Non rigid connectors in fixed prosthesis / cosmetic dentistry training

11,086 views

Published on



Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
62 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
11,086
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
62
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Non rigid connectors in fixed prosthesis / cosmetic dentistry training

  1. 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. NON-RIGID CONNECTORS IN FIXED PROSTHESIS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. contents • INTRODUCTION • DEFINITIONS • PRINCIPLES OF CONNECTOR DESIGN • CLASSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. NON-RIGID CONNECTORS • Precision attachments. KEY AND KEYWAY. Tube and screw attachment. Procedure of fabrication. Custom milling machine. • SPLIT PONTIC • CROSS PIN AND WING • Conclusion • References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Introduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. • Connectors are those parts of a fixed partial denture (FPD) that join the individual retainers and pontics together. In most of the cases stress concentration is found in the connectors of the prosthesis. • They are of two types that is Rigid and Nonrigid connectors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • Rigid connectors could be made by casting, soldering and welding. • The design and fabrication of multi unit fixed prosthesis may be a complication, where abutment teeth are malaligned. • In such situations to attain a common path of insertion, non rigid connectors can be used. These connectors permit limited movements and can be made by use of prefabricated inserts or prefabricated wax patterns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Definitions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. GPT-8 • Connector- The portion of fixed partial denture that unites the retainer and pontic • Non-rigid connector: - a connector that permits limited movement between otherwise independent members of a fixed partial denture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. FPD with nonrigid connector. A, Mortise pattern (female) positioned on distal of the canine retainer. B, FPD assembled with prefabricated resin tenon (male) on mesial of pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. • Internal connector: - a non-rigid connector of varying geometric design’s using a matrix to unite the members of a FDP • Sub-occlusal connectors: - an interproximal non-rigid connector positioned apical to and not in communication with the occlusal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Indications • Malaligned abutments without common path of insertion • Existence of pier abutments • Long span FPD s, which can distort due to shrinkage of porcelain • Distal abutment with questionable prognosis • Presence of numerous mobile teeth which need to be splinted by fixed restorationwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Contraindications • Teeth with large pulp chambers • Abutment with reduced clinical crown height www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Principles of connector design www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. • The connector design determines the success of FDP to a certain extent. The factors to be observed while fabricating a connector are: - • Type of connector -Rigid connector -Non-rigid connector. • Size of connector • Shape of connector www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. 1. Type of connectors 1. Rigid connector- they are the ideal choice of connectors for FDP • They provide maximum rigidity and accurately transfer occlusal forces to abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. • 2. Non rigid connector- they are usually used for pier abutments due to differences in physiologic tooth movement and difference in arch position of abutment. • It provides a scope for flexing of mandible during opening and closing movements but it is technically sensitive. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. • Size of connector • The size of connector is important in maintaining the periodontal health of the abutment teeth. • The recommended occlusogingival height of connector is, ideally 3-4 mm. It should be sufficiently large to prevent distortion /fracture during function. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. • For anterior teeth connector should be placed lingual and use of large connector /inappropriately shaped connector result in display of metal leading to esthetic failure of FDP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. • Shape of connector • Connector’s should have a concave shape mesiodistally (appear as meniscus) and Convex buccolingually. In cross section it appears elliptical • So usually the long axis of ellipse is placed perpendicular to long axis of force. It should be highly polished. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. • Connectors are basically classified as: - • Rigid connectors- • Cast connectors • Soldered connectors • Welded connectors • Loop connectors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. • Non rigid connectors • Key & keyway (dovetail) • Split pontic • Cross pin and wing • Screw and tube www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. • Nonrigid connectors are generated through incorporation of prefabricated inserts in the wax pattern or • Through custom milling procedures after the first casting has been obtained. