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Lesions of Lip/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Lesions of Lip/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Seminar LESIONS OF LIP INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Lip lesions are a common presentation to the dentist. There are vast number of lesions which can affect the lips. • These lesions are often benign , without significant functional morbidity. However, owing to the prominent placement of lips and their role in communication, lip lesions can be alarming to patients. • For these reasons the dentist has an important role in recognizing, diagnosing, and treating the various types of labial dermatoses that commonly present to the clinic. • The lesions are arranged in four categories –coloured lesions, ulcerative lesions, elevated lesions and developmental abnormalities.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. • White lesions – Candidiasis – Squamous cell papilloma – Verruca vulgaris – Condyloma – Lichen planus – Lichenoid drug eruption – Actinic keratosis – Squamous cell carcinoma – Snuff dipper's lesion – Cigarette smoker's lip – Focal epithelial hyperplasia • Red lesions – Hemangioma – Sturge-Weber syndrome – Thrombocytopenic purpura – Rendu-Osler-Weber disease – Kaposi's sarcoma – Contact allergy • Yellow lesions – Lipoma – Fordyce's disease • Brown lesions – Nevus – Labial melanotic macule – Melanoma – von Recklinghausen's disease – Albright's syndrome – Peutz-Jeghers syndrome – Addison's disease – Hemochromatosis – Kaposi's sarcoma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. • Ulcerative lesions – Traumatic ulcer – aphthous ulcer – Herpes simplex virus – Erythema multiforme – Keratoacanthoma – Syphilis • Elevated lesions – Fibroma (fibrous hyperplasia) – Mucocele – Angioedema – Lipoma – Salivary gland tumor – Minor salivary gland calculus – Hemangioma – Nasolabial cyst – Contact allergy – Cheilitis glandularis – Cheilitis granulomatosa – Melkersson-rosenthal syndrome – Squamous cell papilloma – Squamous cell carcinoma • Developmental anomalies – Cleft lip – Double lip – Lower lip sinus – Commissural pit www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. WHITE LESIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Candidiasis • Angular cheilitis, also called perleche, occurs only at the commissures as a white, red or more often a red and white fissured lesion. • It is often seen bilaterally, and the major predisposing factor is a decreased vertical dimension usually caused by the nonuse of dentures or by chronic bone resorption under complete dentures. • Vitamin B deficiencies, often blamed for this lesion, are a rare cause. Patients who drool or have liplicking habits are at increased risk, as are those undergoing radiation therapy or chemotherapy. • Other forms of candidiasis can also affect the labial mucosal surfaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • A diffuse form of chronic candidiasis characterized by pain, swelling, erythema with focal ulcerations, and crusting is called cheilocandidiasis. • It represents a secondary candidal infection superimposed on areas of trauma from mechanical or solar factors. • Candida infections of the lip are successfully treated by antifungal medications such as nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconozole, or imidazole derivatives, unless the patient has underlying medical problems predisposing to fungal infections. • Microbiologic studies of angular cheilitis also reveal the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in 60% of cases. • Antibiotics may be necessary in these patients. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  10. 10. Squamous Cell Papilloma • The papilloma, a common, benign growth, may occur on the lips but is more frequently encountered within the oral cavity. • The lesion is classically an exophytic papillary mass, either white or a normal mucosal color • Papillomas occur as single lesions or more commonly as multiple, lesions. • They may be sessile or pedunclated and may occur at any age but are most common in adults. • They are not premalignant but do not spontaneously regress. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  12. 12. • Studies have identified human papillomavirus (HPV) in more than 50% of oral papillomas. • Viral subtype HPV-6 and HPV-11 are usually identified by in situ hybridization, PCR, Immunohistochemistry. • Differential diagnosis – On clinical examination the papilloma is almost identical to verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum, condyloma latum, and even an early verrucous or papillary squamous cell carcinoma. – Microscopic evaluation should be performed on all papillomas removed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Verruca Vulgaris • Verruca vulgaris is the common wart of the skin; however, it may also occur in the oral cavity, often the result of self- inoculation. • Its cause is HPV-2, HPV-4, or HPV-40. • Identification of HPV is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. Verruca vulgaris should be suspected when multiple papillary, wartlike lesions are found on the oral mucosa of children, especially those with verrucae on their hands. • Surgery is treatment of choice; however, some may regress. