Lesions of Lip/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Lesions of Lip/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
LESIONS OF LIP
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing Dental Education
• Lip lesions are a common presentation to the dentist.
There are vast number of lesions which can affect the
• These lesions are often benign , without significant
functional morbidity. However, owing to the prominent
placement of lips and their role in communication, lip
lesions can be alarming to patients.
• For these reasons the dentist has an important role in
recognizing, diagnosing, and treating the various types
of labial dermatoses that commonly present to the clinic.
• The lesions are arranged in four categories –coloured
lesions, ulcerative lesions, elevated lesions and
• Angular cheilitis, also called perleche, occurs only at the
commissures as a white, red or more often a red and white
• It is often seen bilaterally, and the major predisposing factor is a
decreased vertical dimension usually caused by the nonuse of
dentures or by chronic bone resorption under complete
• Vitamin B deficiencies, often blamed for this lesion, are a rare
cause. Patients who drool or have liplicking habits are at
increased risk, as are those undergoing radiation therapy or
• Other forms of candidiasis can also affect the labial mucosal
• A diffuse form of chronic candidiasis characterized by pain,
swelling, erythema with focal ulcerations, and crusting is called
• It represents a secondary candidal infection superimposed on
areas of trauma from mechanical or solar factors.
• Candida infections of the lip are successfully treated by
antifungal medications such as nystatin, ketoconazole,
fluconozole, or imidazole derivatives, unless the patient has
underlying medical problems predisposing to fungal infections.
• Microbiologic studies of angular cheilitis also reveal the
presence of Staphylococcus aureus in 60% of cases.
• Antibiotics may be necessary in these patients.
Squamous Cell Papilloma
• The papilloma, a common, benign growth, may occur on the
lips but is more frequently encountered within the oral cavity.
• The lesion is classically an exophytic papillary mass, either
white or a normal mucosal color
• Papillomas occur as single lesions or more commonly as
• They may be sessile or pedunclated and may occur at any age
but are most common in adults.
• They are not premalignant but do not spontaneously regress.
• Studies have identified human papillomavirus (HPV) in
more than 50% of oral papillomas.
• Viral subtype HPV-6 and HPV-11 are usually identified
by in situ hybridization, PCR, Immunohistochemistry.
• Differential diagnosis
– On clinical examination the papilloma is almost identical to
verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum, condyloma latum,
and even an early verrucous or papillary squamous cell
– Microscopic evaluation should be performed on all
• Verruca vulgaris is the common wart of the skin; however, it
may also occur in the oral cavity, often the result of self-
• Its cause is HPV-2, HPV-4, or HPV-40.
• Identification of HPV is necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
Verruca vulgaris should be suspected when multiple papillary,
wartlike lesions are found on the oral mucosa of children,
especially those with verrucae on their hands.
• Surgery is treatment of choice; however, some may regress.
• Condylomas are divided into two types
– Condyloma acuminatum of viral origin (HPV-6,11,16 and 18)
– Condyloma latum, which is a lesion of secondary syphilis.
• Both may be sexually transmitted and may occur on the lips.
• Diagnosis is determined by an accurate history and microscopic
Carcinoma of Lip
1. Tobacco (Pipe Smoking)
Heat, Trauma from pipe stem
3. Poor oral hygiene
4. Sharp cusps of teeth
• Elderly males
• Lower lip > Upper lip
• Begins on vermillion border on one side of the midline
• Commences as either
– Small area of thickening
– Induration & ulceration
– Irregularity of the surface
• Becomes crater like/ proliferative growth
• Slow to metastatize. Submental & Submaxillary nodes
Treatment & Prognosis
• Surgical excision
• Success of treatment depends on
- Size of the lesion
- Presence of metastatic lymph nodes
- Histologic grade of the tumor
Actinic Cheilosis (Actinic Chelitis)
• Lower lip alteration due to long term exposure to UV
• Light complexioned people with a tendency to sunburn
• Also known as Sailor’s Lip or Farmer’s Lip
• Seldom seen below 45 years
• Atrophy of the lower lip vermilion border, characterized
by pale surface and blotchy areas
• Blurring of the margin between the cutaneous portion
and vermilion zone is seen
• Chronic focal ulcerations develop later
• Atrophic epithelium
• Surgical excision
• Laser ablation
• Use of sunscreens
• Lichen planus, may also involve the labial mucosa.