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. • The second part is then custom-fitted to the milled retainer and cast. They are often made with prefabricated plastic patterns. • The retainers are then cemented separately and fitted to each other in metal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. • The design of nonrigid connectors that are incorporated in the wax pattern stage consists of a mortise (also referred to as the female component) prepared within the contours of the retainer and a • Tenon (male) attached to the pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. • The mortise is usually placed on the distal aspect of the anterior retainer. • Accurate alignment of the dovetail or cylindrically shaped mortise is critical; it must parallel the path of withdrawal of the distal retainer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. • Paralleling is normally accomplished with a dental surveyor. • When aligning the cast, the path of placement of the retainer that will be contiguous with the tenon is identified. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Keyway position? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. • The custom milling machine is a device used for working or forming materials into a desired form, to blend materials or to perform other mechanical properties. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Custom milling machine. Non-rigid connectors in fixed prosthodontics :current concepts and case reports.JIPS2005;5:2,99-102 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. It has following three functions: 1. First, as a surveyor to determine path of insertion. 2. Second, to allign attachments or other assemblies very accurately. 3. In milling, a process of wax or metal in line, angled or parallel shaping to given contours, depending upon the type of work with the added advantage that it can be used for angled or parallel drilling. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. • There are different types of non-rigid connectors: - • Key and keyway (Dovetails). • Screw and tube attachment. • Split pontic. • Cross pin and wing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. • Non-rigid connectors are classified into two types based on method of fabrication 1.Precision 2.Non-precision /semi precision Precision attachment is defined as a retainer consisting of a metal receptacle and a closely fitting part. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. PRIESKEL in 1979 classification: • Intra coronal attachments • Extra coronal attachments Based on mechanism of retention intra coronal are sub classified as: Group 1-entire frictional Group 2-mechanical lock www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. • Extra coronal are divided into: 1. Projection units 2. Connecting units 3. Cross-linked attachments Non-rigid connectors used in FPD is either an intra coronal or semi precision type www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Extra coronal attachments www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. • Precision attachments are prefabricated metal units with parallel sided walls • Semi precision are intra coronal attachments with tapered walls prepared in laboratory www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. • Semi precision (developed by Thompson, Nevrohr and Sherer) • Feature significant taper • May be cast from patterns or entirely lab produced • Precision fit is not as easily attained as with prefabricated attachments but advantage of their adaptability in different restorations make them very valuable www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. • Consists of 2 parts: • Simple channels closed at one end to provide a stop MATRIX. • Solid slid which fits accurately into channel known as PATRIX. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. • This type of attachment fit rigidly together when articulated so they will resist movement except passage along a line/path of insertion or withdrawal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. • Also called as Deep Seat Rests where patrix or matrix is cast to fit its other half. • Retention provided by attachment depends on contact between two components, it is desirable to provide as much surface area as possible, surface area available is product of cross section of male part and its length. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Key and keyway (dovetails) This is a passive attachment that can be constructed in the laboratory or preformed plastic patterns can be used and incorporated in wax patterns. It is used to overcome a slight lack of parellelism of prepared abutment teeth. It is also used as a means of reducing the forces on the retainer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Milled tapered keyway Mesial surface of pontic Carried a key. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Procedure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. • The wax pattern for the retainer on the pier abutment is fabricated on the working cast. • When a plastic pattern is used for the key and keyway, a deep box form is carved into the distal surface of the wax pattern to create space for the placement of the plastic keyway pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. • Adequate depth and a parallel path of insertion are essential when preparing the box form in the distal of this abutment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. • Place the working cast, with the wax pattern seated, on the table of a surveyor. • Assemble the key and keyway portions of the connector, and lock the mandrel that extends from the top of the key portion of the pattern into the vertical spindle of the surveying instrument. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. • Manipulate the surveying instrument. Manipulate the surveyor table until the mandrel and attachments are parallel with the path of insertion of the distal preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. The cast is manipulated until the insertion path of the distal abutment Preparation parallels the mandrel(b) projecting from the key-keyway Assembly. The keyway pattern is luted to the retainer wax pattern on surveyor To maintain the relationship www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. • Then lower the plastic pattern to the middle retainer wax pattern and lute it in place with sticky wax • Remove the key portion and complete the middle retainer wax pattern by blending the distal surface with the keyway. