INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Posterior partial veneer crown
Inlays
onlays
Resin bonded retainer
Radicular retainers
Failures in retainers
Conclu...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
STEPS
1. Occlusal reduction
2. axial reduction
3. Proximal groove placement
4. Occlusal offset
5. Bucco-occlusal contra be...
Depth orientation grooves Functional cusp bevel
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Lingual axial reduction :
torpedo diamond
Proximal axial reduction : torpedo
diamond
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Use tapered carbide bur
 Placed parallel to long axis of the tooth
 Grooves are 4mm long and terminate 0.5mm of
gingiv...
Proximal
groove
Proximal flare
Proximal flare
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Similar in preparation with
maxillary
 Only difference is the
preparation of occlusal shoulder
on the facial surface, g...
 This method of preparation
is known as hooding ,
increases retention and
resistance to displacement
 Occlusal shoulder ...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
¾ crown with proximal box
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 In this preparation lingual
surface is left intact and buccal
surface is involved
 Used on mandibular molars to
preserv...
 This preparation closely resembles a maxillary ¾
crown as the axial surface of the non functional
cusp is uncovered
 Gr...
 A three-quarter crown that
is rotated 90degrees,with
the distal rather than
buccal surface left intact
 Used as a retai...
Indicated in patients
 Low incidence of inter proximal caries
 Good oral hygiene
 Caries free distal surfaces
www.india...
Preparation
 Mesial surface parallels the
path of insertion of mesial
abutment prepartion
 Clearance of 1.5mm is
obtaine...
 Grooves are placed on buccal and lingual axial
surfaces parallel to each other
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Occlusal offset is prepared
connecting buccal and lingual
grooves to strengthen the disto-
occlusal margin
www.indianden...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Includes, the surfaces covered by
three- quarter crown and in addition
the distal half of buccal surface
 Therefore, me...
 Prepare mesial groove similar to
three quarter crown
 Place the buccal groove parallel to
the mesial groove and perpend...
 Mesial wall of buccal groove is smooth and has 90
degree cavo-surface angle, leaving no
unsupported enamel
 Adequate cl...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 INLAY is an intracoronal
restoration, which is used for
medium sized single tooth proximo-
occlusal and gingival lesions...
 A cavity which does not exceed 1/3 of the
intercuspal distance
 Teeth have minimal occlusal facets or no occlusal
facet...
◦ contraindicated unless there is sufficient bulk
to provide the resistance and retention form,
as they rely on intracoron...
 Inlay is not conservative restoration compared to
amalgam restoration, because additional tooth
removal in necessary
 H...
Occlusal outline
 No. 170Lbur
 Place the bur in the central groove
and extend the preparation 1mm
short of the marginal ...
Proximal box preparation
 Marginal ridge is undermined with
no.169L bur
 Begin proximal box by running
no.169Lbur inside...
 Undermine tooth structure is
removed with enamel hatchet or
169L bur
 Extend the box facially and lingually
to a point ...
 Widen the isthmus where it joins with proximal box
 Use enamel hatchet to round the facial and lingual
line angles
www....
Gingivo axial groove placement
 A v shaped groove is placed at the
junction of axial wall and gingival
floor of the box w...
Proximal flare
 Use flame diamond
 Flares are flat planes added to buccal and lingual
walls of the box
 Provides acute ...
 Place the flame diamond in proximal box and use
the tip to cut cavosurface angle of the box from
gingival floor up
 Dia...
 Flame diamond is carried across gingivo cavo
surface angle of the box, forming gingival bevel on
the box that is a smoot...
 Occlusal bevel is placed around entire periphery
of occlusal portion to produce a smooth finish line
Occlusal bevel
www....
 Bevel and flare finishing with flame bur
Completed preparationFinishing: flame bur
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Class 1 inlay
 Used to restore moderate sized occlusal lesion
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Class 3 inlay
 Contraindicated for incisor due to metal display
 Restoration for distal surface of canines
www.indianden...
Class 5 inlays
 Used to restore severe abrasion or erosion and
large caries on gingivo facial aspect of molars
www.indian...
Indicated for
 Broken teeth with intact buccal and lingual cusps
 Mod restorations with wide isthmus
 Endodontically tr...
 Occlusal reduction
Functional cusp bevelOcclusal reduction
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Occlusal shoulder placement
 Use no.171Lbur
 Two acceptable finish lines for mod
onlay-shoulder with bevel and heavy
cha...