• The lip lesions usually exhibit the typically white striations
( striae of Wickham), which are usually asymptomatic.
• The lesions may become erosive, red, and painful.
• If suspect lesions are noted on the lips, the patient should be
examined for intraoral lesions or skin lesions, especially on the
arms or legs, which help confirm the diagnosis.
• The conditions that must be differentiated from lichen planus
are lichenoid drug eruption, lupus erythematosus, graft-versus-
host disease, and actinic keratosis.
• Lupus may appear identical to lichen planus, complete with
striae; however, it more commonly occurs as a red area. Biopsy
with immunofluorescence studies is usually diagnostic.
• Lichenoid drug eruptions may also appear clinically and are
histologically identical to lichen planus.
• Many drugs and chemicals may cause these reactions, but the
most common appears to be nonsteroidal antiinflammatories,
thiazide diuretics, methyldopa, phenothiazines, and gold salts.
• If the offending medications or chemicals can be identified and
removed, the lesions may disappear in 3 to 4 weeks. Months
may be required in other cases.
• Lichenoid reactions to many dental materials have been
reported the most commonly implicated being mercury in dental
amalgams. Lesions may disappear after removal of the
• Actinic keratosis can be differentiated by the lack of other skin
or mucosal lesions; also, striae should not be present. Biopsy,
however, is the sure way to a correct diagnosis.
• The clinical lesions of graft-versus-host disease may be
identical to lichen planus. A history of an allogenic bone marrow
transplant should differentiate the two conditions.
Smokeless Tobacco Lesion
• Areas of the labial mucosa that come in direct contact with
smokeless tobacco products may develop hyperkeratosis,
dysplasia, and squamous cell or verrucous carcinoma
• This habit is of great concern to public health officials because
of the increasing numbers of youth who are becoming addicted
to smokeless tobacco and the future potential for oral cancers.
Cigarette Smoker's Lip
• Cigarette smoker's lip is a localized, usually well-defined, flat or
slightly elevated lesion of the lips that corresponds to the area
where the patient holds cigarettes.
• The lesion usually begins as a reddened area but becomes
more white with time. This lesion is usually seen in
neuropsychiatric patients as a result of thermal injury.
• A high percentage of patients also have burns on their fingers
corresponding to where they held their cigarettes. This should
be a diagnostic clue.
• Another aid is that the lesions are confined to the mucosal
aspect of the lip and almost never cross the vermilion border. It
is postulated that the patient's psychiatric medications increase
their pain threshold, thereby allowing the tissues to be burned.
• Lesions may involve one or both lips. Malignant transformation
Focal Epithelial hyperplasia
• Multiple nodular lesion with sessile base
• Commonly seen on lips, buccal mucosa, commisure,
• 1-5 mm in diameter
• Same color as adjacent mucosa
• Seen commonly in children 3-18 yrs
• Undergo spontaneous regression in 4-6 months
BROWN AND RED LESIONS
Lesion of melanocytic origin within mucosa and skin
Usually elevated, symmetric papule
Pigmentation usually uniformly distributed
Common on skin; unusual intraorally
Palate and gingiva most often involved
Most are intramucosal (“dermal”)
Blue nevi are deeply situated and are composed of spindled nevus cells.
Other variants are rare; junctional and compound nevi
Nevus cells are oval/round and are found in unencapsulated nests
Melanin production is variable.
Amalgam tattoo/foreign body
Mucosal melanotic macule
Excision of all pigmented oral lesions to rule out malignant
melanoma is advised.
Malignant transformation of oral nevi probably does not occur.
Labial & Oral melanotic macules
• Any age, single or multiple
• Small, flat, brown, black asymptomatic lesion of lip near midline
• 5 mm or less in diameter
• Oral macules are seen on gingiva, buccal mucosa and palate.
• H / F
– Variable thickness of epithelium
– Increased amount of melanin in basal layer
– Chronic inflammatory cells are seen
– No Treatment
The hemangioma is a benign proliferation of blood vessels that occurs in the
head and neck region in more than 50% of cases.