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. • The pattern is then invested, burned out, and cast. After the casting has been cleaned and air abraded, carefully cut off any part of the keyway portion of the attachment that protrudes above the occlusal surface. • Place the casting on the working cast, and place the prefabricated plastic pattern for the key into the keyway. • At this point the pontic wax pattern is attached to the pontic key. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. • The pontic pattern is completed, removed from the working cast, invested, burned out and cast. • After the casting is recovered from the investment, the mandrel and any excess on the top portion of the key are carefully reduced so the key and keyway are flush. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Mesial segment of keyway Cemented first Distal segment cemented After that www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. • Moulding m b (1992) : - “An alternate orientation of non-rigid connector in FPD”. • Conventional orientation: - Keyway within distal surface of anterior retainer of mesial segment. • Keyway opening on occlusal surface with taper diverging occlusally. The mesial segment is delivered 1st and then distal segment is seated with the key sliding in the keyway of the anterior retainer. “An alternative orientation of non-rigid connectors in F.P.D” J.Prosthet. Dent68, 236-8,1992 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. • The main disadvantage of this system is need of increased tooth reduction on distal surface of anterior abutment/ leads to over contouring of distal surface of mesial retainer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. An alternative orientation of non-rigid connectors in F.P.D” J.Prosthet. Dent68, 236-8,1992 Traditional orientation of non rigid connector www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. • The author described an alternative orientation by reversing key and keyway. • Key is attached to distal surface of anterior retainer and is inverted so that it taper converges occlusaly. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. • The keyway is also inverted and incorporated in the mesial surface of the pontic. • The mesial segment is seated first at delivery followed by distal segment, with the keyway sliding over the key of the anterior retainer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Conventional orientation with tilted molar And overtapered distal surface of premolar abutment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Inverted orientation with tilted molar, Illustrating the normal abutment preparation And improved contours of the retainers. Key on anterior retainer and keyway on pontic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Advantages: - • Conservative tooth preparation: - as key is place extracoronally, improves retention, stability and maintain pulpal integrity. • Physiologic axial contour: - prevents over contouring of distoaxial surface of anterior retainer • A flat emergence profile and physiologic contour of gingival 1/3rd can be developed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. An alternative orientation of non-rigid connectors in F.P.D J.Prosthet. Dent68, 236-8,1992 • This inverted orientation allows more flexibility in positioning the angled connector while maintaining the desired embrasure facially, lingually and gingivally. • The principles of biologic contours are then realized with physiologic emergence angles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. • Esthetic potential- inverted orientation of non-rigid connection can be more esthetically pleasing in PFM FPD’S. • Since the keyway opening is open the tissue surface of pontic the only visual evidence do the connector is the interface between the metal guiding planes of the two segments. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Disadvantage- • The opening of key and key-way, the porcelain metal junction are positioned on tissue surface of pontic with tissue- contacting pontics the space between the key and the keyway is an area for plaque retention and resultant tissue irritation. • This can be avoided by use non tissue- contacting pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Screw and tube attachment Precision attachments: A link to successive restorative treatment Gareth jenkins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Screw and tube attachment • It consists of two or three parts. • A screw with a tapered head and threaded tube. • length varying from 5 to 8.1mm and diameter varying from 1.6 to 2 mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. • The tubes can be cast into or soldered to the substructure or incorporated into extensions off a conventional retainer. • The collar is cast into the superstructure and the screw with its tapered head unites the two parts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. • Useful for 1.Overcoming alignment problems 2.Connecting one restoration or fixed partial denture to another. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. An acrylic temporary Restoration was made in two parts to overcome Allignment problems between Molar and premolar Acrylic copings were used to Record the occlusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Acrylic copings used To articulate the model Fpd was waxed up www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Attachment inserted Slight distally Wax pattern was cut back And angled to same path of Insertion as mesial abutment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Cut back of wax pattern And a stainless steel wire Which was at same angulation To mesial abutment Completed cating and grooves Were milled in buccal and Lingual surfaces of block www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Tube was placed in casting And soldered from undersurface Of pontic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. A plastic pin was inserted Into the hole left by the Removal of stainless steel wire The screw was placed in the Tube and the wax up of the Mesial abutment and Superstructure was completed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Srew was removed and Wax pattern was ready for casting Second casting was placed in model And checked for accuracy of fit And localisation of screw in tube. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Completed fixed partial denture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Commercially available attachments which can be used to overcome allignment problems Rod and tube attachment. Stern Tube lock. APM-Sterngold www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. Preat-Contur. Slide attachment tapering From occlusal to cervical area. Matrix and patrix are plastic Burn out patterns www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. Dovetail slide attachment By prof.Beyler Posterior fixed partial Dentures with minor Allignment problems of Abutment and as connector www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Split pontic • This is an attachment that is placed entirely within the pontic. • It is particularly useful in tilted abutment cases, where the use of a conventional dovetail would necessitate the preparation of a very drastic box in the distal aspect of the pier abutment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. • The wax pattern of the anterior three-unit segment (mesial retainer-pontic –pier retainer) is fabricated first, with a distal arm attached to the tissue-contacting area of a pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. • A surveyor is used to position either the key or the keyway segment of fpd pattern, pointing occlusally. • This segment must align with the distal abutment preparation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. • Invest, burnout and cast the mesial three- and –a-half –unit segment. After preliminary finishing, seat the cast segment on the working cast. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. • Wax the distal retainer and the disto- occlusal two-thirds of the pontic pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. • Try it on the prepared teeth in the mouth, making adjustments as necessary. Cement the mesial segment first, followed immediately by the distal segment. • No cement should be placed between the two segments of the pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Mesial segment which is Cemented first had the distal shoe that is gingival Portion of pontic Distal segment covers the Mesiogingival part of pontic When the distal retainer Is cemented. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Cross-pin and wing • The cross pin and wing are the working elements of a two-piece pontic system that allows two segments to be rigidly fixed after the retainers nave been cemented on their respective abutment preparations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. • The design will find use primarily in accommodating abutment teeth with disparate long axes. • The path of insertion of each tooth preparation is made to parallel the long axis of that tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. • Attach a vertical wing, cut out of a piece of base plate wax, to the mesial surface of the distal retainer wax pattern. • The wing should parallel the path of insertion of the mesial abutment preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. • It should extend out 3.0mm mesially from the distal retainer, • Have a 1.0mm thickness faciolingually, be 1.0mm short of the occlusal surface, • Have an undersurface that follows the intended contour of the underside of the pontic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. • Invest, burnout, and cast the distal retainer, with wing. Seat the retainer on the cast, and drill a 0.7mm hole through the wing with a twist drill in a hand piece. • Place a 0.7mm diameter pencil lead through the hole and build the wax pattern around the lead and the wing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. • Remove the lead, with draw the retainer- pontic wax pattern, and replace the 0.7mm lead in the pontic pattern to maintain the patency of the hole during investing and casting. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. • Assemble the two parts of the fixed partial denture on the working cast. • Use a tapered 8/0 machinist reamer to ream a smooth, tapered hole through pontic and wing, following he pilot hole produced by the 0.7mm pencil lead. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. • Fabricate a pin of the same alloy used for the fixed partial denture casting. • A mold can be made by drilling a hole in a piece of aluminum with the machinist reamer and filling the hole with auto polymerizing resin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. The distal retainer and Wing are cemented first The retainer pontic segment Are seated last www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. A tapered pin is driven Through the pontic, the wing And back out through the pontic Completed cross wing and pin Fixed partial denture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Tapered cross pin attachments for fixed bridges. Operative dentistry,1994,19,7-10. F.C. Eichmiller The wax pattern of the attachment wing on one of the Abutments. Wing should extend 3mm into pontic space and have Gingival contour matching the Contour of final pontic. Wing should Be oriented parallel with pontic segment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Casting with hole in wing to Receive 0.7mm lead pattern www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Pontic segment pattern formed Over the wing and lead The castings are fit to the Model and pin hole is reamed To a taper with an tapered Pin reamer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. Acrylic pattern used to make The tapered pin Pin is fitted to tapered hole. Excess is trimmed off. