Nerve Supply Of Head And
Neck
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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Contents
• Introduction
• Basics of nervous system
• Cutaneous supply of head and neck
• Trigeminal nerve
• Cervical plexu...
Introduction

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Neuron
•Perikaryon
•Dendrites
•Axon
•Myelin sheath
•Synapse

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Nerve structures
•Multipolar
•Bipolar
•Unipolar

Classes of nerve
fibres
•Type A, B,C
•Myelinated & Unmyelinated
•Sensory ...
Sensory receptors
•Free nerve endings
•epidermal
•dermal
•Meissner’s corpuscle
•Merkel disc endings
•Pacinian corpuscle
•R...
CUTANEOUS SUPPLY OF HEAD
AND NECK

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Cutaneous supply
of :
Head – Trigeminal nerve
Neck – Cervical plexus

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Trigeminal
nerve

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Trigeminal nuclei
•Mesencephalic nucleus
•Principal sensory nucleus
•Nucleus of spinal tract
•Motor nucleus

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Functional components

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Branches

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Distribution
•Branches
•Relation with ganglions

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Ophthalmic
nerve
•Branches
•Lacrimal
•Frontal
•Nasociliary
•Ciliary ganglion

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Ophthalmic Nerve

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M
a
x
i
l
l
a
r
y

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N
e
r
v
e
Pterygopalatine ganglion

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M
a
n
d
i
b
u
l
a N
r e
r
v
e
Otic
Ganglio
n

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Submandibu
lar Ganglion

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Cervical
Plexus
•Lesser occipital
•Greater auricular
•Transverse cervical
•Supra clavicular

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MOTOR SUPPLY OF HEAD
AND NECK

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Facial
Nerve

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Functional components

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Facial nerve nuclei

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Within petrous temporal

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Branches of
communicati
on

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Branches
on the
face

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Relati
on
with
paroti
d

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Various
types of
branching

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Ansa cervicalis

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Accessory
nerve

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NERVE SUPPLY OF
STRUCTURAL UNITS

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Extra ocular muscles
Oculomotor nerve

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LR6

SO4

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Nasal cavity

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Motor supply

Palate except tensor
- Pharyngeal plexus

Gen. sensory

- Palatine and glossopharyngeal

palati

Special sen...
Tongue
• Sensory – Lingual and Glossopharyngeal
• Special sensory– Chorda tympani and Glossopharyngeal
• Motor – Hypogloss...
Pharynx
Sensory

– Pharyngeal plexus
(Ph. br. of IX, X, XI n.
and sup. cer. sym. gang.)

Motor

- Pharyngeal plexus
except...
Larynx

Sensory – Up to the level of vocal cords – internal laryngeal n.
Below the level of vocal cords – Recurrent laryng...
Teeth and related structures

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Special sensory innervation

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Special sensation from
•Tongue
•Soft palate
•Pharynx

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Brachial
plexus

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Care during maxillofacial
surgeries

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VII n. damage

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VII n. damage

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UMN
vs
LMN

Facial n. nucleus

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Bell’s Palsy

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Submandibular surgery

‘Facial

asymmetry is evident
only when the patient talks and
that bilateral section abolishes
the
...
Frey’s syndrome

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Radical neck dissections

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Radical neck dissections

Horner’s
syndrome
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Thyroid surgeries

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Pathologic conditions affecting
nerves

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Pathologic conditions affecting
• Infective – Herpesnerves
zoster
• Traumatic
• Degenerative – Parkinsonism, Gullian barre...
Herpes zoster

Herpes zoster is an acute, localized infection with
varicella-zoster virus, which causes a painful,
blister...
Traumatic injuries
• Neuropraxia
• Axonotemesis
• Neurotemesis

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Multiple sclerosis
• Chronic autonomic disease of
the CNS in which gradual
destruction of myelin occurs in
patches through...
Myasthenia gravis
• A disease characterized by progressive fatigue and
generalized weakness of the skeletal muscles esp. t...
Parkinsonism
• A progressive nervous disease occurring most often after
the age of 50, asso. with the destruction of brain...
Paresis, paralysis and spasticity