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  15. 15. Condyloma • Condylomas are divided into two types – Condyloma acuminatum of viral origin (HPV-6,11,16 and 18) – Condyloma latum, which is a lesion of secondary syphilis. • Both may be sexually transmitted and may occur on the lips. • Diagnosis is determined by an accurate history and microscopic evaluation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  17. 17. Carcinoma of Lip Etiology 1. Tobacco (Pipe Smoking) Heat, Trauma from pipe stem 2. Sunlight 3. Poor oral hygiene 4. Sharp cusps of teeth 5. Leukoplakia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Clinical features • Elderly males • Lower lip > Upper lip • Begins on vermillion border on one side of the midline • Commences as either – Small area of thickening – Induration & ulceration – Irregularity of the surface • Becomes crater like/ proliferative growth • Slow to metastatize. Submental & Submaxillary nodes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Treatment & Prognosis • Surgical excision • Radiotherapy • Success of treatment depends on - Size of the lesion - Duration - Presence of metastatic lymph nodes - Histologic grade of the tumor www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Actinic Cheilosis (Actinic Chelitis) • Lower lip alteration due to long term exposure to UV rays • Light complexioned people with a tendency to sunburn • Also known as Sailor’s Lip or Farmer’s Lip • Seldom seen below 45 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. • Atrophy of the lower lip vermilion border, characterized by pale surface and blotchy areas • Blurring of the margin between the cutaneous portion and vermilion zone is seen • Chronic focal ulcerations develop later • Atrophic epithelium • Dysplasia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. TREATMENT • Surgical excision • Electrocautery • Cryosurgery • Laser ablation • Use of sunscreens www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Lichen Planus • Lichen planus, may also involve the labial mucosa. • The lip lesions usually exhibit the typically white striations ( striae of Wickham), which are usually asymptomatic. • The lesions may become erosive, red, and painful. • If suspect lesions are noted on the lips, the patient should be examined for intraoral lesions or skin lesions, especially on the arms or legs, which help confirm the diagnosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  25. 25. Differential diagnosis • The conditions that must be differentiated from lichen planus are lichenoid drug eruption, lupus erythematosus, graft-versus- host disease, and actinic keratosis. • Lupus may appear identical to lichen planus, complete with striae; however, it more commonly occurs as a red area. Biopsy with immunofluorescence studies is usually diagnostic. • Lichenoid drug eruptions may also appear clinically and are histologically identical to lichen planus. • Many drugs and chemicals may cause these reactions, but the most common appears to be nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, thiazide diuretics, methyldopa, phenothiazines, and gold salts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. • If the offending medications or chemicals can be identified and removed, the lesions may disappear in 3 to 4 weeks. Months may be required in other cases. • Lichenoid reactions to many dental materials have been reported the most commonly implicated being mercury in dental amalgams. Lesions may disappear after removal of the restorations. • Actinic keratosis can be differentiated by the lack of other skin or mucosal lesions; also, striae should not be present. Biopsy, however, is the sure way to a correct diagnosis. • The clinical lesions of graft-versus-host disease may be identical to lichen planus. A history of an allogenic bone marrow transplant should differentiate the two conditions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Smokeless Tobacco Lesion • Areas of the labial mucosa that come in direct contact with smokeless tobacco products may develop hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, and squamous cell or verrucous carcinoma • This habit is of great concern to public health officials because of the increasing numbers of youth who are becoming addicted to smokeless tobacco and the future potential for oral cancers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  29. 29. Cigarette Smoker's Lip • Cigarette smoker's lip is a localized, usually well-defined, flat or slightly elevated lesion of the lips that corresponds to the area where the patient holds cigarettes. • The lesion usually begins as a reddened area but becomes more white with time. This lesion is usually seen in neuropsychiatric patients as a result of thermal injury. • A high percentage of patients also have burns on their fingers corresponding to where they held their cigarettes. This should be a diagnostic clue. • Another aid is that the lesions are confined to the mucosal aspect of the lip and almost never cross the vermilion border. It is postulated that the patient's psychiatric medications increase their pain threshold, thereby allowing the tissues to be burned. • Lesions may involve one or both lips. Malignant transformation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Focal Epithelial hyperplasia Heck’s Disease • Multiple nodular lesion with sessile base • Commonly seen on lips, buccal mucosa, commisure, tongue, • 1-5 mm in diameter • Same color as adjacent mucosa • Seen commonly in children 3-18 yrs • Undergo spontaneous regression in 4-6 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  32. 