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Schematic representation of final prosthesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. Connectors for all ceramic fpd’s “Stress concentration in all-ceramic posterior F.P.D” Qint .int 27(10),701-706 Material Diameter of connector Maximum stress Gold 3mm 20.5 4mm 12.7 Dicor 3mm 19.4 4mm 12.5 Inceram 3mm 12.5 4mm 7.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. • It was found that stress concentration was found more in region of force applied and at connector region. • stress levels were higher in 3.0mm than in 4.00 mm at connector. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. • Higher stress was found in the apical region of connector & least in middle part of connector. So they advised to increase the height of connector to increase the bulk and have good stress distribution, and have smooth geometry as compared to angulated geometry in short connectors. • It was recommended to use 4mm connector size for ceramic and 3mm for metal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Photoelastic stress analysis of load transfers to implants and natural teeth comparing rigid and semirigid connectors.J.Prosthet Dent 1999;81:696-703 • Use of soldered or rigid connector between implants and simulated tooth abutments promote favourable stress distribution within simulated bone support. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. • Although rigid and non-rigid connectors may allow favourable stress distribution, non rigid connector may not be indicated because of unpredictable mobility and intrusion. • Hence rigid connectors should be used. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. • Connecting teeth to osseointegrated implants presents a biomechanical challenge. This is due to the implant being rigidly fixed to the bone and the tooth being attached to the bone with a periodontal ligament. BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL VOLUME 201 NO. 10 NOV 25 2006 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. • Diagram of the suggested method of connecting implants to teeth with connection using a deep removable partial denture- type rest with the rest seat on the implant supported restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. Intra coronal precision attachments • Herman Chayes – 1906 first designed • It consists of two parts A slot and a flange The flange is joined to one section of the prosthesis and slot unit embedded in a restoration forms part of another section www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. • The retention of attachment mainly depends on surface area of contact between two parts • Surface area is a product of cross section of male part and its length • The H-shaped flange of modern attachment provides greater surface area without increase in size of female part over earlier T-shaped flange www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. • Materials used in attachment fabrication: a. Platinum b. Iridioplatinum c. Au and Pt d. Au and Pd e. All gold Choice of material depends upon type of case www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. • When ceramometal alloys are employed , it is necessary to solder female portion into crown if any of the above materials are used except gold • Other materials will cause contraction and distortion of the attachment during porcelain firing • Gold can be used for insertion into cast gold crown only www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. • Precious metal attachments should never be cast to non precious alloys , it may result in recrystallisation of the attachment and produces an incomplete casting • Intra coronal attachments are discussed as 1.Frictional fit with adjustment potential 2. Frictional fit without adjustment potential www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. • Without adjustment potential: 1. Interlock attachments 2. Stern JMS attachments 3. Beyeler attachments 4. Chayes attachments • With adjustment potential: 1. Mc Collum attachment 2. Stern G/A attachment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. 3. Chrismani attachment 4. Stern gingival latch attachment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. Chayes attachmentBeyeler attachment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. T-Geschiebe 123 attachment Stern gingival attachment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. Conclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. • The prognosis of an fixed partial denture will depend on occlusion, span length, bone loss and quality of periodontium. Since majority of stress are concentrated at the connector area of the fixed partial denture, they have to be precisely made. Connector should be large enough so that it can resist the forces and at a same time it should be aesthetically pleasing and should be in harmony with embrassure space. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. • Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics- Shillingburg • Contemporary fixed prosthodontics- Rosenstiel • Ceramo-Metal technology.Vol.1 Masahiro Kuwata • IJP 1993;6;468-74 • DCNA , vol24,no.1,jan 1980 • Precision attachments: Harold Prieskel vol.1 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. • BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL VOLUME 201 NO. 10 NOV 25 2006 • J.Prosthet Dent 1999;81:696-703 • IJP2000, 13,340-346 • j.prosthet dent 76(4) 424 1996 • Operative dentistry,1994,19,7-10 • Precision attachments: A link to successive restorative treatment-Gareth jenkins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. • Non-rigid connectors in fixed prosthodontics:current concepts and case reports.JIPS2005;5:2,99-102 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

×