The Muscle Physiology / orthodontic short term courses


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  • About 125 Vesicles Rupter w/ each AP
    Acetylcholinesterase- splits Ach to acetate and choline-
  • Ca++, Potassium and other small + ions can pass through same channel, but predominatly Na
    Why this happens is explained by resting potential origin; high + on the outside – on the inside
  • The Muscle Physiology / orthodontic short term courses

    1. 1. EMG The Muscle Physiology INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
    2. 2. EMG Electromyography (EMG) – the measurement of electrical activity that brings about muscle contractions 5. Plowman SA, Smith DL. Exercise Physiology for Health Fitness and Performance. Benjamin Cummings, 2003
    3. 3. EMG and Muscle Physiology I. Muscle Contraction • Brief Anatomical Review • Emphasis on the electrical potential I. Physiological Explanation of an EMG signal • What corresponds to what we see on a signal I. Physiological Factors that can Influence an EMG Signal • How do things like fiber type, size and disease affect the EMG
    4. 4. Skeletal Muscle Organization • Series Elastic Components – Tendons & Bones – Fascia, Endomysium, Perimysium and the Epimysium
    5. 5. Skeletal Muscle Organization The Muscle Fiber
    6. 6. The Muscle Fiber at the electrophysiological level • Resting Potential – the voltage across an unstimulated cell • Muscle Cell = -90mV • Established by 1. Active Transport of Ions – The Na+/K+ pump – 3Na+ out / 2K+ in 1. Potassium Diffusion Potential – K+ diffuses in; sarcollemma is 100 x more permeable to K+ than Na+
    7. 7. EMG and Muscle Physiology • How does the muscle fiber become excited & contract? 1. Neuro-Stimulation 2. Electrochemical changes in the muscle 3. Proteins of the muscle move-the muscle moves
    8. 8. 1. Nervous System Signal • Originates in a Motor Neuron – Activated by conscious thought or afferent input (i.e. reflex) • Travels through the nervous system to the target muscle(s) via, depolarization (action potential) and neurotransmitters – Action Potential - a reversal in relative polarity or change in electrical potential of a cell – Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers
    9. 9. Action Potential of a Neuron • Resting Potential -70mv • Excited to +35mv • The change in polarity travels down a neuron to the next • Neurotransmitter is released from terminal end
    10. 10. The Neuromuscular Junction • A specific synapse – Synapse = the junction at the terminal end of a neuron and another cell – The Neuromuscular Synapse • Motor Neuron and Muscle Cell
    11. 11. The Neuromuscular Junction
    12. 12. 2. Electrochemical Changes in the Muscle 1) Ca++ are released in the terminal end of Neuron 2) Neurotransmitter is released; Acetylcholine (Ach) 3) Ach travels to receptors on muscle end plate Muscle End Plate – area of muscle cell innervated by neuron
    13. 13. Electrochemical Changes in the Muscle 4) Na+ channels open in the muscle cell -Na+ flows into the cell -Voltage begins to raise from -90mv 5) End Plate Potential- local positive potential inside a muscle fiber
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    17. 17. In summary: 1. Force is generated by filaments of actin and myosin sliding over each other 2. This is triggered by calcium ions 3. The calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by an action potential 4. Action potentials are due to the change in membrane permeability from potassium to 5. Sodium and back again 6. This is initially triggered by acetylecholine receptors which change the resting 7. Potential by increasing both the potassium and sodium permeability.
    18. 18. Thank you. For more details please visit