32. BROWN AND RED LESIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Nevus Etiology Unknown Lesion of melanocytic origin within mucosa and skin Clinical Presentation Usually elevated, symmetric papule Pigmentation usually uniformly distributed Common on skin; unusual intraorally Palate and gingiva most often involved Microscopic Findings Most are intramucosal (“dermal”) Blue nevi are deeply situated and are composed of spindled nevus cells. Other variants are rare; junctional and compound nevi Nevus cells are oval/round and are found in unencapsulated nests (theques). Melanin production is variable. Diagnosis Clinical features Biopsy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Differential Diagnosis Melanoma Varix Amalgam tattoo/foreign body Mucosal melanotic macule Kaposi’s sarcoma Ecchymosis Melanoacanthoma Treatment Excision of all pigmented oral lesions to rule out malignant melanoma is advised. Malignant transformation of oral nevi probably does not occur. Prognosis Excellent www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  36. 36. Labial & Oral melanotic macules • Any age, single or multiple • Small, flat, brown, black asymptomatic lesion of lip near midline • 5 mm or less in diameter • Oral macules are seen on gingiva, buccal mucosa and palate. • H / F – Variable thickness of epithelium – Increased amount of melanin in basal layer – Chronic inflammatory cells are seen • Treatment – No Treatment www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  38. 38. Hemangioma The hemangioma is a benign proliferation of blood vessels that occurs in the head and neck region in more than 50% of cases. Most are congenital or occur at a young age and show limited growth potential. Some lesions undergo spontaneous regression, which leads many to believe that hemangiomas are not true neoplasms but rather hamartomas. Some lesions have unlimited growth with extensive involvement of soft tissues and bone. Some even lead to fatal hemorrhage. Hemangiomas- Capillary Hemangioma Cavernous Hemangioma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Oral Hemangioma • Common in Head & Neck region • Uncommon in oral cavity Clinical Features- • AGE- early age. • SEX:- F>M. • SITE:- Lip, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate • On clinical examination, hemangiomas appear as flat or elevated, red or bluish lesions, which usually blanch under pressure • Seldom well circumscribed • Readily compressible, fills slowly when released • Central H.- in maxilla or mandible- honeycomb appearance www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  41. 41. Investigations • Angiography • Ultrasonography (determine vascular nature) • Contrast enhanced MRI • Roentgenogram (Intraosseous H. - honeycomb appearance) • CT Scan www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Treatment & Prognosis- • Many hemangiomas regress spontaneously at early age • Those occurring in older persons or those which do not regress are treated by- – Surgery – Radiation therapy – Sclerosing agents- sodium morrhuate- injected into lesion – CO2 snow – Cryotherapy – Compression • Good prognosis Hemangioma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Multiple Pigmentations • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome • Addison's disease • Sturge-Weber syndrome • Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) • Thrombocytopenic purpura • Kaposi's sarcoma • von Recklinghausen's disease (neurofibromatosis) • Albright's syndrome • Hemochromatosis • Multiple brown or black lesions may occur with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, von Recklinghausen's disease, Addison's disease, Albright's syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Almost all of these may present with multiple macular lesions; however, Addison's disease and hemochromatosis may have a more diffuse pigmentation.