METAL FREE CERAMICS
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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INTRODUCTION
• Of all materials used in dentistry to restore
the natural dentition, ceramics have by far
the best optical ...
All ceramic inlays,onlays,veneers and
crowns are some of the most esthetically
pleasing prosthodontic restoration. Because...
DEFINITION
• ACCORDING TO GPT 1999:
•

CERAMIC IS DEFINED

AS:
•
Compound of one or more metal with a
nonmetallic element,...
PORCELAIN
• Is defined as a ceramic material formed of
infusible elements joined by lower fusing
material.
• Most dental p...
COURTESY:ANUSAVICE
• CERAMIC is a compound of metallic and
nonmetallic elements.
• Metals:Aluminium, Calcium, Lithium,
Mag...
• They may be used as a single structural
component .e.g:CAD CAM inlay
• Or as one of the several layers.e.g:
Fabrication ...
CONTINUED….
• They are formulated to provide one or more
of the following properties:
• 1.CASTABILITY
6.COLOR
• 2.MOLDABIL...
HISTORY OF DENTAL
CERAMICS
• Dental technology existed in ETRURIA as early
as 700 BC and during Roman 1st century BC but
r...
Continued…
• DISADVANTAGE:
•
1.Human teeth-costly& scarce
•
2.Animal teeth-unstable
towards the corrosive agents in saliva...
Continued…
 Mineral teeth or porcelain dentures greatly
accelerated as an end to the usage of human and
animal teeth.
 F...
Continued…
• After decades of effort, Europeans mastered the
manufacture of transluenct porcelain, comparable
to the porce...
Continued…
• 1723,Enameling of denture metal bases was
described by PIERRE FAUCHARD in LE
CHIRURGIEN DENTISLE. He was
cred...
Continued…
• 1774, a parsian apothecary ALEXIS
DUCHATEAU with assistance of parisian
dentist NICHOLAS DUBOIS DE
CHEMANT co...
Continued…
• 1808, GIUSEPPANGELO FONZI of paris
introduced individually formed porcelain
teeth that contained embedded pla...
Continued…
• Improvement in transluency&color of
dental porcelains were realised through
developments that ranged from
for...
Continued…
• Glass inlays(not porcelain)were introduced
by HERBST in 1882 with crushed glass frit
fired molds made of plas...
Continued…
• In 1885 LOGAN resolved the retention
problem encountered between porcelain
crowns&post that were commonly mad...
Continued…
• In 1886, combining burnished platinum foil
as a sub structure with the high controlled
heat of a gas furnance...
Continued…
• A noteworthy development occurred in
1950 with addition of leucite to porcelain
formulation that elevated the...
Continued…
• In 1965 McLEAN&HUGHES developed a
PJC with a inner core of aluminous
porcelain containing 40% to 50% alumina
...
Continued…
• Fracture resistance of the aluminous PJC
was improved by a technique in which the
platinum matrix is left in ...
Continued…
• The introduction of a “shrink-free”all
ceramic crown system(cerestore,coors
biomedical)& castable glass ceram...
DEFINITION
• ACCORDING TO GPT 1999,
• ALL CERAMIC is defined as ceramic
restoration that restores a clinical crown
without...
COURTESY:ANUSAVICE
• PJC:
•
One of the first types of all ceramic
crown made from a low strength aluminous
core porcelain ...
• CJC:
•
An all ceramic crown without a
supporting metal substrate that is made
from a ceramic with a substantial crystal
...
DISADVANTAGES OF
METAL CERAMICS
• Metal margin exposure
• To achieve better esthetics,the facial margin
of an anterior res...
• Because of glass like nature of veneering
material they are subjected to brittle
fracture.
• Metal bases affect the esth...
• Fit of long span bridges may be affected by
the creep of the metal during successive
bakes of porcelain.
• Porcelain mad...
• These drawbacks have prompted the
development of new all ceramic system that
do not require metal,yet have high strength...
STRENGTH
• Strength is greatly influenced by presence
of surface flaws acting as stress
initiators&causing widening&propag...
• Strength is influenced by static fatigue
which is generally caused by a stress
dependent chemical reaction between water...
CLASSIFICATION OF
DENTAL CERAMICS
•
•
•
•
•
•

COURTESY:ANUSAVICE
Dental ceramics are classified according to
1.Types
2.Us...
TYPES
1.Feldspathic porcelain
2.Leucite reinforced porcelain
3.Aluminous porcelain
4.Alumina
5.Glass infiltrated alumina
6...
USES
•
•
•
•
•
•

Denture teeth
Metal ceramics
Veneers
Inlays
Crowns
Anterior bridges
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PROCESSING METHODS
• 1.Sintering
• 2.Casting
• 3.Machining

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SUBSTRUCTURE MATERIAL
•
•
•
•
•

1.Cast metal
2.Swaged metal
3.Glass ceramic
4.CAD CAM porcelain
5.Sintered ceramic core

...
COURTESY:SHILLINGBURG
• According to firing temperature:
•
High fusing:-1,290-1,370 C(2,3502,500F)
•
Medium fusing:-1,090-...
HIGH FUSING PORCELAIN
• Is used for manufacture of porcelain
teeth,also for some extent for PJC.
• Composition:
•
FELDSPAR...
LOW AND MEDIUM FUSING
PORCELAIN
• Manufactured by a process called fritting.
• Raw constituents of porcelain are
fused,que...
INTEREST FOR ALL
CERAMIC CROWNS
• It has more potential for more esthetic
anterior restoration.
• In PFM,alloys structure ...
• High gold content alloys are relatively
expensive.
• Risk of metal allergy, bond
failure,porcelain discoloration

www.in...
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION
•
•
•
•
•

Powder slurry/sintered porcelain.
Castable ceramics.
Pressable ceramics.
Infiltrated gla...
POWDER SLURRY
PORCELAINS

www.indiandentalacademy.com
• Products are supplied as powder to which
ceramist adds distilled water to produce a
slurry,which is build up in layers o...
EXAMPLES
• OPTEC H.S.P(JENERIC/PENTRON)
• DUCERAM L.F.C(DUCERA INC)
• VITA HI-CERAM(VITA ZAHNFABRIK)

www.indiandentalacad...
OPTEC H.S.P(HIGH
STRENGTH PORCELAIN)
• Leucite reinforced feldspathic porcelain
• The manufacturer disperses the leucite
c...
Body and incisal porcelain are pigmented to
provide desired shade&translucency.

