The Muscle Physiology / orthodontic short term courses

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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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  • About 125 Vesicles Rupter w/ each AP
    Acetylcholinesterase- splits Ach to acetate and choline-
  • Ca++, Potassium and other small + ions can pass through same channel, but predominatly Na
    Why this happens is explained by resting potential origin; high + on the outside – on the inside
  • The Muscle Physiology / orthodontic short term courses

    1. 1. EMG The Muscle Physiology INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. EMG Electromyography (EMG) – the measurement of electrical activity that brings about muscle contractions 5. Plowman SA, Smith DL. Exercise Physiology for Health Fitness and Performance. Benjamin Cummings, 2003 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. EMG and Muscle Physiology I. Muscle Contraction • Brief Anatomical Review • Emphasis on the electrical potential I. Physiological Explanation of an EMG signal • What corresponds to what we see on a signal I. Physiological Factors that can Influence an EMG Signal • How do things like fiber type, size and disease affect the EMG www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. Skeletal Muscle Organization • Series Elastic Components – Tendons & Bones – Fascia, Endomysium, Perimysium and the Epimysium www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. Skeletal Muscle Organization The Muscle Fiber www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. The Muscle Fiber at the electrophysiological level • Resting Potential – the voltage across an unstimulated cell • Muscle Cell = -90mV • Established by 1. Active Transport of Ions – The Na+/K+ pump – 3Na+ out / 2K+ in 1. Potassium Diffusion Potential – K+ diffuses in; sarcollemma is 100 x more permeable to K+ than Na+ www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. EMG and Muscle Physiology • How does the muscle fiber become excited & contract? 1. Neuro-Stimulation 2. Electrochemical changes in the muscle 3. Proteins of the muscle move-the muscle moves www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. 1. Nervous System Signal • Originates in a Motor Neuron – Activated by conscious thought or afferent input (i.e. reflex) • Travels through the nervous system to the target muscle(s) via, depolarization (action potential) and neurotransmitters – Action Potential - a reversal in relative polarity or change in electrical potential of a cell – Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Action Potential of a Neuron • Resting Potential -70mv • Excited to +35mv • The change in polarity travels down a neuron to the next • Neurotransmitter is released from terminal end www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. The Neuromuscular Junction • A specific synapse – Synapse = the junction at the terminal end of a neuron and another cell – The Neuromuscular Synapse • Motor Neuron and Muscle Cell www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. The Neuromuscular Junction www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. 2. Electrochemical Changes in the Muscle 1) Ca++ are released in the terminal end of Neuron 2) Neurotransmitter is released; Acetylcholine (Ach) 3) Ach travels to receptors on muscle end plate Muscle End Plate – area of muscle cell innervated by neuron www.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 13. Electrochemical Changes in the Muscle 4) Na+ channels open in the muscle cell -Na+ flows into the cell -Voltage begins to raise from -90mv 5) End Plate Potential- local positive potential inside a muscle fiber www.indiandentalacademy.com
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    17. 17. In summary: 1. Force is generated by filaments of actin and myosin sliding over each other 2. This is triggered by calcium ions 3. The calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by an action potential 4. Action potentials are due to the change in membrane permeability from potassium to 5. Sodium and back again 6. This is initially triggered by acetylecholine receptors which change the resting 7. Potential by increasing both the potassium and sodium permeability. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. Thank you. For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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