Most are congenital or occur at a young age and show limited growth potential.
Some lesions undergo spontaneous regression, which leads many to believe
that hemangiomas are not true neoplasms but rather hamartomas.
Some lesions have unlimited growth with extensive involvement of soft tissues
Some even lead to fatal hemorrhage.
• Common in Head & Neck region
• Uncommon in oral cavity
• AGE- early age.
• SEX:- F>M.
• SITE:- Lip, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate
• On clinical examination, hemangiomas appear as flat or
elevated, red or bluish lesions, which usually blanch under
• Seldom well circumscribed
• Readily compressible, fills slowly when released
• Central H.- in maxilla or mandible- honeycomb appearance
Treatment & Prognosis-
• Many hemangiomas regress spontaneously at early age
• Those occurring in older persons or those which do not regress are
– Radiation therapy
– Sclerosing agents- sodium morrhuate- injected into lesion
– CO2 snow
• Good prognosis
• Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
• Addison's disease
• Sturge-Weber syndrome
• Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia)
• Thrombocytopenic purpura
• Kaposi's sarcoma
• von Recklinghausen's disease (neurofibromatosis)
• Albright's syndrome
• Multiple brown or black lesions may occur with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,
von Recklinghausen's disease, Addison's disease, Albright's syndrome, and
hemochromatosis. Almost all of these may present with multiple macular
lesions; however, Addison's disease and hemochromatosis may have a
more diffuse pigmentation.www.indiandentalacademy.com
Hereditary intestinal polyposis
• Peutz-Jehgers syndrome, Intestinal polyposis with
– Pigmentation of lips and oral mucosa measuring 1-5 mm
– Buccal mucosa, gingiva and hard palate, mucosal surface of lips
– Intestinal polyps of small intestine, abdominal pain, minor
Addison 's disease
• Addison's disease is caused by adrenal cortical insufficiency
and is characterized by melanin pigmentation of the skin and
mucous membranes, anemia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,
lethargy, and hypotension.
• The pigmentation of the lips is usually multifocal but may be
• Pigmentations are seen on the buccal mucosa, gingiva, and
tongue, as well as the lips.
• These pigmentations may be the first manifestation of
• A biopsy is not diagnostic.
• Extremely rare congenital neurological and skin
• A variant of hemangioma
• Venous angioma of leptomeninges and
• Ipsilateral angiomatous lesions of face (sometimes
of skull, jaws & oral soft tissues)
• Capillary venous angiomas (or port-wine nevi) of skin
• Present at birth
• Exclusively confined to regions supplied by Trigeminal nerve
• Hemangioma like lesions may occur throughout the oral cavity
including the lips
• Intracranial convolutional calcifications
• Neurologic manifestations-
– convulsive disorders
– Spastic hemiplegia with/out mental retardation
• Neurosurgical treatment
• Anticonvulsant for convulsions
• Also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
• This is an inherited autosomal dominant condition characterized
by multiple small aneurysmal telangiectases of the skin and
• Bleeding from the lesions is common.
• Lesions appear to increase in number with age. In the oral
region the lips are one of the most frequently involved locations.
• There is no treatment, and if bleeding occurs, it may be difficult
• The hereditary nature of the disease is important in making a
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
• Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura indicates an autoimmune
disease characterized by antibody-mediated destruction of
• Significant bleeding may result from petechial or ecchymotic
• Splenectomy or systemic steroids are often curative
• Some cases spontaneously regress.
• ITP must be differentiated from secondary immune
thrombocytopenia associated with drug therapy, systemic lupus
erythematosus, and viral infections, including HIV.www.indiandentalacademy.com
• Etiology: Unknown
- Immunosuppression – believed to create an environment that
allows an opportunistic factor to cause Kaposi’s sarcoma
- HHV 8
- Reactive lesions.
1. Classical – Cutaneous multifocal blue-red nodule, slowly
increase in size and numbers
Oral – unusual, palate & gingiva
2. Lymphadenopathic – endemic to African Children, localized
or generalized enlargement of Lymph nodes
3. Immunosuppression- associated with renal transplant patient
4. AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma
- early sign of disease
- Early oral mucosal sarcomas are flat and slightly blue, red
or purple plaques
- Cervical Lymph node and Salivary gland – enlarged
• Traumatic ulcers are commonly found on the lips.