• Greater strength so no core required.
•...
ADVANTAGES
•
•
•
•
•

1. Lack of metal or opaque substructure.
2.Good transluency.
3.Moderate flexural strength.
4.No spec...
• 5.Two and a half times stronger than
conventional porcelains.
• 6.It transmits,reflects&refracts light in the
same manne...
DISADVANTAGES
• Porcelain margin inaccuracies caused by
porcelain sintering shrinkage.
• Potential to fracture in posterio...
DUCERAM L.F.C
• Composition: amorphous glass containing
hydroxyl ions.
• Manufacturer claims that this noncrystalline
stru...
• High flexural strength results from an ion
exchange mechanism of hydroxyl ions
which is said to also promote a healing o...
PROPERTIES
• Flexural strength-110 Mpa
• Hardness close to natural teeth due to
absence of leucite.
• Opalescence of natur...
ADVANTAGES
•
•
•
•
•

Excellent marginal adaptation.
No special equipment required.
Allow modification by repeated firing....
INDICATION
• Ceramic inlays.
• Veneers.
• Full contour crowns.

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CONTRA INDICATION
• Masking grossly discolored teeth.
• When aiming for high fracture resistance.

www.indiandentalacademy...
VITA HICERAM
• MATERIAL:
•
Higher content of aluminium
oxide/aluminium oxide reinforced.
• It consists of 50% of aluminium...
MERITS
• Highly accurate margins.
• Higher melting points and greater stability.
• For both anterior and posterior crown
v...
CASTABLE CERAMICS
• These products are supplied as solid
ceramic ingots which are used for
fabrication of restorations usi...
• EXAMPLE:
•
Dicor(corning glass,Dentsply)micaceous glass ceramic.
• Dicor plus-Dicor coping with compatible
veneering por...
DICOR
• Dicor castable glass ceramic is one of the
pyoceram ceramics manufactured by
STOOKEY of the corning glassware in
1...
• It is a composite materials of a glassy
matrix phase and a crystal phase

www.indiandentalacademy.com
COMPOSITION
•
•
•
•
•

SiO2-45%-70%w/w
K2O-20%w/w
MgO-3%-13%w/w
MgF2-4%-9%
Fluoride acts as a nucleating agent which
aids ...
• Al2O3 and ZrO2-minor amountsincorporated for durability and fluorescing
agent for esthetics.

www.indiandentalacademy.co...
MATERIAL
• Dicor restoration is made by investing a
wax pattern and casting by last wax
process.
• Cast crown is a clear g...
• Crystallisation procedure takes place during
heating the reinvested crown for 6hrs at
1070 C – causes the growth of micr...
• This causes mica to form a “STRONG
HOUSE OF CARDS”structure which
makes fracture propagation especially
equally difficul...
CREATION OF CAST GLASS
CERAMIC RESTORATION
• Full anatomic wax up.

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• Casting to a glassy
state.

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• Ceramming to a
crystalline glass
ceramic.

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• Applying external
colorants.

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SURFACE REACTION
• Between investment material&glass leads to an
exchange of ions between the two as a result of
high temp...
• The outer skin layer on dicor ceramic
contains needle like crystals of the silicate
enstatite(MgSiO3) oriented perpendic...
• Characterisation of crown is achieved by
surface glaze.

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PROPERTIES
• 1.Strength:-Crystalline structure of this
material lessens the likelihood of crack
propagation because the la...
• 3.Light absorptive refraction:•
Glass ceramics refracts 75% of
entity light because of its organised
crystalline structu...
• Cast glass ceramic are radiolucent & allow
radiographic examination of marginal
integrity,extreme thickness of bases & p...
• 4.Compactibility:•
It exhibition less surface plaque
accumulation than enamel , cementum &
any other restoration materia...
• 5.Marginal adaptation:•
More consisten in terms of fit than
gold crowns(Malament&Grossman 1992).
• Thermal expansion of ...
• 6.Thermal conductivity:•
Low thermal conductivity.

www.indiandentalacademy.com
ADVANTAGES
• 1.Last wax-Casting fabrication
procedure/technique allow to easy morphology
control.
• 2.Fit of restoration i...
• 4.Marginal porcelain opening is less when
compared to McCrown.
•
Dicor-30-60mm
•
Metal Ceramic Crown-62-65mm
• 5.Glazed ...
DISADVANTAGES
• 1.Special equipment & cost.
• 2.The process is technique sensitive.
• 3.When colorant in surface stain, an...
INDICATION
• 1.Anterior porcelain J C.
• 2.Inlays , onlays ,3/4 crown.
• 3.Partial veneers

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CONTRA INDICATION
• 1.Clinical crown length in short-it would
compromise resistance & retention of the
preparation.
• 2.FP...
DICOR PLUS CERAMIC
• Because of esthetic limitation-venering cutback
Dicor coping feldaspathic porcelain was
developed wit...
CERAPEARL(KYOCERA)
• It is CaOP2O5MgOSiO2 glass ceramic or
calcium phosphate glass similar to
hydroxyapatite of the enamel...
Composition
• CaOP2O5-aid in glass formalisation.It is the
main ingredient to form hydroxyapatite
crystals.
•
MgOCaO-cover...
Properties
• 1.It melts at 1460 C & casted which has an
amorphous microstructure and is reheated at
870 C for 1 hr-crystal...
INFILTRATED GLASS
CERAMIC
• These are glass infiltrated core
ceramics.This involves slipcasting
technique for making core ...
• Example: Inceram (vita zahnfabrik)
•
Alumina
•
Ziremia
•
Spinell

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INCERAM ALUMINA
• Inceram was evolved by research by
Dr.Mickael Sadoun in 1985 using alumina
as core material & was manufa...
• They contain atleast 2 phases that are
interwined or extend continously from
internal to external surface.
• They posess...
• Have improved sterngth & fracture
resistance because a crack must pass
through alternate layers of both
components.

www...
Material
• A suspension of finely grounded materialalumina(slip) is mixed to a
thin,creamy,consistency,is brushed onto the...
• It is fired at a temperature rise of approx 20
C /min to 1120 C for 2 hrs.
• This causes approx of particles with minima...
• Lathanum alumino silicate La(Al2O3 SiO2)
glass is used to infiltrate the pores by
capillary action at high temperature.
...
Properties
• Flexural strength:-600 Mpa.
• Infused alumina core is 2.5 times stronger
than glass ceramic and feldspathic
p...
Advantages
• Lack of metal substructure.
• Very high flexural strength.
• Excellent fit.