 Isthmus is prepared with no.171L bur
 1mm shallower than isthmus on an inlay as
occlusal reduction is done
www.indiande...
 Proximal boxes prepared similar to inlay with
flares and bevels at gingival , facial and lingual
walls
 Only difference...
Preparation on mandibular differs in
 Functional cusp bevel and occlusal shoulder on
buccal cusp
 Lingual bevel is wider...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Resin bonded fixed dental prosthesis had variable
popularity since the technique for splinting anterior
teeth with a per...
 Retention in these prosthesis is obtained by
adhesive bonding between etched enamel and
metal casting which are held in ...
 Based on the technique used to finish the tissue
surface ,the retainers are classified as
1. Rochette bridge
2. Maryland...
 Mandibular incisor replacement
 Maxillary incisor replacement ,if they are in open
bite, end to end or moderate overbit...
 Extensive caries
 Para functional habits
 Long edentulous spans
 Restored or damaged abutments
 Significant pontic w...
 Minimal removal of the tooth structure
 Minimal potential for pulpal trauma
 Supra gingival preparation, help in finis...
 uncertain longevity
 Enamel modification are required
 Space correction is difficult
 Good alignment of the abutments...
 Radicular retained prosthesis consists of of a post
and dowel with attached core that obtains its
retention and resistan...
1. Conservation of the tooth structure
 Minimal removal of tooth structure must be
accomplished thus, avoiding weakening ...
2.Retention form
 Retention of the post is affected by the preparation
geometry, post length, post diameter, surface
text...
3. Resistance form
 Greatest stress concentration is found at the
shoulder particularly inter proximally
 Stress are red...
 DOWEL CLASSIFICATION(POST)
1.CUSTOM CAST DOWELS
2. PREFORMED DOWELS
 tapered smooth sided.
 Tapered serrated posts.
 ...
POST LENGTH  
 Retention will be proportional to the post length.
 The standard parameters for the post length in a
toot...
POST SHAPE.
 
 Placement of a parallel sided post with in the
canal improves both the retention and force
distribution of...
POST DIAMETER
 The post must be sufficient diameter to resist
functional forces.
 Larger diameter gives little or no imp...
SURFACE CONFIGURATION
 The surface of the post can be serrated, smooth
or threaded.
 Serrated surface provides mechanica...
POST MATERIAL
 Material used in the post must be able to withstand the
functional stress and resist corrosion and must no...
CORE
 The core consists restorative material placed in
the coronal area of the tooth. The material
replaces carious, frac...
Desirable properties of the core material includes.
 high compressive strength
 ease of manipulation
 dimensional stabi...
Various causes for failures of retainers are
1. Cementation failure
2. Mechanical breakdown
3. Gingival irritation
4. Peri...
1.Cementation failure
may be partial or complete due to
a. Result of retainers inadequate for bridge
b. Flexion of casting...
2.Mechanical breakdown
a) flexion, tearing, fracture of alloy
b) Solder joint failure due to inadequate width and
depth
c)...
 Over contouring of buccal and lingual aspects
 Inadequate inter proximal embrasures
 Improper pontic design
Poor fitti...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Loss of retention
a) Inadequate tooth preparation
b) Poor cementation technique
c) Caries
d) Leverage forces on the bridge...
 A well organized approach and diagnosis of the
practitioner is needed for the lifespan of the
bridge. There fore, the se...
