dental Investment materials/ orthodontic course by indian dental academy


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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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dental Investment materials/ orthodontic course by indian dental academy

  1. 1. INVESTMENT MATERIALS Introduction When a restoration or appliance is being made by a lost wax process, the wax pattern is embedded in an investment material. The wax is then removed from this mould, and the space which it occupied is filled by the material of which the restoration or appliance is to be made for example.- The wax pattern of an inlay or other cast restoration is embedded in a heat resistant investment material which is capable of setting to a hard mass. The wax is removed from such a mould usually by burning out, before casting the molten alloy. Definition: An investment can be described as a ceramic material which is suitable for forming a mold into which a metal or alloy is appropriately cast. The procedure for forming the mold is described as “investing”. 1
  2. 2. Ideal properties: 1. The investment should be easily manipulated. Not only should it be possible to mix and manipulate the mass readily and to paint the wax pattern easily, but the investment also should harden within a relatively short time. 2. The investment mold must have sufficient strength of room temperature to permit ease in handling and enough strength at higher temperatures to withstand the impact force of the molten metal. 3. On being heated to high temperatures, the investment must not decompose to give off gases that could damage the surface of the alloy. 4. Investment should have enough expansion to compensate for shrinkage of the wax pattern and the metal that takes place during the casting procedure. 5. Should be porous enough to permit the air or gases in the mold cavity to escape easily during the casting procedure. 6. Should produce a smooth surface and fine details and margins on the casting. 2
  3. 3. 7. Investment material should be comparatively inexpensive. Composition: In general, an investment material is a mixture of three different types of materials. Refractory material: Usually form of silicon dioxide, such as quartz, tridymite, cristobalite or a mixture of these. Binder material: Common binder used for dental casting gold alloy is α calcium sulphate hemihydrate, phosphates and ethyl silicate. Other Chemicals: Such as sodium chloride, boric acid potassium sulphate, graphite, copper powder or magnesium oxide. Classification Investment materials are classified into: 1. Gypsum bonded investment - Type I - Type II - Type III 2. Phosphate bonded investments 3. Ethyl silicate bonded investments 3
  4. 4. Gypsum Bonded Investments ADA specification No. 2 for casting investments for dental gold alloys encompasses three types of investments. The types are determined by whether the appliance to be fabricated is fixed or removable, and the method of obtaining the expansion required to compensate for the contraction of the molten gold alloy during solidification. Type I: Investments are those employed for the casting of inlays or crowns when the alloy casting shrinkage compensation is accomplished principally by thermal expansion of the investment. Type II: Investments are also used for the casting of inlays or crowns, but the major mode of compensation is by the hygroscopic expansion of the investment. Type III: Used in the fabrication of partial dentures with gold alloys. Composition: The essential ingredients of the dental inlay investment employed with the conventional gold casting alloys are α-hemihydrate of gypsum and a form of silica. 4
  5. 5. Gypsum: The α-hemihydrate form of gypsum is generally the binder for investments used in casting gold containing alloys with melting ranges below 1000°C. When this material is heated to the temperature required for complete dehydration and sufficiently high to ensure complete castings, it shrinks considerably and frequently fractures. All forms shrink considerably after dehydration between 200°C and 400°C. A slight expansion then occurs between 400°C and approximately 700° and then a large contraction occurs. This latter shrinkage is most likely caused by decomposition, and sulfur gases, such as sulphur dioxide are emitted. This decomposition not only causes shrinkage but also contaminates the castings with the sulfides of the non-noble alloying elements such as silver and copper. Thus, it is imperative that gypsum investments not to be heated above 700°C. In this alloy proper fit as well as uncontaminated alloys are obtained. Silica: Silica (SiO2) is added to provide a refractory during the heating of the investment and to regulate the thermal expansion. During the 5
  6. 6. heating, the investment is expected to expand thermally to compensate partially or totally for the casting shrinkage of the gold alloy. If the proper form of silica is employed in the investment, this contraction during heating can be eliminated and changed to an expansion. Silica exists in atleast 4 allotrophic forms: 1) Quartz 2) Tridymite 3) Cristobalite and 4) Fused quartz. Quartz and cristobalite are of particular dental interest. When quartz, tridymite or cristobalite is heated, a change in crystalline form occurs at a transition temperature chracteristic of the particular form of silica. For example, when quartz is heated it ensures from a “low” form, known as α-quartz to a “high” form, called β-quartz, at a temperature of 575°C. 6