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Disadvantages
• Opacity of core.
• Unsuitable for conventional acid etching.
• Need for specialised equipment.

www.indian...
INCERAM ZIRCONIA
• PRINCIPLE:
•
Strengthening is achieved by
incorporating a crystalline material that is
capable of under...
• Material incorporated is 33%
zirconia(partially stabilized zirconia).
• 1.To improve flexural strength,fracture
toughnes...
Properties
• Flexural strength is 700MPa
• Greater strength-can be used for posterior
bridges.
• Moderate transluency.
• B...
INCERAM SPINELL
• A second generation material based on inceram
technique.
• A primary difference is a change in compositi...
• Originally magnesium oxide and aluminium
oxide were mixed in a ratio of 1:1 and
transformed to spinel at temp above 1600...
Properties
• Weaker but more translucent than the
alumina core-recommended for esthetically
challenging single unit anteri...
MACHINABLE CERAMICS
• These products are supplied as ingots in various
shades & are milled into desired form.These
machine...
CADCAM CERAMIC
• A machinable ceramic material formulated
for the production of inlays and crowns
through the use of a com...
History
• Development of CADCAM systems for the dental
profession began in
•
1970s with Duret in France,Altschuler in
USA,...
Objectives
• To eliminate traditional impressional
methods.
• To design, with aid of the computer, the
future restoration ...
• To machine the restoration by rotating
device,sono or electro-erosion,laser etc..
• To improve restoration qualities-mec...
Advantages
• Negligible porosity in CADCAM core
ceramics.
• Freedom from making impression.
• Need for only single appoint...
• Need for costly equipments.
• Lack of computer controlled processing
support for occlusal adjustment.
• Technique sensit...
Types of CADCAM
• Direct : Fully integrated CADCAM devices
for chairside restorative approach.
• CADCAM stations are locat...
• Indirect method: It consists of several
modules with at least distinctive
CAD&CAM stations.
• The impression(optical) is...
• Optical impression is taken in the dental
office, collected information is then
transmitted to a central station where
C...
• Because of overall dimension and cost of
the CADCAM machines, they are usually
not located in a dental office,but more l...
DIRECT CADCAM System
• CEREC system has been marketed for
several years with the improved CEREC2
introduced in mid-1990’s ...
MATERIALS USED
• Vita Mark II [Vident]:contains
sanidine[KALSi3O8] as a major crystalline
phase with a glassy matrix.
• Di...
• The unique “HOUSE OF
CARDS”microstructure found in Dicor
MGC is due to interlocking of the small
platelet shaped mica cr...
• ProCad[ivoclar]: is a leucite containing
ceramic.

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• Vita Inceram Blocks [Vita Zahnfabrik]:
• SPINEL blanks: Spinel are used for to
obtain an esthetically appealing, translu...
• ZIRCONIA blanks: this combines the
fracture toughness of the metastable
tetragonal zirconium oxide referred to an
cerami...
LIMITATION IN CEREC
• The cerec system was acceptable with
regard to the longetivity of adhesively
bonded restoration , bu...
• Diamond disc was only tool for
cutting.Hence it was important to
incorporate an additional diamond cutting
instrument.
•...
• Dentist’s required intensive training for
CAD.So it was important to achieve easy
and user friendly software for CAD.

w...
CEREC 2:Improvisations in
cerec 2
• Improvisations were made in CEREC2 such
as
• 1.CAD module was implemented with a
secon...
• 3.New camera provides more data with
greater accuracy with a resolution from 2550 microns.
• 4.It is capable of processi...
CEREC3
• Software still easy & user friendly which
uses window as operating systems.
• Precise restoration.
• External & i...
Advantages
•
•
•
•

Time saving-one or two appointments required.
Time taken for making optical impression is 5 sec.
Wear ...
INDIRECT CADCAM
• Eg: Cerec scan,cerec inlab,procera system.
• CEREC SCAN:
•
Inclusive of both scaning &
milling device wi...
• CEREC INLAB:
•
Consists of a compact milling
unit with a in built scanner.It produces more
precision restoration.Softwar...
• Procerra system:
•
Introduced by Dr.Matts
Anderson from Nobel Biocare.
•
Involves an industrial
CAD/CAM process.

www.in...
Materials used
• Involves(densely sintered high purity
inmdustrial aluminum oxide) core
combined with a (low fusing veneer...
Technique Specification
• Computer aided designed copings of 0.2mm
thickness is made from dense sintered
industrial alumin...
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•

Good clinical perfomance.
Good marginal adaptation.
Metal free & precision fit.
Reduced opposing w...
Indication
• All single crown anterior & posterior for modified
implant copings for direct cementation.
• Where minimum cr...
Copy milling
• A process of machining a structure using a
device that traces the surface of a master
metal, ceramic or pol...
CELAY Systems(Mikrona
technologies)
• Developed by Dr.Stefan I.Eidenbenz at the
university of Zurich in 1994.
• It is a pr...
Technique Specification
• Based on a mechanical device that is used to trace
the surface of a prefabricated pattern of the...
• Uses sequential milling procedure
proceeding from course to fine milling bur.
• Restoration are milled in 15-20min with
...
Materials Used
• Vitablocks similar to CEREC vitablocks.
• Inceram alumina blocks are used to fabricate
single and multipl...
ADVANTAGES
• Marginal accuracy seem to be good, a little
better than the cerec system.
• Good patient acceptance.
• Less a...
HOT PRESSED, INJECTION
MOULDED CERAMIC
• They are supplied as ingots.
• These products are melted at high
temperature and ...
• Example:
•
IPS Empress I,II [Ivoclar vivadent[
•
OPC
•
Alceram[ cerestore, innotek dental
corporation].

www.indiandenta...
IPS EMPRESS
• Leucite reinforced glass ceramic material
[40%-50%]
• Leucite crystals increase the strength and
fracture re...
COMPOSITION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

SiO3-59%-63%
K2O-10%-14%
Al2O3-17%-21%
CeO3-0.1%
Na3O-3.5%-6.5%
BaO-0-1.5%
B2O3-0.1%
CaO-...
TECHNIQUE
• Restoration is first waxed up and invested using
the lost wax process.
• Ingots are softened before being pres...
Advantages
• Lack of metal or opaque ceramic core
• Moderate flexural strength [similar to that
of Optec HSP]
• Excellent ...
Disadvantages
• Potential for fracture in posterior region.
• Need for special laboratory equipment.

www.indiandentalacad...
PROPERTIES
•
•
•
•

Bending fatigue strength:200MPa.
Marginal gap width:50 microns.
Flexural strength:220MPa.
Marginal int...
INDICATION
• Inlaysonlays
• Veneers.
• Full coverage crowns.

www.indiandentalacademy.com
IPS EMPRESS 2
• Principle:
•
increasing the strength of the
material without compromising its
transluency.
• High strength...
MATERIAL
• Schwieger et al developed a highly
crystalline [>60%] microstructure of
densely arranged lithium disilicate cry...
• This hinders crack propogation to elevate
fracture toughness and flexural strength.
• In addition to lithium disilicate ...
COMPOSITION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

SiO3-57-80%
Al2O3-0-5%
La2O3-0.1-6%
MgO-0-5%
ZnO-0-8%
K2O –0-13%
Li2O3-11-19%
P2O3-0-11%
Pi...
Layering ceramic
• Sintered glass ceramics.
• Supplied in powder form- dentin
,incisal,transparent.
• Their crystalline ph...
COMPOSITION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

SiO3
-45-70%
Al2O3
-5-22%
P2O3
-0.5-6.5%
K2O
-3-9%
Na2O
-4-13%
CaO
-0-11%
F
-0.1-2.5%
PIGMENT...
Indication
• Anterior and posterior crowns and bridges.