A. H.T.Shillingburg: fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics
B. 3rd
edn QB 2002
C. Rosenstiel: cotemporary fixed prosthodonti...
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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New microsoft office power point presentation / orthodontic seminars

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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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New microsoft office power point presentation / orthodontic seminars

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Posterior partial veneer crown Inlays onlays Resin bonded retainer Radicular retainers Failures in retainers Conclusion references www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. STEPS 1. Occlusal reduction 2. axial reduction 3. Proximal groove placement 4. Occlusal offset 5. Bucco-occlusal contra bevel 6. Finishing of preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Depth orientation grooves Functional cusp bevel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Lingual axial reduction : torpedo diamond Proximal axial reduction : torpedo diamond www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7.  Use tapered carbide bur  Placed parallel to long axis of the tooth  Grooves are 4mm long and terminate 0.5mm of gingival finish line www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Proximal groove Proximal flare Proximal flare www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13.  Similar in preparation with maxillary  Only difference is the preparation of occlusal shoulder on the facial surface, gingival to occlusal contacts which is 1mm wide www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14.  This method of preparation is known as hooding , increases retention and resistance to displacement  Occlusal shoulder on buccal aspect of buccal cusp serves the same purpose as the offset on maxillary preparation Completed mandibular3/4 crown preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. ¾ crown with proximal box www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17.  In this preparation lingual surface is left intact and buccal surface is involved  Used on mandibular molars to preserve intact lingual surface and on fixed partial denture abutments with severe lingual inclinations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18.  This preparation closely resembles a maxillary ¾ crown as the axial surface of the non functional cusp is uncovered  Grooves are placed at linguoproximal line angles and joined by occlusal offset on the buccal slope of lingual cusps www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  A three-quarter crown that is rotated 90degrees,with the distal rather than buccal surface left intact  Used as a retainer on tilted mandibular molar fixed partial denture abutment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Indicated in patients  Low incidence of inter proximal caries  Good oral hygiene  Caries free distal surfaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Preparation  Mesial surface parallels the path of insertion of mesial abutment prepartion  Clearance of 1.5mm is obtained from occlusal reduction which terminates at the distal marginal ridge www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Grooves are placed on buccal and lingual axial surfaces parallel to each other www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  Occlusal offset is prepared connecting buccal and lingual grooves to strengthen the disto- occlusal margin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25.  Includes, the surfaces covered by three- quarter crown and in addition the distal half of buccal surface  Therefore, mesial aspect resembles three quarter crown and distal aspect a complete crown  Mesial half of buccal tooth surface remains intact  Preparation is similar to three quarter crown, differs only in placement of groove www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.  Prepare mesial groove similar to three quarter crown  Place the buccal groove parallel to the mesial groove and perpendicular to bucco- axial wall  Buccal groove should resist mesio- distal displacement of a probe  A contra bevel is given on mesio- buccal cusp which connects the mesial flare with buccal groove www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.  Mesial wall of buccal groove is smooth and has 90 degree cavo-surface angle, leaving no unsupported enamel  Adequate clearance must be established interproximally upon completion of preparation Adequate clearance interproximally www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29.  INLAY is an intracoronal restoration, which is used for medium sized single tooth proximo- occlusal and gingival lesions  ONLAY is an intracoronal restoration, which is used to restore a more extensively damaged posterior tooth with a wide mesio- occluso-distal lesion inlay onlay www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30.  A cavity which does not exceed 1/3 of the intercuspal distance  Teeth have minimal occlusal facets or no occlusal facets, if present limited only the occlusal surface.  Tooth which is not an abutment for long fixed partial denture.  in premolars and molars with minimal caries that need mesio occlusal or disco occlusal lesion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. ◦ contraindicated unless there is sufficient bulk to provide the resistance and retention form, as they rely on intracoronal wedging retention Advantages • Long lived restoration,because of excellent mechanical properties of material used • Resistant to corrosion • Esthetically acceptable,because of less metal visibility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32.  Inlay is not conservative restoration compared to amalgam restoration, because additional tooth removal in necessary  High occlusal forces may lead to the fracture of the cusp because of wedging effect  Additional preparation may be necessary which may lead to display of metal   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Occlusal outline  No. 170Lbur  Place the bur in the central groove and extend the preparation 1mm short of the marginal ridge with appx 1.5mm deep  Completed outline form should have flat pulpal floor to obtain maximum resistance perpendicular to path of insertion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Proximal box preparation  Marginal ridge is undermined with no.169L bur  Begin proximal box by running no.169Lbur inside the cemento- enamel junction interproximally to full gingival length  Gingival extension should not be too conservative as box length is important for inlay retention www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35.  