Motor neuron
disease

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Conclusion

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References
•

Gray’s anatomy; 36th edition; Williams and Warwick

•

Anatomy and Physiology: The unity of form and functio...
Thank you…

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Nerve supply of head and neck /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Nerve Supply Of Head And Neck INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Basics of nervous system • Cutaneous supply of head and neck • Trigeminal nerve • Cervical plexus • Motor supply to head and neck • Facial nerve • Ansa cervicalis • Spinal accessory nerve • Nerve supply of : • • • • • • • Extra ocular muscles Nasal cavity Palate Tongue Pharynx Larynx Teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Introduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Neuron •Perikaryon •Dendrites •Axon •Myelin sheath •Synapse www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Nerve structures •Multipolar •Bipolar •Unipolar Classes of nerve fibres •Type A, B,C •Myelinated & Unmyelinated •Sensory & Motor www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Sensory receptors •Free nerve endings •epidermal •dermal •Meissner’s corpuscle •Merkel disc endings •Pacinian corpuscle •Ruffini terminal •Golgi tendon organ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. CUTANEOUS SUPPLY OF HEAD AND NECK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Cutaneous supply of : Head – Trigeminal nerve Neck – Cervical plexus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Trigeminal nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Trigeminal nuclei •Mesencephalic nucleus •Principal sensory nucleus •Nucleus of spinal tract •Motor nucleus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Functional components www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Branches www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Distribution •Branches •Relation with ganglions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Ophthalmic nerve •Branches •Lacrimal •Frontal •Nasociliary •Ciliary ganglion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Ophthalmic Nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. M a x i l l a r y www.indiandentalacademy.com N e r v e
  19. 19. Pterygopalatine ganglion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. www.indiandentalacademy.com M a n d i b u l a N r e r v e
  21. 21. Otic Ganglio n www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Submandibu lar Ganglion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Cervical Plexus •Lesser occipital •Greater auricular •Transverse cervical •Supra clavicular www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. MOTOR SUPPLY OF HEAD AND NECK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Facial Nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Functional components www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Facial nerve nuclei www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Within petrous temporal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Branches of communicati on www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Branches on the face www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Relati on with paroti d www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Various types of branching www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Ansa cervicalis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Accessory nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. NERVE SUPPLY OF STRUCTURAL UNITS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Extra ocular muscles Oculomotor nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. LR6 SO4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Nasal cavity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Motor supply Palate except tensor - Pharyngeal plexus Gen. sensory - Palatine and glossopharyngeal palati Special sensory – Lesser palatine nerves Secretomotor – Lesser palatine nerves www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Tongue • Sensory – Lingual and Glossopharyngeal • Special sensory– Chorda tympani and Glossopharyngeal • Motor – Hypoglossal except palatoglossus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Pharynx Sensory – Pharyngeal plexus (Ph. br. of IX, X, XI n. and sup. cer. sym. gang.) Motor - Pharyngeal plexus except stylopharyngeus Special sensory – Internal laryngeal Secretomotor – Lesser palatine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Larynx Sensory – Up to the level of vocal cords – internal laryngeal n. Below the level of vocal cords – Recurrent laryngeal n. Motor – Reccurent laryngeal except cricothyroid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Teeth and related structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Special sensory innervation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Special sensation from •Tongue •Soft palate •Pharynx www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Brachial plexus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Care during maxillofacial surgeries www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. VII n. damage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. VII n. damage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. UMN vs LMN Facial n. nucleus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Bell’s Palsy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Submandibular surgery ‘Facial asymmetry is evident only when the patient talks and that bilateral section abolishes the asymmetry without interfering with speech’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Frey’s syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Radical neck dissections www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Radical neck dissections Horner’s syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Thyroid surgeries www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Pathologic conditions affecting nerves www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Pathologic conditions affecting • Infective – Herpesnerves zoster • Traumatic • Degenerative – Parkinsonism, Gullian barre’ • Demyelinating – Multiple sclerosis • Vascular • Neoplastic – Cerebropontine angle tumour www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Herpes zoster Herpes zoster is an acute, localized infection with varicella-zoster virus, which causes a painful, blistering rash www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Traumatic injuries • Neuropraxia • Axonotemesis • Neurotemesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Multiple sclerosis • Chronic autonomic disease of the CNS in which gradual destruction of myelin occurs in patches throughout the brain or spinal cord or both, interfering with the nerve pathways and causing muscular weakness, loss of coordination and speech and visual disturbances • If there is destruction of axons www.indiandentalacademy.com – permanent disability
  62. 62. Myasthenia gravis • A disease characterized by progressive fatigue and generalized weakness of the skeletal muscles esp. those of face, neck, arms and legs caused by impaired transmission of nerve impulses autoimmune attack of Ach receptors www.indiandentalacademy.com following an
  63. 63. Parkinsonism • A progressive nervous disease occurring most often after the age of 50, asso. with the destruction of brain cells that produce dopamine and characterized by muscular tremor, slowing of movement, partial facial paralysis, pecularity of gait and posture and weakness. • Paralysis agitans, shaking palsy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Paresis, paralysis and spasticity Motor neuron disease www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Conclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. References • Gray’s anatomy; 36th edition; Williams and Warwick • Anatomy and Physiology: The unity of form and function; Kenneth S. Saladin • Clinical neuroanatomy for medical students; 4th edition; Richard S. Snell • Chaurasia’s human anatomy; 4th edition • Anatomy for surgeons volume 1: The head and neck; 3rd edition; Hollinshead • Human anatomy; Prives, Lysenkov, Bushkovich • Grants atlas of anatomy • • Colour atlas of applied anatomy; Mc. Minn Complications in maxillofacial surgery; Kaban www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Thank you… www.indiandentalacademy.com

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