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Hereditary intestinal polyposis • Peutz-Jehgers syndrome, Intestinal polyposis with melanin pigmentation • C/F – Pigmentation of lips and oral mucosa measuring 1-5 mm – Buccal mucosa, gingiva and hard palate, mucosal surface of lips – Intestinal polyps of small intestine, abdominal pain, minor obstruction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Addison 's disease • Addison's disease is caused by adrenal cortical insufficiency and is characterized by melanin pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes, anemia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and hypotension. • The pigmentation of the lips is usually multifocal but may be diffuse. • Pigmentations are seen on the buccal mucosa, gingiva, and tongue, as well as the lips. • These pigmentations may be the first manifestation of Addison's disease. • A biopsy is not diagnostic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Encephalotrigeminal Angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber Syndrome) • Extremely rare congenital neurological and skin disorder • A variant of hemangioma • Venous angioma of leptomeninges and • Ipsilateral angiomatous lesions of face (sometimes of skull, jaws & oral soft tissues) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Clinical Features- • Capillary venous angiomas (or port-wine nevi) of skin • Present at birth • Exclusively confined to regions supplied by Trigeminal nerve • Hemangioma like lesions may occur throughout the oral cavity including the lips • Intracranial convolutional calcifications • Neurologic manifestations- – convulsive disorders – Spastic hemiplegia with/out mental retardation Treatment- • Neurosurgical treatment • Anticonvulsant for convulsions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Rendu-Osler-Weber disease • Also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. • This is an inherited autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple small aneurysmal telangiectases of the skin and mucosa. • Bleeding from the lesions is common. • Lesions appear to increase in number with age. In the oral region the lips are one of the most frequently involved locations. • There is no treatment, and if bleeding occurs, it may be difficult to control. • The hereditary nature of the disease is important in making a diagnosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  50. 50. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura indicates an autoimmune disease characterized by antibody-mediated destruction of platelets. • Significant bleeding may result from petechial or ecchymotic lesions. • Splenectomy or systemic steroids are often curative • Some cases spontaneously regress. • ITP must be differentiated from secondary immune thrombocytopenia associated with drug therapy, systemic lupus erythematosus, and viral infections, including HIV.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Kaposi’s Sarcoma • Etiology: Unknown - Immunosuppression – believed to create an environment that allows an opportunistic factor to cause Kaposi’s sarcoma - HHV 8 - Reactive lesions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Clinical features 1. Classical – Cutaneous multifocal blue-red nodule, slowly increase in size and numbers Oral – unusual, palate & gingiva 2. Lymphadenopathic – endemic to African Children, localized or generalized enlargement of Lymph nodes 3. Immunosuppression- associated with renal transplant patient 4. AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma - early sign of disease - Early oral mucosal sarcomas are flat and slightly blue, red or purple plaques - Cervical Lymph node and Salivary gland – enlarged www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. CANDIDIASIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  55. 55. ULCERATIVE LESIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. TRAUMATIC ULCERS • Traumatic ulcers are commonly found on the lips. • Many occur in accidents or altercations, are self-inflicted (facticial), or are caused by health care professionals (iatrogenic). • The lower lip is most commonly involved. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. APHTHAE • Aphthae commonly occur on the lips. • Aphthae occur as a single ulcer or multiple ulcers of the mucosal surface of the lips. • They do not occur on the skin. This is in contrast to recurrent herpes labialis, which is often found on the vermilion border or skin surface of the lips. • Aphthae of the lip are similar in appearance and behavior to other intraoral locations. They are recurrent, with the intervals between episodes varying from weeks to years. • Most ulcers heal within 2 weeks. Healing may be accelerated with the topical application of a corticosteroid.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Differential Diagnosis • Aphthae are most commonly confused with herpes labialis. • Herpes begins as groups of vesicles on the vermilion border or skin, whereas aphthae begin as reddish mucosal macules that undergo ulceration without vesiculation. • Differentiation from other diseases and traumatic ulcers is best accomplished by a history of recurrent lesions. • In the absence of this history, a biopsy should be performed if healing does not begin within 2 weeks. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  60. 60. Herpes Labialis • Herpes labialis (fever blister) is a recurrent or secondary manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). • These lesions occur only in patients who have had primary infections and have developed antibodies to HSV. • Many factors appear to reactivate HSV and cause recurrent lesions. Sun-light and trauma are major factors; however, fever, hormonal influence, and emotional stress are also implicated. • Lesions are most commonly located on the vermilion border of the lip, with involvement of the skin and mucosa. • Patients often have a tingling or burning sensation before developing multiple small vesicles that are usually in small groups. These vesicles ulcerate quickly and then are covered by a crust. The lesions heal without scarring in 7 to 10 days.www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  62. 