immobile. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. 73 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Nutrition and malocclusion-  results from various nutrient deficiencies-abnormal bone growth -loss of teeth. -severe caries. -periodontal breakdown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. 74 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Vitamins in relation to growth and dentition-  VitA-disturbances in differentiation and positional growth of the developing teeth. -defective calcification. -Retardation of eruption. -disturbances of periodontal tissues. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. 75 Nutrition deficiencies –and dentofacial growth  Vit B- -loss of apatite -disturbed digestion. -Retardation of growth  Vit C -disturbed calcification of teeth. -retarded eruption. -thickened jawbones. -narrow maxilla. -short mandible. -High vault palate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. 76 Role of nutrition on the periodontium- response to tooth movement  Physical nature of the food- -soft food vs. fibrous food.  Vitamin deficiency - Vit C  Increased blood sugar levels. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. 77 Role of Nutrition in Root Resorption  Common iatrogenic problem associated with orthodontic treatment  Marshall et.al-greater degree of resorption in deficient diets.  Beck –calcium deficiency were more susceptible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. 78 Effects of consistency of food  Throughout its various stages of growth mouth is affected by complex system of forces .  Diet that does not supply food of a sufficient hard consistency does not supply adequate stimulus for proper mastication resulting in a narrow maxillary arch .  Similar observations have been made in humans –arch collapse syndrome. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. 79 Effects of consistency of food 1. Low level of eruption –posteriors 2. Maxillary arch are narrower. 3. Mandible are shorter and condyles are thinner. 4. Less tonicity of temporalis and masseter. 5. Reduced linear dimension of skull. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. 80 Effects of consistency of food  In humans-  Some authors have proposed- weakening of the temporomandibular articulation  Resulting in malocclusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. 81 Bibliography  Contemporary orthodontics-Proffit  Current Principles and Techniques –Graber Vanarsdall  Nutrition and oral health-Pollack  Introductory nutrition-Helen Andrews  Principles of nutrition-Wilson,Fisher  Clinical dietetics and nutrition-F.P.Antia  Basic pathology-Robbins  Pathology for dental students-Harsh Mohan www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. www.indiandentalacademy.com 82 Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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