www.indiandentalacademy.com
ALCERAM
• MATERIAL:
•
Aluminium oxide and magnesium oxidereact to form magnesium aluminate spinel
(MgAl2O4).
• Magnesium a...
COMPOSITION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Al2O3
Al2O3
BaO-SiO2-Al2O3 GLASS FRIT
(58%BaO,42%SiO2,5%Al2O3)
MgO
Edger plastic kaolin
Cal...
• Calcium stearate and accrawax- binder and
lubricant.
• Barium glass frit and silicon resin –forms glass
phase.
• On temp...
• Cerestore coping is placed on the master die
and a suitable aluminous veneer porcelain is
used to complete the crown

ww...
PROPERTIES
•
•
•
•

Density-2.80gcc
Flexural strength-125MPa
Compressive strength-450MPa
Low coefficiet of thermal expansi...
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Metal free ceramics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Metal free ceramics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. METAL FREE CERAMICS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Of all materials used in dentistry to restore the natural dentition, ceramics have by far the best optical properties to mimic tooth structure in appearance translucency, light transmission and biocompactibility give dental ceramics highly desirable esthetic properties. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. All ceramic inlays,onlays,veneers and crowns are some of the most esthetically pleasing prosthodontic restoration. Because there is no metal to block light transmission, they resemble natural tooth structure better in terms of color and translucency than any other restorative option. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. DEFINITION • ACCORDING TO GPT 1999: • CERAMIC IS DEFINED AS: • Compound of one or more metal with a nonmetallic element, usually oxygen.They are formed of chemical and biochemical stable substances that are strong, hard,brittle and inert non conductors of thermal and www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. PORCELAIN • Is defined as a ceramic material formed of infusible elements joined by lower fusing material. • Most dental porcelain are glasses and used in fabrication of teeth for dentures, pontics, metal ceramic restoration ,crowns and other restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. COURTESY:ANUSAVICE • CERAMIC is a compound of metallic and nonmetallic elements. • Metals:Aluminium, Calcium, Lithium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Tin, Titanium,Zirconium. • Nonmetals:Silicon, Boron, Fluoride, Oxygen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • They may be used as a single structural component .e.g:CAD CAM inlay • Or as one of the several layers.e.g: Fabrication of ceramic based prosthesis. • ALL PORCELAIN AND GLASSCERAMICS ARE CERAMIC ,BUT NOT ALL CERAMICS ARE PORCELAINS OR GLASS CERAMICS. www.indiandentalacademy.com •
  8. 8. CONTINUED…. • They are formulated to provide one or more of the following properties: • 1.CASTABILITY 6.COLOR • 2.MOLDABILITY 7.MACHINABILITY • 3.INJECTABILITY 8.ABRASION RESISTANCE • 4.TRANSLUCENCY 9.STRENGTH • 5.OPACITY 10.TOUGHNESS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. HISTORY OF DENTAL CERAMICS • Dental technology existed in ETRURIA as early as 700 BC and during Roman 1st century BC but remained undeveloped until 18th century. • Material used for artificial teeth in 18th century is • 1.Human Teeth. • 2.Animal teeth carved to the size &shape • of human teeth. 3.Ivory. • 4.Mineral or porcelain teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Continued… • DISADVANTAGE: • 1.Human teeth-costly& scarce • 2.Animal teeth-unstable towards the corrosive agents in saliva • 3.ivory&bone- contains pores & are easily stained. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Continued…  Mineral teeth or porcelain dentures greatly accelerated as an end to the usage of human and animal teeth.  Feldspathic dental porcelain were adapted from European triaxial white ware formulations( clayquartz- feldspar). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Continued… • After decades of effort, Europeans mastered the manufacture of transluenct porcelain, comparable to the porcelain of chinese by 1720.  The use of feldspar to replace lime & high firing temperature are the both critical developments. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Continued… • 1723,Enameling of denture metal bases was described by PIERRE FAUCHARD in LE CHIRURGIEN DENTISLE. He was credited with recognizing the potential of porcelain enamels and initiating research with porcelain to imitate color of teeth & gingival tissues. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Continued… • 1774, a parsian apothecary ALEXIS DUCHATEAU with assistance of parisian dentist NICHOLAS DUBOIS DE CHEMANT continually improved porcelain formulations.  In England DUDOIS DE CHEMANT procured supplies from collobration with JOSIAH WEDGWOOD. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Continued… • 1808, GIUSEPPANGELO FONZI of paris introduced individually formed porcelain teeth that contained embedded platium pins known as TERRO-METALLIC INCORRUPTIBLES and their esthetic &mechanical versatility provided major advance in prosthetic dentistry. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Continued… • Improvement in transluency&color of dental porcelains were realised through developments that ranged from formulations of ELIAS WILDMAN in 1838 to vaccum firing in 1949 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Continued… • Glass inlays(not porcelain)were introduced by HERBST in 1882 with crushed glass frit fired molds made of plaster&asbestos. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Continued… • In 1885 LOGAN resolved the retention problem encountered between porcelain crowns&post that were commonly made of wood by fusing the porcelain to platinum post-RICHMOND CROWN. • These crowns represent the first innovative use of metal ceramic system www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Continued… • In 1886, combining burnished platinum foil as a sub structure with the high controlled heat of a gas furnance,LAND introduced first fused feldspathic porcelain inlays&crowns. • All porcelain crown system despite of its esthetic advantages failed to gain widespread development until alumina was used as reinforcing paste. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Continued… • A noteworthy development occurred in 1950 with addition of leucite to porcelain formulation that elevated the coefficient of thermal expansion to allow fusion to certain gold alloys to form complete crowns and FPD. • Refinements in metal ceramic systems dominated dental ceramic research during the 35years that resulted in improved www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Continued… • In 1965 McLEAN&HUGHES developed a PJC with a inner core of aluminous porcelain containing 40% to 50% alumina crystals to block the propagation of cracks. • The inner core is layered with conventional porcelain resulting in a restoration approx twice as strong as traditional PJC.But the structure is still insufficient for anything but anterior crowns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Continued… • Fracture resistance of the aluminous PJC was improved by a technique in which the platinum matrix is left in completed restoration. • The platinum foil decreased the amount of light transmitted which diminishes somewhat esthetic advantage of all ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Continued… • The introduction of a “shrink-free”all ceramic crown system(cerestore,coors biomedical)& castable glass ceramic crown system(dicor,dentsply) in 1980s provided additional flexibility for achieving esthetic results. • Advanced ceramic systems introduced with innovative processing methods stimulated renewed interest in all ceramic prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. DEFINITION • ACCORDING TO GPT 1999, • ALL CERAMIC is defined as ceramic restoration that restores a clinical crown without a supporting metal substructure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. COURTESY:ANUSAVICE • PJC: • One of the first types of all ceramic crown made from a low strength aluminous core porcelain & veneering porcelain(with matching thermal contraction coefficient) without the use of a supporting metal substrate except in some instances for a thin platinum foil. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. • CJC: • An all ceramic crown without a supporting metal substrate that is made from a ceramic with a substantial crystal content(>50 vol%)from which its higher strength and/or toughness is derived.These crowns are distinguished from PJC that are made with low strength core material,usually aluminous porcelain or www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. DISADVANTAGES OF METAL CERAMICS • Metal margin exposure • To achieve better esthetics,the facial margin of an anterior restoration is often placed subgingivally which increases the potential for periodontal diseases. • Risk of over contouring-metal 0.5mm and the rest is ceramic material. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. • Because of glass like nature of veneering material they are subjected to brittle fracture. • Metal bases affect the esthetics of porcelain by decreasing the light transmission through the restoration and by creating metal ion discoloration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. • Fit of long span bridges may be affected by the creep of the metal during successive bakes of porcelain. • Porcelain made in metal ceramic technique are more liable to devitrify which can produce cloudiness. • Some patients have allergic reaction or other sensitives to metal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. • These drawbacks have prompted the development of new all ceramic system that do not require metal,yet have high strength and precission fit of cerametal system. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. STRENGTH • Strength is greatly influenced by presence of surface flaws acting as stress initiators&causing widening&propagation of micro cracks through material from the surface.Therefore dental porcelain is much weaker in tension than in compressive and is prone to brittle fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. • Strength is influenced by static fatigue which is generally caused by a stress dependent chemical reaction between water vapour &surface flaw in the restoration.This causes flaw to grow to critical dimension,allowing spontaneous crack propagation, resulting in a fracture with comparatively little occlusal loading particularly over long periods. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. CLASSIFICATION OF DENTAL CERAMICS • • • • • • COURTESY:ANUSAVICE Dental ceramics are classified according to 1.Types 2.Uses 3.Processing methods 4.By substructure material • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. TYPES 1.Feldspathic porcelain 2.Leucite reinforced porcelain 3.Aluminous porcelain 4.Alumina 5.Glass infiltrated alumina 6.Glass infiltrated spinel 7.Glass ceramic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. USES • • • • • • Denture teeth Metal ceramics Veneers Inlays Crowns Anterior bridges www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. PROCESSING METHODS • 1.Sintering • 2.Casting • 3.Machining www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. SUBSTRUCTURE MATERIAL • • • • • 1.Cast metal 2.Swaged metal 3.Glass ceramic 4.CAD CAM porcelain 5.Sintered ceramic core www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. COURTESY:SHILLINGBURG • According to firing temperature: • High fusing:-1,290-1,370 C(2,3502,500F) • Medium fusing:-1,090-1,260 C(2,0002,300F) • Low fusing :-870-1,065C(1,6001,980F)s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. HIGH FUSING PORCELAIN • Is used for manufacture of porcelain teeth,also for some extent for PJC. • Composition: • FELDSPAR-70% to 90%-matrix • QUARTZ-11% to 18 %-refractory skeleton. • KAOLIN-1% to 10%-acts as a binder when porcelain is ‘green’ or unfired. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. LOW AND MEDIUM FUSING PORCELAIN • Manufactured by a process called fritting. • Raw constituents of porcelain are fused,quenched&ground back to an extremely fine powder. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. INTEREST FOR ALL CERAMIC CROWNS • It has more potential for more esthetic anterior restoration. • In PFM,alloys structure produces opaque appearance and metal margin are often visible. • Selection of alloys for PFM is confusing issue. • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. • High gold content alloys are relatively expensive. • Risk of metal allergy, bond failure,porcelain discoloration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION • • • • • Powder slurry/sintered porcelain. Castable ceramics. Pressable ceramics. Infiltrated glass ceramic. Machinable ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. POWDER SLURRY PORCELAINS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. • Products are supplied as powder to which ceramist adds distilled water to produce a slurry,which is build up in layers on a die material to form the contours of restoration.The powder is available in different shades and translucencies and are supplied with characterstics stains and glazes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. EXAMPLES • OPTEC H.S.P(JENERIC/PENTRON) • DUCERAM L.F.C(DUCERA INC) • VITA HI-CERAM(VITA ZAHNFABRIK) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. OPTEC H.S.P(HIGH STRENGTH PORCELAIN) • Leucite reinforced feldspathic porcelain • The manufacturer disperses the leucite crystals in a glassy matrix by controlling their nucleation and crystal growth during the initial production of porcelain powder. • The leucite crystals added to the glass base are 10microns in size and its concentration is 50 to 60 wt%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Body and incisal porcelain are pigmented to provide desired shade&translucency. • Greater strength so no core required. • Leucite and glass matrix fused at 1020 deg C. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. ADVANTAGES • • • • • 1. Lack of metal or opaque substructure. 2.Good transluency. 3.Moderate flexural strength. 4.No special laboratory equipment needed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. • 5.Two and a half times stronger than conventional porcelains. • 6.It transmits,reflects&refracts light in the same manner as natural teeth ideal for laminate veneers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. DISADVANTAGES • Porcelain margin inaccuracies caused by porcelain sintering shrinkage. • Potential to fracture in posterior teeth. • Increased leucite content leads to in vitro wear of opposing teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. DUCERAM L.F.C • Composition: amorphous glass containing hydroxyl ions. • Manufacturer claims that this noncrystalline structure has greater density,higher flexural strength,greater fracture resistance and lower hardness than feldspathic porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. • High flexural strength results from an ion exchange mechanism of hydroxyl ions which is said to also promote a healing of surface micro cracks. • Decreased hardness is due to absence of leucite crystals. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. PROPERTIES • Flexural strength-110 Mpa • Hardness close to natural teeth due to absence of leucite. • Opalescence of natural teeth can be reproduced. • Fluorescence is very close to natural teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. ADVANTAGES • • • • • Excellent marginal adaptation. No special equipment required. Allow modification by repeated firing. Abrasion rate close to that of natural teeth. Good esthetic results. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. INDICATION • Ceramic inlays. • Veneers. • Full contour crowns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. CONTRA INDICATION • Masking grossly discolored teeth. • When aiming for high fracture resistance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. VITA HICERAM • MATERIAL: • Higher content of aluminium oxide/aluminium oxide reinforced. • It consists of 50% of aluminium crystals in a matrix of low fusing glass of matching thermal expansion. • Aluminous core porcelain are twice stronger than regular porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. MERITS • Highly accurate margins. • Higher melting points and greater stability. • For both anterior and posterior crown veneers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. CASTABLE CERAMICS • These products are supplied as solid ceramic ingots which are used for fabrication of restorations using lost wax and centrifugal casting technique.The restoration is either covered by conventional feldspathic porcelain or is stained to obtain proper shading and characterisation of final restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. • EXAMPLE: • Dicor(corning glass,Dentsply)micaceous glass ceramic. • Dicor plus-Dicor coping with compatible veneering porcelain. • Cerapearl(Bioceram,Kyocera)Hydroxyapatite is a main crystalline phase. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. DICOR • Dicor castable glass ceramic is one of the pyoceram ceramics manufactured by STOOKEY of the corning glassware in 1978. • Dicor is the first commercially available castable ceramic material for dental use. • Present system was introduced by PETER ADAIR and DAVID GROSSMAN in 1984. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. • It is a composite materials of a glassy matrix phase and a crystal phase www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. COMPOSITION • • • • • SiO2-45%-70%w/w K2O-20%w/w MgO-3%-13%w/w MgF2-4%-9% Fluoride acts as a nucleating agent which aids the growth of crystalline phase leading to growth of 0.5-2 microns small tetrasilicic crystals and it improves fluidity of molten www.indiandentalacademy.com glass.