62. ERYTHEMA MULTI FORME • Erythema multiforme is an acute inflammatory dermatological disorder that frequently involves skin, mucous membrane. Etiology • Infections: Tuberculosis, Herpes simplex (I and II) infections, Infectious mononucleosis, Histoplasmosis, etc. • Drug Hypersensitivity: Barbiturates, Sulfonamides, Phenylbutazone, Salicylates, Oral pills, etc. • Hyperimmune Reactions: Due to the formation of antigen- antibody complexes against the submucosal and dermal blood vessels. • Miscellaneous Factor: Radiation therapy, Crohn's disease, Vaccinations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. CLINICAL FEATURES • Erythema multiforme frequently occurs between the age of 15 and 40 years and males are affected more often than females. • Rapidly developing erythematous macules, papules, vesicles or bullae, often appear symmetrically over the hands and arms, legs and feet and face and neck, etc • The classic dermal lesions of erythema multiforme which often appear on the extremities are called "target", "iris" or "bull's eye", etc. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. • These dermal lesions consist of concentric erythematous rings separated by rings of near normal color on the skin. • Mucosal lesions of this disease also consist of macules, papules or vesicles, etc. and these are mostly seen on the tongue, palate, buccal mucosa and gingiva. • The vesicles of the mucosal surfaces are often short-lived and they readily become eroded or ulcerated and bleed profusely. • The ulcers are extremely painful and are normally covered by a slough; they can be secondarily infected in may cases too. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. • Patients often complain of foul smell in the mouth and difficulty in eating and swallowing, etc. • The cutaneous and mucosal lesions may occur either separately or simultaneously. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  67. 67. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • It is a severe form of erythema multiforme that simultaneously involves the skin, eyes, oral mucosa and genitalia. • The clinical features of this condition are as follows: • Skin Lesions: Severe lesions of macules, papules, vesicles and bullae, etc • Oral Mucosal Lesions : Large vesicles or bullae often develop, which rupture and leave painful ulcers. • Pain and hemorrhage from the ulcers cause difficulty in taking food. • Ulceration and bloody encrustations are often present on the lips. • Mucosal lesions are self-limiting and complete healing usually occurs in about 2 to 3 weekswww.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. • Eye Lesions : • Photophobia • Conjunctivitis • Corneal ulceration • Uveitis • Blindness due to secondary infection. • Genital Lesions : • Urethritis • Balanitis • Vaginal ulceration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Differential Diagnosis • Acute primary herpetic stomatitis • Aphthous ulcers • Pemphigus • Pemphigoid • Erosive lichen planus. Treatment :Topical and systemic steroid therapy, coupled with antibiotics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. KERATOACANTHOMA (self-healing carcinoma,molluscum psuedocarcinomatum,molluscum sebaceum, verrucoma) • Resembles epidermoid carcinoma Etiology • genetic & viral factors Clinical features • Twice frequently seen in men • 50-70yrs • 8.1% seen on lips • Lesion appears as elevated & umbilicated or crateriform with a depressed central core or plug • Painful/ lympahadenopathy +nt www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. • Begins as small, firm nodule • Develops to full size in 4- 8 weeks Treatment • surgical excision www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. SYPHILIS • The primary lesion of syphilis occurs at the site of inoculation. This site is most commonly on the genitalia; however, the oral cavity and especially the lips are possible locations. • The initial lesion or chancre usually begins as a papule at approximately 3 weeks after contact with the spirochete Treponema pallidum. • The papule eventually ulcerates, leaving a lesion similar to an aphthous or traumatic ulcer. • The chancre heals spontaneously within several months and is highly contagious during this period.Regional lymphadenopathy may also be present. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. • The classic lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity, called mucous patches, are single or multiple plaques that are gray or white and have an ulcerated base. • These patches represent macerated papules, which because of the moisture are covered with a soft, boggy membrane. • They are teeming with organisms and are highly contagious. • Secondary lesions of syphilis usually develop approximately 6 weeks after initial contact; however, the time is greatly variable. • Serologic tests for syphilis are usually positive during the secondary stages of syphilis, in contrast to the results obtained in primary syphilis. • Macular or papular skin lesions usually accompany the mucous patches. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. • Condyloma latum is another lesion of secondary syphilis that may occur on the lip. • This reticular, wartlike lesion may be red or white. It could easily be confused with a papilloma, verruca vulgaris, or condyloma acuminatum. • These three lesions usually have individual, elevated, fingerlike processes, whereas syphilis is more likely to be tabulated. • Treatment of primary or secondary syphilis is with the appropriate antibiotic, usually penicillin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  79. 79. Differential Diagnosis • Chancres may be difficult to distinguish from other, more innocuous lesions, since the results of the serologic study are usually normal. • Dark-field microscopy is not recommended for the examination of intraoral lesions because of the presence of other intraoral spirochetes; however, the lesions located on the vermilion border can be examined in this manner. • Many chancres go undiagnosed or are cured unknowingly with antibiotic therapy. • Positive serologic findings may aid in the diagnosis of mucous patches and condyloma latum. • The presence of accompanying skin lesions is also helpful. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. ELEVATED LESIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. NODULAR FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA – The nodular lesion of normal color is the most common soft tissue lesion encountered in the oral cavity and occurs commonly on the lips – The lesion is, usually initiated by trauma such as lip biting, it is not a true neoplasm and has limited growth potential, rarely exceeding 1 or 2 cm in diameter. – The lesion typically grows slowly and varies in consistency from very soft to firm. – Although occasional fibrous hyperplasias may regress or disappear when the offending irritant is eliminated, most must be surgically removed. Recurrence is rare. • Differential Diagnosis – All soft tissue tumors, mucoceles, and salivary gland tumors must be ruled out. – Biopsy with histologic evaluation is the only way to obtain a definitive diagnosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  83. 83. MUCOCELE • Approximately 75% of all mucoceles (mucus escape phenomenon) occur on the lower lip • Most mucoceles occur as the result of the severance of a minor salivary gland duct, with resultant escape of mucous secretions into the surrounding tissues. • Occlusion or partial obstruction of a duct can also result in a marked dilatation of that duct. This is termed a mucous retention cyst, since the mucus-filled cavity is lined with epithelium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. MUCOCELE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. • Some type of trauma, such as lip biting, is the usual cause of mucoceles. Since this type of trauma most commonly occurs on the lower lip, the upper lip is an infrequent location. • A fluctuation in size is characteristic of mucoceles. • Multiple fluctuations may occur as the mucin is phagocytosed, carried off, and replaced by newly secreted mucin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. • Mucoceles appear suddenly and reach maximum size within several days. • The typical lesion appears as an elevated vesicular or bullous lesion, which often has a slightly bluish or translucent appearance • If the lesions are situated more deeply in the tissues, they may be of normal color. The lesion is soft on palpation and often fluctuant. • The treatment of choice is surgical excision, including excision of the glands from which the mucin is escaping. • Recurrence of the mucocele is possible despite surgery, since adjacent salivary gland ducts may be severed during the surgical procedure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Differential Diagnosis • The sudden appearance and the fluctuation in size is almost diagnostic of the mucocele; however, biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. • Lesions that may be confused with mucoceles include neurofibroma, lipoma, salivary gland tumors, varix, vascular tumors, and nodular fibrous hyperplasia. • Vascular lesions should blanch under pressure, which aids in the differential diagnosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. ANGIOEDEMA • Angioedema (angioneurotic edema) often involves the lips and is characterized by a sudden, diffuse swelling. • The swelling, although edematous, is usually somewhat firm and nonpitting. • Any tissue may be involved, and multiple lesions have also been reported. Usually, only one lip is involved; however, the whole face occasionally may be swollen. Of special concern is swelling of areas such as the tongue, uvula, and larynx, which may lead to respiratory distress. • Angioedema is currently divided into two types: – Hereditary and – Nonhereditary www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  90. 