• Many occur in accidents or altercations, are self-inflicted
(facticial), or are caused by health care professionals
• The lower lip is most commonly involved.
• Aphthae commonly occur on the lips.
• Aphthae occur as a single ulcer or multiple ulcers of the
mucosal surface of the lips.
• They do not occur on the skin. This is in contrast to recurrent
herpes labialis, which is often found on the vermilion border or
skin surface of the lips.
• Aphthae of the lip are similar in appearance and behavior to
other intraoral locations. They are recurrent, with the intervals
between episodes varying from weeks to years.
• Most ulcers heal within 2 weeks. Healing may be accelerated
with the topical application of a corticosteroid.www.indiandentalacademy.com
• Aphthae are most commonly confused with herpes labialis.
• Herpes begins as groups of vesicles on the vermilion border or
skin, whereas aphthae begin as reddish mucosal macules that
undergo ulceration without vesiculation.
• Differentiation from other diseases and traumatic ulcers is best
accomplished by a history of recurrent lesions.
• In the absence of this history, a biopsy should be performed if
healing does not begin within 2 weeks.
• Herpes labialis (fever blister) is a recurrent or secondary
manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV).
• These lesions occur only in patients who have had primary
infections and have developed antibodies to HSV.
• Many factors appear to reactivate HSV and cause recurrent
lesions. Sun-light and trauma are major factors; however, fever,
hormonal influence, and emotional stress are also implicated.
• Lesions are most commonly located on the vermilion border of
the lip, with involvement of the skin and mucosa.
• Patients often have a tingling or burning sensation before
developing multiple small vesicles that are usually in small
groups. These vesicles ulcerate quickly and then are covered
by a crust. The lesions heal without scarring in 7 to 10 days.www.indiandentalacademy.com
ERYTHEMA MULTI FORME
• Erythema multiforme is an acute inflammatory dermatological
disorder that frequently involves skin, mucous membrane.
• Infections: Tuberculosis, Herpes simplex (I and II) infections,
Infectious mononucleosis, Histoplasmosis, etc.
• Drug Hypersensitivity: Barbiturates, Sulfonamides,
Phenylbutazone, Salicylates, Oral pills, etc.
• Hyperimmune Reactions: Due to the formation of antigen-
antibody complexes against the submucosal and dermal blood
• Miscellaneous Factor: Radiation therapy, Crohn's disease,
• Erythema multiforme frequently occurs between the age of
15 and 40 years and males are affected more often than
• Rapidly developing erythematous macules, papules,
vesicles or bullae, often appear symmetrically over the
hands and arms, legs and feet and face and neck, etc
• The classic dermal lesions of erythema multiforme which
often appear on the extremities are called "target", "iris" or
"bull's eye", etc.
• These dermal lesions consist of concentric erythematous
rings separated by rings of near normal color on the skin.
• Mucosal lesions of this disease also consist of macules,
papules or vesicles, etc. and these are mostly seen on the
tongue, palate, buccal mucosa and gingiva.
• The vesicles of the mucosal surfaces are often short-lived
and they readily become eroded or ulcerated and bleed
• The ulcers are extremely painful and are normally covered
by a slough; they can be secondarily infected in may
• Patients often complain of foul smell in the mouth and
difficulty in eating and swallowing, etc.
• The cutaneous and mucosal lesions may occur either
separately or simultaneously.
• It is a severe form of erythema multiforme that simultaneously
involves the skin, eyes, oral mucosa and genitalia.
• The clinical features of this condition are as follows:
• Skin Lesions: Severe lesions of macules, papules, vesicles and
• Oral Mucosal Lesions : Large vesicles or bullae often develop,
which rupture and leave painful ulcers.
• Pain and hemorrhage from the ulcers cause difficulty in taking
• Ulceration and bloody encrustations are often present on the lips.