Undermine tooth structure is removed with enamel hatchet or 169L bur  Extend the box facially and lingually to a point where the contact is broken with adjacent teeth  Final extension is achieved by placing facial and lingual flares www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36.  Widen the isthmus where it joins with proximal box  Use enamel hatchet to round the facial and lingual line angles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Gingivo axial groove placement  A v shaped groove is placed at the junction of axial wall and gingival floor of the box with gingival marginal trimmer  Sometimes referred as “Minnesota ditch”  To enhance resistance to displacement by occlusal forces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Proximal flare  Use flame diamond  Flares are flat planes added to buccal and lingual walls of the box  Provides acute angle for metal to meet finish line on preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  Place the flame diamond in proximal box and use the tip to cut cavosurface angle of the box from gingival floor up  Diamond should be cutting only when it moves towards occlusal end www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40.  Flame diamond is carried across gingivo cavo surface angle of the box, forming gingival bevel on the box that is a smooth continuation of buccal and lingual flares www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41.  Occlusal bevel is placed around entire periphery of occlusal portion to produce a smooth finish line Occlusal bevel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  Bevel and flare finishing with flame bur Completed preparationFinishing: flame bur www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Class 1 inlay  Used to restore moderate sized occlusal lesion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Class 3 inlay  Contraindicated for incisor due to metal display  Restoration for distal surface of canines www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Class 5 inlays  Used to restore severe abrasion or erosion and large caries on gingivo facial aspect of molars www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Indicated for  Broken teeth with intact buccal and lingual cusps  Mod restorations with wide isthmus  Endodontically treated posterior teeth with sound buccal and lingual tooth structure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48.  Occlusal reduction Functional cusp bevelOcclusal reduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Occlusal shoulder placement  Use no.171Lbur  Two acceptable finish lines for mod onlay-shoulder with bevel and heavy chamfer  Cut occlusal shoulder of 1mm width following the termination line of function cusp bevel  Provide space for bulk of metal to reinforce occlusal margin on functional cusp www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50.  Isthmus is prepared with no.171L bur  1mm shallower than isthmus on an inlay as occlusal reduction is done www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51.  Proximal boxes prepared similar to inlay with flares and bevels at gingival , facial and lingual walls  Only difference is placement of occlusal finishing bevel of 0.5mm width on facial cusp perpendicular to long axis of tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Preparation on mandibular differs in  Functional cusp bevel and occlusal shoulder on buccal cusp  Lingual bevel is wider and is a definite contra bevel as esthetics is not a consideration on lingual cusp www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.  Resin bonded fixed dental prosthesis had variable popularity since the technique for splinting anterior teeth with a perforated metal casting was described by Rochette in 1973  These retainers usually consists of one or more pontics supported by thin metal retainers placed on the lingual or proximal surface of abutments www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55.  Retention in these prosthesis is obtained by adhesive bonding between etched enamel and metal casting which are held in place by resin that locks mechanically into microscopic undercuts present on etched enamel and undercuts in casting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56.  Based on the technique used to finish the tissue surface ,the retainers are classified as 1. Rochette bridge 2. Maryland bridge 3. Cast mesh FDP 4. Virginia bridge www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57.  Mandibular incisor replacement  Maxillary incisor replacement ,if they are in open bite, end to end or moderate overbite  Short span fixed partial dentures  Carious-free abutments  Single posterior teeth replacement  Periodontal splints www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58.  Extensive caries  Para functional habits  Long edentulous spans  Restored or damaged abutments  Significant pontic width discrepancy  Deep vertical overlap  Nickel allergy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59.  Minimal removal of the tooth structure  Minimal potential for pulpal trauma  Supra gingival preparation, help in finishing and polishing the restoration  Ease in impression making  No requirement for the provisional restoration  Reduced/less chair time  Less expensive www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60.  uncertain longevity  Enamel modification are required  Space correction is difficult  Good alignment of the abutments required  Difficult temporization  Esthetics is compromised on posterior teeth   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61.  Radicular retained prosthesis consists of of a post and dowel with attached core that obtains its retention and resistance to the displacement from the prepared root portion of an endodontically treated teeth  While the root preparation retains the core establishes retention and resistance for a complete veneer crown that restores the pulpless tooth to a normal form and function   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. 