90. • The latter is more common; unfortunately, in more than 70% of cases the cause is unknown. • Food and drugs are the most common causes, resulting in an immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity with mast cell degranulation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor medications may also precipitate angioedema via pathways not mediated by immunoglobulin E. • The uncommon hereditary form fits into the complement- mediated group and results from a quantitative or functional defect of C1 inhibitor. This type of angioedema is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. • In all types of angioedema the clinical manifestations are similar. In some cases the swelling may last only several hours, but in others, it may last as long as 3 days. • Accompanying generalized urticaria may be present in approximately 50% of cases. Recurrence is common, and the intervals are greatly variable, probably depending on exposure to the precipitating factors. • After clinical swellings develop, the standard drug of choice for treatment has been the antihistamines, although they are not effective when ACE inhibitors are the cause. • For the nonhereditary type the offending allergen should be identified if possible and eliminated. Hereditary angioedema is often precipitated by trauma; dental extractions frequently are implicated. • Drugs as prophylactics include – Antifibrinolytic agents, such as e-aminocaproic acid, www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Differential Diagnosis • D/D Includes – Infections – Sarcoidosis – Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, – Cheilitis glandularis, and – Cheilitis granulomatosa. • The sudden onset and a history of recurrent episodes are major differentiating features. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Lipoma • Benign neoplasm of adipose tissue composed of mature fat cells • Pathogenesis- – Uncertain – More common in obese people – Metabolism of lipoma totally independent of normal body fat – If caloric intake is reduced, lipomas don’t decrease in size, but normal body fat may be lost www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. Clinical Features- • Age predilection- adults • No gender predilection • Site- – Trunk & proximal portions of extremities – Less common in oral & maxillofacial region – Occasionally occurs on the mucosal aspect of the lips. – Buccal mucosa & buccal vestibule – Tongue, floor of mouth, gingiva • Morphologically 2 types of Intraoral Lipomas- – Diffuse form- affecting deeper tissues – Encapsulated form- Superficial www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Clinical Features- • Soft, smooth-surfaced nodular mass • Sessile or pedunculated • Typically asymptomatic • Commonly less than 3 cm, occasionally larger • More superficial lipomas look yellow • D/D- herniated buccal fat pad through buccinator muscle Treatment & Prognosis- • Conservative local excision • Rare recurrence • Infiltrating lipomas- high recurrence rate, but rare in orofacial region www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS • Occurrence on the lips accounts for approximately 5% of these tumors, with most occurring on the upper lip. • There is little difference in the clinical appearance of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors that occur on the lips. • Salivary gland tumors appear as soft or firm masses, with most having a nodular, exophytic component. • Ulceration of the nodular mass may occur. • Those that are soft on palpation usually have large cystic cavities and an abundance of mucin. • The solid tumors, both benign and malignant (especially benign mixed tumors with large amounts of bone and cartilage), are www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. • Canalicular adenoma, is frequently located on the upper lip. Almost 75% of canalicular adenomas occur on or near the upper lip, and the majority are near the midline. • Most salivary gland tumors grow slowly and often exist for years before treatment is sought. Rapid growth or a sudden change in growth is more consistent with malignant tumors or benign tumors that have undergone malignant change. • Biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. MINOR SALIVARY GLAND CALCULI • Sialolithiasis in ducts of minor glands are common. They occur primarily in the upper lip of patients in the fifth to seventh decades. • Most appear as firm to hard, movable submucosal nodules. The lesions vary from 3 to 15 mm in diameter; the majority are less than 5 mm. • Etiologic factors include unusual morphologic features of the involved duct and local trauma. • Excisional biopsy is the treatment of choice, since on clinical examination alone a submucosal nodule could represent a variety of soft tissue tumors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Nasolabial (Nasoalveolar) cyst • Occurs outside the bone in nasolabial folds below the alae nasi • Rare lesions • 12 - 75 years with peak in 4th and 5th decades • Females > Males • Swelling, Pain, difficulty in nasal breathing • Usually unilateral • Slow • Infected cysts may discharge in the nose www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. Radiology and Pathogenesis • Spherical / Kidney shaped lesion lying against the inferior and lateral borders anterior bony aperture of the nose extending from midline to canine fossa. • The radiolucency results from a