• Mucosal lesions are self-limiting and complete healing usually
occurs in about 2 to 3 weekswww.indiandentalacademy.com
psuedocarcinomatum,molluscum sebaceum, verrucoma)
• Resembles epidermoid
• genetic & viral factors
• Twice frequently seen in
• 8.1% seen on lips
• Lesion appears as elevated
& umbilicated or crateriform
with a depressed central
core or plug
• Painful/ lympahadenopathy
• Begins as small, firm
• Develops to full size in
4- 8 weeks
• surgical excision
• The primary lesion of syphilis occurs at the site of inoculation.
This site is most commonly on the genitalia; however, the oral
cavity and especially the lips are possible locations.
• The initial lesion or chancre usually begins as a papule at
approximately 3 weeks after contact with the spirochete
• The papule eventually ulcerates, leaving a lesion similar to an
aphthous or traumatic ulcer.
• The chancre heals spontaneously within several months and is
highly contagious during this period.Regional lymphadenopathy
may also be present. www.indiandentalacademy.com
• The classic lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity,
called mucous patches, are single or multiple plaques that are
gray or white and have an ulcerated base.
• These patches represent macerated papules, which because of
the moisture are covered with a soft, boggy membrane.
• They are teeming with organisms and are highly contagious.
• Secondary lesions of syphilis usually develop approximately 6
weeks after initial contact; however, the time is greatly variable.
• Serologic tests for syphilis are usually positive during the
secondary stages of syphilis, in contrast to the results obtained
in primary syphilis.
• Macular or papular skin lesions usually accompany the mucous
• Condyloma latum is another lesion of secondary
syphilis that may occur on the lip.
• This reticular, wartlike lesion may be red or white. It
could easily be confused with a papilloma, verruca
vulgaris, or condyloma acuminatum.
• These three lesions usually have individual, elevated,
fingerlike processes, whereas syphilis is more likely to
• Treatment of primary or secondary syphilis is with the
appropriate antibiotic, usually penicillin.
• Chancres may be difficult to distinguish from other, more
innocuous lesions, since the results of the serologic study are
• Dark-field microscopy is not recommended for the examination
of intraoral lesions because of the presence of other intraoral
spirochetes; however, the lesions located on the vermilion
border can be examined in this manner.
• Many chancres go undiagnosed or are cured unknowingly with
• Positive serologic findings may aid in the diagnosis of mucous
patches and condyloma latum.
• The presence of accompanying skin lesions is also helpful.
NODULAR FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA
– The nodular lesion of normal color is the most common soft tissue lesion
encountered in the oral cavity and occurs commonly on the lips
– The lesion is, usually initiated by trauma such as lip biting, it is not a true
neoplasm and has limited growth potential, rarely exceeding 1 or 2 cm in
– The lesion typically grows slowly and varies in consistency from very soft
– Although occasional fibrous hyperplasias may regress or disappear
when the offending irritant is eliminated, most must be surgically
removed. Recurrence is rare.
• Differential Diagnosis
– All soft tissue tumors, mucoceles, and salivary gland tumors must be
– Biopsy with histologic evaluation is the only way to obtain a definitive
• Approximately 75% of all mucoceles (mucus escape
phenomenon) occur on the lower lip
• Most mucoceles occur as the result of the severance of a minor
salivary gland duct, with resultant escape of mucous secretions
into the surrounding tissues.
• Occlusion or partial obstruction of a duct can also result in a
marked dilatation of that duct. This is termed a mucous
retention cyst, since the mucus-filled cavity is lined with
• Some type of trauma, such as lip biting, is the usual cause of
mucoceles. Since this type of trauma most commonly occurs
on the lower lip, the upper lip is an infrequent location.
• A fluctuation in size is characteristic of mucoceles.
• Multiple fluctuations may occur as the mucin is phagocytosed,
carried off, and replaced by newly secreted mucin.
• Mucoceles appear suddenly and reach maximum size within
• The typical lesion appears as an elevated vesicular or bullous
lesion, which often has a slightly bluish or translucent
• If the lesions are situated more deeply in the tissues, they may
be of normal color. The lesion is soft on palpation and often
• The treatment of choice is surgical excision, including excision
of the glands from which the mucin is escaping.
• Recurrence of the mucocele is possible despite surgery, since
adjacent salivary gland ducts may be severed during the
surgical procedure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
• The sudden appearance and the fluctuation in size is almost
diagnostic of the mucocele; however, biopsy is necessary for a
• Lesions that may be confused with mucoceles include
neurofibroma, lipoma, salivary gland tumors, varix, vascular
tumors, and nodular fibrous hyperplasia.