  65. 65. • Al2O3 and ZrO2-minor amountsincorporated for durability and fluorescing agent for esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. MATERIAL • Dicor restoration is made by investing a wax pattern and casting by last wax process. • Cast crown is a clear glass that must be heat treated to form a crystalline phase composed of tetrasilicic fluoromica(K2Mg5SiO8O20F4) which provides fracture resistance and strength(Hoekstra 1986). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. • Crystallisation procedure takes place during heating the reinvested crown for 6hrs at 1070 C – causes the growth of microscopic plate like crystals of crysyalline material(mica)in the glass matrix. • This crystal nucleation and crystal growth is known as ceramming. • It forms 45 vol %-glass matrix, 55 vol %tetrasilica fluoro mica crystals.s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. • This causes mica to form a “STRONG HOUSE OF CARDS”structure which makes fracture propagation especially equally difficult in all direction. • It is highly transluescent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. CREATION OF CAST GLASS CERAMIC RESTORATION • Full anatomic wax up. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. • Casting to a glassy state. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. • Ceramming to a crystalline glass ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. • Applying external colorants. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. SURFACE REACTION • Between investment material&glass leads to an exchange of ions between the two as a result of high temperature&long reaction time. • Glass releases potassium ions(k ions)&takes up a calcium ions . It loses fl ions from its surface. • This leads to a composition at the glass surface that is different from internal composition of the glasses. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. • The outer skin layer on dicor ceramic contains needle like crystals of the silicate enstatite(MgSiO3) oriented perpendicular to the surface –ceram layer and is the site of considerable residual porosity. • This weakend surface layer reduces the significantly the overall strength of the material. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. • Characterisation of crown is achieved by surface glaze. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. PROPERTIES • 1.Strength:-Crystalline structure of this material lessens the likelihood of crack propagation because the lattice structure is able to absorb compressive forces. • 2.Abrasiveness:-The hardness coefficient& wear characteristic is as same as enamel. • Cast ceramic-362KHN • Enamel-343 KHN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. • 3.Light absorptive refraction:• Glass ceramics refracts 75% of entity light because of its organised crystalline structure which a refractive index similar to that of enamel which guides the light deep into the ceram. • It absorbs light from other teeth& filling material creating a “Chameleon effect”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. • Cast glass ceramic are radiolucent & allow radiographic examination of marginal integrity,extreme thickness of bases & podt & cores. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. • 4.Compactibility:• It exhibition less surface plaque accumulation than enamel , cementum & any other restoration material. • fluoride content inhibition bacterial colonisation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. • 5.Marginal adaptation:• More consisten in terms of fit than gold crowns(Malament&Grossman 1992). • Thermal expansion of cast glass ceramic is close to that of natural enamel.This causes similar expansion & contraction during normal temperature fluctuation,thus maintaining a good marginal seal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. • 6.Thermal conductivity:• Low thermal conductivity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. ADVANTAGES • 1.Last wax-Casting fabrication procedure/technique allow to easy morphology control. • 2.Fit of restoration is excellent. • 3.wearing of opposing occlusion is predicted to less than that of conventional porcelain. • 3.Fluctural strength is greater than conventional. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. • 4.Marginal porcelain opening is less when compared to McCrown. • Dicor-30-60mm • Metal Ceramic Crown-62-65mm • 5.Glazed proximal surface are very smooth &resistent to plaque accumulation • 6.Good esthetics & transluency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. DISADVANTAGES • 1.Special equipment & cost. • 2.The process is technique sensitive. • 3.When colorant in surface stain, any grinding on the restoration leads to anesthetic opaque white areas. • 4.High failures rate in posterior region of mouth. • 5.Greater bulk in some cases decreases the chameleon effect &esthetic results. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. INDICATION • 1.Anterior porcelain J C. • 2.Inlays , onlays ,3/4 crown. • 3.Partial veneers www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. CONTRA INDICATION • 1.Clinical crown length in short-it would compromise resistance & retention of the preparation. • 2.FPD. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. DICOR PLUS CERAMIC • Because of esthetic limitation-venering cutback Dicor coping feldaspathic porcelain was developed with intrifuging name”Willi’s Glass”. • It provided perspective to recent introduction of Dicor plus ceramic(Dentsply international). • It is a compactible veneering porcelain for fabricating “Willi’s Glass crowns”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. CERAPEARL(KYOCERA) • It is CaOP2O5MgOSiO2 glass ceramic or calcium phosphate glass similar to hydroxyapatite of the enamel. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Composition • CaOP2O5-aid in glass formalisation.It is the main ingredient to form hydroxyapatite crystals. • MgOCaO-covers viscosity • SiO2 with P2O5-forms matrix www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Properties • 1.It melts at 1460 C & casted which has an amorphous microstructure and is reheated at 870 C for 1 hr-crystalline oxyapatite. • 2.It is unstable & when exposed to moisture forms crystalline hydroxyapatite. • 3.It is similar to enamel providing superior mechanical strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. INFILTRATED GLASS CERAMIC • These are glass infiltrated core ceramics.This involves slipcasting technique for making core and the contours of the restoration are obtained by individual layering & staining technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. • Example: Inceram (vita zahnfabrik) • Alumina • Ziremia • Spinell www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. INCERAM ALUMINA • Inceram was evolved by research by Dr.Mickael Sadoun in 1985 using alumina as core material & was manufactured & marketed by Vita Zahnfabrik,Germany. • Inceram belongs to a class of materials known as interpenetrating phase composites. • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. • They contain atleast 2 phases that are interwined or extend continously from internal to external surface. • They posess improved mechanical & physical properties compared with individual components. • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. • Have improved sterngth & fracture resistance because a crack must pass through alternate layers of both components. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Material • A suspension of finely grounded materialalumina(slip) is mixed to a thin,creamy,consistency,is brushed onto the die in a method slipcasting. • Water is removed via the capillary action of porous gypsum which packs the particles into a rigid network.Initial grain size –3microns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. • It is fired at a temperature rise of approx 20 C /min to 1120 C for 2 hrs. • This causes approx of particles with minimal compaction and minimal shrinkage(minimal sintering) of alumina forming a porous network. • It has chalky consistency and still easy to process. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. • Lathanum alumino silicate La(Al2O3 SiO2) glass is used to infiltrate the pores by capillary action at high temperature. • Veneered with compactabile feldspathic porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Properties • Flexural strength:-600 Mpa. • Infused alumina core is 2.5 times stronger than glass ceramic and feldspathic porcelain. • Posess greater compressive strength than IPS empress but less than metal ceramic restorations. • Fracture toughness-4.7 Mpa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Advantages • Lack of metal substructure. • Very high flexural strength. • Excellent fit. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. Disadvantages • Opacity of core. • Unsuitable for conventional acid etching. • Need for specialised equipment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. INCERAM ZIRCONIA • PRINCIPLE: • Strengthening is achieved by incorporating a crystalline material that is capable of undergoing a change in crystal structure when placed under stresess & provides higher strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. • Material incorporated is 33% zirconia(partially stabilized zirconia). • 1.To improve flexural strength,fracture toughness and fatigue resistance. • 2.The energy required for transformation of PSZ is taken from energy that allows the crack to propagate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Properties • Flexural strength is 700MPa • Greater strength-can be used for posterior bridges. • Moderate transluency. • Biocompactible and good tissue response. • Fracture toughness is 6.8MPa. • Refractive index of PSZ > than surrounding glass matrix. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. INCERAM SPINELL • A second generation material based on inceram technique. • A primary difference is a change in composition to produce a more translucent core. • Porous core is fabricated from magnesium – alumina after sintering.It has special crystalline structure referred to as ‘SPINEL’[magnesium aluminate,MgAl2O4]. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. • Originally magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide were mixed in a ratio of 1:1 and transformed to spinel at temp above 1600 C. • Porous spinel is secondarily infused with glass which produces a more translucent substructure upon which vitadur alpha is placed to form final restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Properties • Weaker but more translucent than the alumina core-recommended for esthetically challenging single unit anterior restoration. • Flexural strength=350 Mpa. • Fracture toughness=2.7 Mpa • Acid resistant,chemical stability,low electrical conductivity,high transluency and biocompactible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. MACHINABLE CERAMICS • These products are supplied as ingots in various shades & are milled into desired form.These machine restorations can be stained & glazed to obtain desired characterisation. • They are 2 types:• 1.CADCAM-Computer aided designing computer aided milling. • Example: CEREC(sirconia) • Ivoclar proCAD(Ivoclar) • Dicor MGC(Dentsply) www.indiandentalacademy.com • 2.Copy milling:Celay(michrono technologies)
  109. 109. CADCAM CERAMIC • A machinable ceramic material formulated for the production of inlays and crowns through the use of a computer aided design,computer aided machining process. • Eg:Cerec,cerec2,cerec3,cerec scan,cerec inlab,procera. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. History • Development of CADCAM systems for the dental profession began in • 1970s with Duret in France,Altschuler in USA, Mormann and Brandestini in Switzerland. • Rekow-1987 • William-1987 • Rekow et al-1992-93 • Rice & Mecholsky-1997 • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Objectives • To eliminate traditional impressional methods. • To design, with aid of the computer, the future restoration is accordance with the preparation, the function and natural anatomy. • To produce the restoration chairside. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. • To machine the restoration by rotating device,sono or electro-erosion,laser etc.. • To improve restoration qualities-mechanical resistance,marginal fit,surface qualities and esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. Advantages • Negligible porosity in CADCAM core ceramics. • Freedom from making impression. • Need for only single appointment. • Good patient acceptance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. • Need for costly equipments. • Lack of computer controlled processing support for occlusal adjustment. • Technique sensitive. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. Types of CADCAM • Direct : Fully integrated CADCAM devices for chairside restorative approach. • CADCAM stations are located at the dental office. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. • Indirect method: It consists of several modules with at least distinctive CAD&CAM stations. • The impression(optical) is taken in the dental office where the CAD operation is carried out.Data are transmitted to central CAM station for restoration manufacturing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. • Optical impression is taken in the dental office, collected information is then transmitted to a central station where CAD&CAM modules operate. • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. • Because of overall dimension and cost of the CADCAM machines, they are usually not located in a dental office,but more likely in a different treatment places converge. • eg:Duret system • procera[Nobel biocare] • cicero system[elephant industries] • president DCS system[DCS dental]. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. DIRECT CADCAM System • CEREC system has been marketed for several years with the improved CEREC2 introduced in mid-1990’s and upgraded to CEREC3 in 2000. • The equipment consists of a computer integrated imaging and milling system, with the restoration designed on the computer screen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. MATERIALS USED • Vita Mark II [Vident]:contains sanidine[KALSi3O8] as a major crystalline phase with a glassy matrix. • Dicor MGC:is a mica based machinable glass ceramic that contain 70 vol% of crystalline phase. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. • The unique “HOUSE OF CARDS”microstructure found in Dicor MGC is due to interlocking of the small platelet shaped mica crystals with an average size of 1-2 microns. • It leads to multiple crack deflection and ensures a greater strength than leucite containing ceramics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. • ProCad[ivoclar]: is a leucite containing ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. • Vita Inceram Blocks [Vita Zahnfabrik]: • SPINEL blanks: Spinel are used for to obtain an esthetically appealing, translucent ceramic structures. • ALUMINA blanks:this has the advantage of the synthetic corundum that is prepared from bauxite in electric melting furnance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. • ZIRCONIA blanks: this combines the fracture toughness of the metastable tetragonal zirconium oxide referred to an ceramic steel. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. LIMITATION IN CEREC • The cerec system was acceptable with regard to the longetivity of adhesively bonded restoration , but the amount of manual correction to make material fit was too high. • Poor marginal fit of restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. • Diamond disc was only tool for cutting.Hence it was important to incorporate an additional diamond cutting instrument. • Lack of sophistication in machining of occlusal surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. • Dentist’s required intensive training for CAD.So it was important to achieve easy and user friendly software for CAD. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. CEREC 2:Improvisations in cerec 2 • Improvisations were made in CEREC2 such as • 1.CAD module was implemented with a second form milling tool(a cylindrical,diamond bur) which provides six milling axes instead of three. • 2.It has enchanced control software. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. • 3.New camera provides more data with greater accuracy with a resolution from 2550 microns. • 4.It is capable of processing much more complicated restoration form & roughly developing occlusal surface. • 5.Marginal adaptation of CEREC2 is improved. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. CEREC3 • Software still easy & user friendly which uses window as operating systems. • Precise restoration. • External & internal measuring. • Rapid production. • Imaging unit & milling unit can be linked via various means. • Supported with online helps & design. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131. Advantages • • • • Time saving-one or two appointments required. Time taken for making optical impression is 5 sec. Wear hardness similar to enamel. Less fracture due to the usage of single homogenous block with negligible porosity. • Excellent polish & improved esthetics. • Good occlusal morphology. • Good patient acceptance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. INDIRECT CADCAM • Eg: Cerec scan,cerec inlab,procera system. • CEREC SCAN: • Inclusive of both scaning & milling device with laptop imaging device. • • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. • CEREC INLAB: • Consists of a compact milling unit with a in built scanner.It produces more precision restoration.Software runs as WINDOW 98. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. • Procerra system: • Introduced by Dr.Matts Anderson from Nobel Biocare. • Involves an industrial CAD/CAM process. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. Materials used • Involves(densely sintered high purity inmdustrial aluminum oxide) core combined with a (low fusing veneering porcelain) fabricated by the pressed powder technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. Technique Specification • Computer aided designed copings of 0.2mm thickness is made from dense sintered industrial aluminium oxide with is translucent & tooth colored. • Final morphology constructed with aluminium ceramic with matched thermal expansion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. Advantages • • • • • • Good clinical perfomance. Good marginal adaptation. Metal free & precision fit. Reduced opposing wear. Natural translucency & biocompactibility. Enhanced esthetic & strength www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. Indication • All single crown anterior & posterior for modified implant copings for direct cementation. • Where minimum crown thickness only possible & light transmission through to the gingiva for good esthetics is critical. • In situation where good moisture control is difficult & adhesive luting technique is contraindicated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. Copy milling • A process of machining a structure using a device that traces the surface of a master metal, ceramic or polymer pattern & transfers the traced spatial positions to a cutting station where a blank is cut or ground in a manner similar to a key-cutting procedure. • Eg:Celay www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. CELAY Systems(Mikrona technologies) • Developed by Dr.Stefan I.Eidenbenz at the university of Zurich in 1994. • It is a precision copy milling machine that uses similar types of ceramic materials,but is not computer driven. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. Technique Specification • Based on a mechanical device that is used to trace the surface of a prefabricated pattern of the designed restoration made from a blue resin based composite which is produced either directly on die made from impression. • Replica is mounted on one side of celay system(scanning side)and a ceramic block is mounted on the milling side. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. • Uses sequential milling procedure proceeding from course to fine milling bur. • Restoration are milled in 15-20min with internal & occlusal surfaces fully formed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. Materials Used • Vitablocks similar to CEREC vitablocks. • Inceram alumina blocks are used to fabricate single and multiple unit. • Inceram cores for production of all ceramic crowns & bridges. • Inceram porous alumina is milled with the celay system & subsequently infused with glass before application of the overlying porcelain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. ADVANTAGES • Marginal accuracy seem to be good, a little better than the cerec system. • Good patient acceptance. • Less adjustment work. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. HOT PRESSED, INJECTION MOULDED CERAMIC • They are supplied as ingots. • These products are melted at high temperature and injected into a moulded using lost wax process. • They can be made into full contours or used as a substrate for conventional feldspathic porcelain buildup or layering technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. • Example: • IPS Empress I,II [Ivoclar vivadent[ • OPC • Alceram[ cerestore, innotek dental corporation]. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  147. 147. IPS EMPRESS • Leucite reinforced glass ceramic material [40%-50%] • Leucite crystals increase the strength and fracture resistance of the feldspathic glass matrix. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. COMPOSITION • • • • • • • • • • SiO3-59%-63% K2O-10%-14% Al2O3-17%-21% CeO3-0.1% Na3O-3.5%-6.5% BaO-0-1.5% B2O3-0.1% CaO-0.5%-2.8% TiO3-0.05% PIGMENT-0.5-1% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. TECHNIQUE • Restoration is first waxed up and invested using the lost wax process. • Ingots are softened before being pressed into a mould under pressure of 0.4MPa at 1150 C. • Pressure maintained for 20 min during which time the tetragonal leucite crystals are dispersed throughout the restoration, giving a 40% concentration by volume. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. Advantages • Lack of metal or opaque ceramic core • Moderate flexural strength [similar to that of Optec HSP] • Excellent fit and esthetics. • Increased durability and wear compactibility • High transluency and natural esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. Disadvantages • Potential for fracture in posterior region. • Need for special laboratory equipment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. PROPERTIES • • • • Bending fatigue strength:200MPa. Marginal gap width:50 microns. Flexural strength:220MPa. Marginal integrity:<50 microns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. INDICATION • Inlaysonlays • Veneers. • Full coverage crowns. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. IPS EMPRESS 2 • Principle: • increasing the strength of the material without compromising its transluency. • High strength of IPS Empress2 replaces older IPS Empress. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. MATERIAL • Schwieger et al developed a highly crystalline [>60%] microstructure of densely arranged lithium disilicate crystals of size 0.5-5 microns were uniformly bonded in a glassy matrix. • It is composed of homogenously shaped elongated lithium disilicate crystals arranged in a interlocking structure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. • This hinders crack propogation to elevate fracture toughness and flexural strength. • In addition to lithium disilicate ,lithium ortho phosphate occurs as a secondary crystal phase measuring 0.1-0.3 microns which are comparatively small. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. COMPOSITION • • • • • • • • • SiO3-57-80% Al2O3-0-5% La2O3-0.1-6% MgO-0-5% ZnO-0-8% K2O –0-13% Li2O3-11-19% P2O3-0-11% Pigment-0-8%m www.indiandentalacademy.com
  158. 158. Layering ceramic • Sintered glass ceramics. • Supplied in powder form- dentin ,incisal,transparent. • Their crystalline phase consist of fluoroapatite. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  159. 159. COMPOSITION • • • • • • • • SiO3 -45-70% Al2O3 -5-22% P2O3 -0.5-6.5% K2O -3-9% Na2O -4-13% CaO -0-11% F -0.1-2.5% PIGMENT-0.3% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  160. 160. Indication • Anterior and posterior crowns and bridges. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. ALCERAM • MATERIAL: • Aluminium oxide and magnesium oxidereact to form magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4). • Magnesium aluminate spinel occupies a greater volume than the combination of magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide, the resultant volume increase compensate for the firing shrinkage (starling et al). • Non shrink ceramics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. COMPOSITION • • • • • • • • • Al2O3 Al2O3 BaO-SiO2-Al2O3 GLASS FRIT (58%BaO,42%SiO2,5%Al2O3) MgO Edger plastic kaolin Calcium stearate Accrawax Silicone resin www.indiandentalacademy.com -43.29% -17.32% -12.99% -8.66% -3.90% -0.86% -0.86% -12.12%
  163. 163. • Calcium stearate and accrawax- binder and lubricant. • Barium glass frit and silicon resin –forms glass phase. • On temperature over 1300 C the magnesium and some alumina combine to form spinel. • Crystal content of ceramic-70%-95% by body wt. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. • Cerestore coping is placed on the master die and a suitable aluminous veneer porcelain is used to complete the crown www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. PROPERTIES • • • • Density-2.80gcc Flexural strength-125MPa Compressive strength-450MPa Low coefficiet of thermal expansionbelow8*10-6 C. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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