1. Conservation of the tooth structure  Minimal removal of tooth structure must be accomplished thus, avoiding weakening of the canal  Preservation of coronal tooth structure as much as possible which avoids the stress concentration at the gingival margin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. 2.Retention form  Retention of the post is affected by the preparation geometry, post length, post diameter, surface texture, and luting agent which is used to cement the post.  Unlike for the anterior teeth, long post with circular cross section should be avoided in the posterior teeth, which often have curved roots. For these teeth retention is better provided by relatively short post in the divergent canals   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. 3. Resistance form  Greatest stress concentration is found at the shoulder particularly inter proximally  Stress are reduced as post length increases  Parallel sided post may distribute stresses more evenly than the tapered post  Sharp angles should be avoided because they produce high stress during function  Threaded posts can produce high stress concentration during insertion and loading   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65.  DOWEL CLASSIFICATION(POST) 1.CUSTOM CAST DOWELS 2. PREFORMED DOWELS  tapered smooth sided.  Tapered serrated posts.  Tapered threaded posts.  Parallel threaded posts.  Parallel serrated posts.  Parallel smooth sided posts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. POST LENGTH    Retention will be proportional to the post length.  The standard parameters for the post length in a tooth with a normal periodontal support. Range from  2/3 of the length of the canal  coronal length of the tooth  half the bone support length of the root  the root morphology plays an important role in the retention of post.   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. POST SHAPE.    Placement of a parallel sided post with in the canal improves both the retention and force distribution of the post.  parallel sided post are 2-4 times more retentive compare to the other designs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. POST DIAMETER  The post must be sufficient diameter to resist functional forces.  Larger diameter gives little or no improvement in the dowel to root retention but significantly reduces the resistance of the tooth to fracture.   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. SURFACE CONFIGURATION  The surface of the post can be serrated, smooth or threaded.  Serrated surface provides mechanical undercuts for cement and significantly increase retention of the parallel posts over that of smooth surface   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. POST MATERIAL  Material used in the post must be able to withstand the functional stress and resist corrosion and must not be harmful to the patients.  Custom cast posts are fabricated from gold alloys.  Prefabricated parallel sided posts are made of platinum-gold-palladium, nickel-chromium and cobalt – chromium.  Serrated posts come in either stainless steel or gold alloys.  Tapered posts are available in Pt-Au-Pd and Ni-Cr alloys.   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. CORE  The core consists restorative material placed in the coronal area of the tooth. The material replaces carious, fractured, or otherwise missing coronal structure and retains the final coronal restoration.  The core is anchored to the tooth by a direct connection of the core into the canal or through the endodontic dowel. the attachment between tooth, dowel, and core is mechanical, chemical, or both. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Desirable properties of the core material includes.  high compressive strength  ease of manipulation  dimensional stability  Short setting time. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Various causes for failures of retainers are 1. Cementation failure 2. Mechanical breakdown 3. Gingival irritation 4. Periodontal breakdown 5. Caries 6. Loss of retention 7. Inadequate bridge design 8. Incomplete castings www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. 1.Cementation failure may be partial or complete due to a. Result of retainers inadequate for bridge b. Flexion of casting c. Poor cementation technique such as -wrong choice of material -use of old contaminated stock -inadequate powder liquid ratio -improper isolation -failure to follow manufacture instructions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. 2.Mechanical breakdown a) flexion, tearing, fracture of alloy b) Solder joint failure due to inadequate width and depth c) Pontic failure due to inadequate strength and faulty occlusion 3.Gingival irritation a) Poor oral hygiene b) Faulty margins of retainers c) Incorrect occlusal anatomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76.  Over contouring of buccal and lingual aspects  Inadequate inter proximal embrasures  Improper pontic design Poor fitting full crown causing ulcerative gingivitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Loss of retention a) Inadequate tooth preparation b) Poor cementation technique c) Caries d) Leverage forces on the bridge Incomplete casting a) Occlusal defects b) Pits and voids on inner surface of casting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80.  A well organized approach and diagnosis of the practitioner is needed for the lifespan of the bridge. There fore, the selection of the retainers is very important for the longevity of the fixed dental prosthesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. A. H.T.Shillingburg: fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics B. 3rd edn QB 2002 C. Rosenstiel: cotemporary fixed prosthodontics 4th edn Mosby 2002 D. D C N A: ceramics oct 1977 21;4 E. M.A.Marzouk; Operative Dentistry .Modern theory and practice 1997 F. Shillingburg; fundamentals of tooth preparation for cast metal and porcelain restoration QB 1987 G. D.H.Roberts: fixed bridge prosthesis 2nd edition H. Tylman: theory and practice of fixed prosthodontics,7th edition I. Jpd 2006oct,96(4):245-51 J. Jpd 1996 june,75(6):591-3 K. Jpd 2003:90,31-41 L. Jpd 2003;92:13-16 M. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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