• Vascular lesions should blanch under pressure, which aids in
the differential diagnosis.
• Angioedema (angioneurotic edema) often involves the lips and
is characterized by a sudden, diffuse swelling.
• The swelling, although edematous, is usually somewhat firm
• Any tissue may be involved, and multiple lesions have also
been reported. Usually, only one lip is involved; however, the
whole face occasionally may be swollen. Of special concern is
swelling of areas such as the tongue, uvula, and larynx, which
may lead to respiratory distress.
• Angioedema is currently divided into two types:
– Hereditary and
– Nonhereditary www.indiandentalacademy.com
• The latter is more common; unfortunately, in more than 70%
of cases the cause is unknown.
• Food and drugs are the most common causes, resulting in an
immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity with mast cell
degranulation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
medications may also precipitate angioedema via pathways
not mediated by immunoglobulin E.
• The uncommon hereditary form fits into the complement-
mediated group and results from a quantitative or functional
defect of C1 inhibitor. This type of angioedema is inherited as
an autosomal dominant trait.
• In all types of angioedema the clinical manifestations are
similar. In some cases the swelling may last only several hours,
but in others, it may last as long as 3 days.
• Accompanying generalized urticaria may be present in
approximately 50% of cases. Recurrence is common, and the
intervals are greatly variable, probably depending on exposure
to the precipitating factors.
• After clinical swellings develop, the standard drug of choice for
treatment has been the antihistamines, although they are not
effective when ACE inhibitors are the cause.
• For the nonhereditary type the offending allergen should be
identified if possible and eliminated. Hereditary angioedema is
often precipitated by trauma; dental extractions frequently are
• Drugs as prophylactics include
– Antifibrinolytic agents, such as e-aminocaproic acid,
• D/D Includes
– Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome,
– Cheilitis glandularis, and
– Cheilitis granulomatosa.
• The sudden onset and a history of recurrent episodes are major
• Benign neoplasm of adipose tissue composed of mature fat
– More common in obese people
– Metabolism of lipoma totally independent of normal body
– If caloric intake is reduced, lipomas don’t decrease in size,
but normal body fat may be lost
• Age predilection- adults
• No gender predilection
– Trunk & proximal portions of extremities
– Less common in oral & maxillofacial region
– Occasionally occurs on the mucosal aspect of the lips.
– Buccal mucosa & buccal vestibule
– Tongue, floor of mouth, gingiva
• Morphologically 2 types of Intraoral Lipomas-
– Diffuse form- affecting deeper tissues
– Encapsulated form- Superficial
• Soft, smooth-surfaced nodular mass
• Sessile or pedunculated
• Typically asymptomatic
• Commonly less than 3 cm, occasionally larger
• More superficial lipomas look yellow
• D/D- herniated buccal fat pad through buccinator muscle
Treatment & Prognosis-
• Conservative local excision
• Rare recurrence
• Infiltrating lipomas- high recurrence rate, but rare in orofacial
SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS
• Occurrence on the lips accounts for approximately 5% of these
tumors, with most occurring on the upper lip.
• There is little difference in the clinical appearance of benign and
malignant salivary gland tumors that occur on the lips.
• Salivary gland tumors appear as soft or firm masses, with most
having a nodular, exophytic component.
• Ulceration of the nodular mass may occur.
• Those that are soft on palpation usually have large cystic
cavities and an abundance of mucin.
• The solid tumors, both benign and malignant (especially benign
mixed tumors with large amounts of bone and cartilage), are
• Canalicular adenoma, is frequently located on the upper lip.
Almost 75% of canalicular adenomas occur on or near the
upper lip, and the majority are near the midline.
• Most salivary gland tumors grow slowly and often exist for
years before treatment is sought. Rapid growth or a sudden
change in growth is more consistent with malignant tumors or
benign tumors that have undergone malignant change.
• Biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis.
MINOR SALIVARY GLAND CALCULI
• Sialolithiasis in ducts of minor glands are common. They occur
primarily in the upper lip of patients in the fifth to seventh
• Most appear as firm to hard, movable submucosal nodules. The
lesions vary from 3 to 15 mm in diameter; the majority are less
than 5 mm.