depression on the labial surface of the maxilla • Believed to be external counterpart of globullomaxillary cyst • Develops from lower anterior part of nasolacrimal duct www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. CONTACT ALLERGY • The labial mucosa is commonly affected by the numerous agents associated with contact allergies of skin and mucosa. • Foods, dentifrices, mouthwashes, chewing gum, candies, flavoring agents (especially mint and cinnamon), dental impression material, cosmetics, and metals are possible causes. • Clinically, there may be a diffuse erythema, with or without swelling, vesicles, tissue sloughing, or thickened hyperkeratotic areas. • Treatment involves identification of the suspected allergen. Withdrawal visually results in rapid improvement. Topical or systemic steroid may be used to alleviate symptoms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Chelitis glandularis • Etiology – Chronic exposure to sun, wind and dust – Tobacco – Stress – Hereditary • C/F – Enlarged lower lip, firm and finally becomes everted – Three types • Simple type • Superficial suppurative type • Deep suppurative type www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. • Simple type - Multiple painless pinhead sized lesions, with central depressions and dilated canals • Superficial supparative type- (Baelz’s disease) painless swelling, induration, crusting, superficial and deep ulcerations • Deep supparative type- (Chelitis glandularis apostematosa, Myxadenitis labilis) deep seated infection, abscess, fistulous tracts, scar formation • T/t & Prognosis – No t/t – Associated malignancy as some consider it as premalignant lesion – Surgical stripping of lip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Chelitis Granulomatosa Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome • Diffuse swelling of lip • Soft swelling, no pitting on pressure • Surrounding skin normal in color or erythematous • Fissuring, vesicles or pustules are seen • Melkersson rosenthal syndrome- Facial paralysis, scrotal tongue and chelitis granulomatosa, recurrent facial swellings, oral swellings and gingival enlargements • Histologically- Chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, focal non caseating granuloma formation, epitheloid cells and langhans giant cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. Yellow lesions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. FORDYCES GRANULES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. Congenital lip and commisural pits and fistulas • Etiology – Notching of lips in early stages of development – Failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of lip – Pits of lower lip with cleft lip or palate is known as Von der woude’s syndrome • C/F – Unilateral or bilateral depression on either lip – Lip may appear swollen – Commisural pits appear as unilateral or bilateral pits at the corners of the mouth • T/t – Surgical excision www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  115. 115. Double lip • Characterized by excess tissue fold on the inner mucosal aspect of lips • Lower lip as well as upper lip is involved • When the upper lip is tensed it appears as Cupids Bow • Double lip, Non toxic thyrotoxicosis and blepharochalasis constitutes Aschers syndrome • Surgical excision of excess tissue www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  118. 118. Cleft lip & Palate • Classification – Unilateral incomplete – Unilateral complete – Bilateral incomplete – Bilateral complete • Etiology – Defective vascular supply – Nutritional disturbances – Size of tongue – Drugs and toxins – Infections – Lack of inherent developmental forces – Hereditary- polygenic, monogenic or syndromic – Trauma – Stress www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. • C / F – M>F – Direct communication between nasal and oral cavity – Speech problem – Regurgitation of food – Esthetics – Proper development of arches is hampered • Treatment – Surgical correction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. CONCLUSION • A careful examination of the lips is often neglected by members of the medical and dental professions;yet the lips reveal a heterogenous group of lesions ranging from congenital abnormalities to benign and malignant neoplasms. • It therefore is important for the clinician to perform a thorough examination of the lips. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. REFERENCES • Norman Wood ,Paul Goaz ,Differential diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial lesions,5th ed,mosby 1997 • Shafer,Hine & Levy,Textbook of Oral Pathology,4th Ed,W.B.Saunders Company,1983 • Neville Damm Allen Bouquet, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,2nd edition,Saunders 2005 • Regezi: Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations, 5th ed.Saunders 2008 • Mervyn Shear ,Cysts of the Oral and Maxillofacial Regions,Fourth edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd,2007 • Bork,Hoede,Korting,Burgdorf ,Young,Diseases of the Oral Mucosa and the st www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. THANK-YOU www.indiandentalacademy.com

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