• Etiologic factors include unusual morphologic features of the
involved duct and local trauma.
• Excisional biopsy is the treatment of choice, since on clinical
examination alone a submucosal nodule could represent a
variety of soft tissue tumors.
Nasolabial (Nasoalveolar) cyst
• Occurs outside the bone
in nasolabial folds below
the alae nasi
• Rare lesions
• 12 - 75 years with peak in
• Females > Males
• Swelling, Pain, difficulty in
• Usually unilateral
• Infected cysts may
discharge in the nose
Radiology and Pathogenesis
• Spherical / Kidney shaped lesion lying against the inferior and
lateral borders anterior bony aperture of the nose extending
from midline to canine fossa.
• The radiolucency results from a depression on the labial
surface of the maxilla
• Believed to be external counterpart of globullomaxillary cyst
• Develops from lower anterior part of nasolacrimal duct
• The labial mucosa is commonly affected by the numerous
agents associated with contact allergies of skin and mucosa.
• Foods, dentifrices, mouthwashes, chewing gum, candies,
flavoring agents (especially mint and cinnamon), dental
impression material, cosmetics, and metals are possible
• Clinically, there may be a diffuse erythema, with or without
swelling, vesicles, tissue sloughing, or thickened hyperkeratotic
• Treatment involves identification of the suspected allergen.
Withdrawal visually results in rapid improvement. Topical or
systemic steroid may be used to alleviate symptoms.
– Chronic exposure to sun, wind and dust
– Enlarged lower lip, firm and finally becomes everted
– Three types
• Simple type
• Superficial suppurative type
• Deep suppurative type
• Simple type - Multiple painless pinhead sized lesions, with
central depressions and dilated canals
• Superficial supparative type- (Baelz’s disease) painless
swelling, induration, crusting, superficial and deep ulcerations
• Deep supparative type- (Chelitis glandularis apostematosa,
Myxadenitis labilis) deep seated infection, abscess, fistulous
tracts, scar formation
• T/t & Prognosis
– No t/t
– Associated malignancy as some consider it as premalignant
– Surgical stripping of lip
Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome
• Diffuse swelling of lip
• Soft swelling, no pitting on pressure
• Surrounding skin normal in color or erythematous
• Fissuring, vesicles or pustules are seen
• Melkersson rosenthal syndrome- Facial paralysis, scrotal
tongue and chelitis granulomatosa, recurrent facial swellings,
oral swellings and gingival enlargements
• Histologically- Chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, focal non
caseating granuloma formation, epitheloid cells and langhans
Congenital lip and commisural pits
– Notching of lips in early stages of development
– Failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of lip
– Pits of lower lip with cleft lip or palate is known as Von der
– Unilateral or bilateral depression on either lip
– Lip may appear swollen
– Commisural pits appear as unilateral or bilateral pits at the
corners of the mouth
– Surgical excision
• Characterized by excess tissue fold on the inner mucosal
aspect of lips
• Lower lip as well as upper lip is involved
• When the upper lip is tensed it appears as Cupids Bow
• Double lip, Non toxic thyrotoxicosis and blepharochalasis
constitutes Aschers syndrome
• Surgical excision of excess tissue
• C / F
– Direct communication between nasal and oral cavity
– Speech problem
– Regurgitation of food
– Proper development of arches is hampered
– Surgical correction
• A careful examination of the lips is often neglected by
members of the medical and dental professions;yet the
lips reveal a heterogenous group of lesions ranging from
congenital abnormalities to benign and malignant
• It therefore is important for the clinician to perform a
thorough examination of the lips.
• Norman Wood ,Paul Goaz ,Differential diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial
• Shafer,Hine & Levy,Textbook of Oral Pathology,4th
• Neville Damm Allen Bouquet, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,2nd
• Regezi: Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations, 5th ed.Saunders
• Mervyn Shear ,Cysts of the Oral and Maxillofacial Regions,Fourth edition,
Blackwell Publishing Ltd,2007
• Bork,Hoede,Korting,Burgdorf ,Young,Diseases of the Oral Mucosa and the