  7. 7. In a similar manner, cristobalite undergoes an analogous transition between 200°C and 270°C from “low” called α-cristobalite to a “high” called β-cristobalite. The α-allotropic forms are stable only at the transition temperature noted, and an increase to the lower or α form occurs on cooling in each case. The density decreases as the α-form changes to the β-form, with a resulting increase in volume that is exhibited by a rapid increase in the linear expansion, consequently, the shrinkage of gypsum can be counterbalanced by the inclusion of one or more of the crystalline silica. Modifiers: In addition to silica, certain modifying agents, cooling matter, and reducing agents such as carbon and powdered copper are present. The reducing agents are used in some investments to provide a non- oxidizing atmosphere in the mold when the gold alloy is cast. Some of the added modifiers, such as boric acid, and sodium chloride, not only regulate the setting expansion and the setting time, but they also prevent most of the shrinkage of gypsum when it is heated above 300°C. 7
  8. 8. Setting time: According to ADA specification No. 2 for dental inlay casting investment, the setting time should not be shorter than 5 minutes nor longer than 25 minutes. Usually, the modern inlay investments set initially in 9 to 18 minutes. Sufficient time should be allowed for mixing and investing the pattern before the investment sets. Normal Setting Expansion The purpose of setting expansion is to aid in enlarging the mold to compensate partially for the casting shrinkage of the gold. ADA specification No. 2 for Type I investment permits a maximum setting expansion ‘in air’ of only 0.6%. The setting expansion of such modern investment is approximately 0.4%. It can be regulated by retarders and accelerators. A mixture of silica and gypsum hemihydrate results in setting expansion greater than that of the gypsum products when it is used alone. The silica particles probably interfere with the intermeshing and interlocking of the crystals as they form. Thus the thrust of the crystals is outward during growth and they increase expansion. 8
  9. 9. Variables other than the exothermic heat of reaction also influence the effective setting expansion. As the investment sets, it essentially gains sufficient strength to produce a dimensional change in the maximum pattern as setting expansion occurs. Also, the softer the wax, the greater the effective setting expansion, because the softer wax is more readily moved by the expanding investment. Hygroscopic Setting Expansion If the setting process of gypsum is allowed to occur under water, the setting expansion will be more than doubled in magnitude. This is because to hemihydrate allowed to react under water is related to the additional crystal growth permitted. ADA specification No. 2 for Type II investments requires a minimum setting expansion in water of 1.2% while the maximum allowed is 2.2%. A number of factors are important in the control of the hygroscopic expansion. 9
  10. 10. 1. Effect of composition The magnitude of setting expansion of a dental investment is generally proportional to the silica content of the investment. - Finer the particle size of silica greater the expansion. - α-hemihydrate will produce a greater expansion than β- hemihydrate. Effect of water:powder ratio: The highest the W:P ratio of the original investment water mixture, the less the hygroscopic expansion. Effect of spatulation: Mixing time and hygroscopic expansion as well. Effect of time of immersion: The greatest amount of hygroscopic setting expansion is observed if the immersion takes place before the initial set. The longer the impression of the investment in the water bath is delayed beyond the time of the initial set of the investment, the lower is the hygroscopic expansion. 10
  11. 11. Effect of the amount of water added: The magnitude of hygroscopic expansion is in direct proportion to the amount of water added during the setting period until a maximum expansion occurs, no further expansion is evident regardless of any amount of water added. Expansion can be detected when water is poured into a vessel containing only small, smooth quartz particles. The water is drawn between the particles by capillary action and thus causes the particle to separate, creating an expansion. The effect is not permanent after the water is evaporated, unless a binder is present. The greater the amount of the silica or the inert filler, the more easily the added water can diffuse through the setting material and the greater is the expansion. Thermal Expansion The thermal expansion of a gypsum bonded investment is directly related to the amount of silica present and to the type of silica employed. A considerable amount of quartz is necessary to counterbalance the contraction of gypsum during heating. 11
  12. 12. The contraction of the gypsum is entirely balanced when the quartz content is increased to 75%. The investments containing cristobalite expand earlier and to a greater extent than those containing quartz. The desirable magnitude of the thermal expansion of a dental investment depends on its use. If hygroscopic expansion is to be used to compensate for the contraction of the gold alloy, as for the Type II investment. ADA specification No. 2 requires that the thermal expansion be between 0% and 0.6% at 500°C. However, for Type I investment, which rely principally on thermal expansion for compensation, the thermal expansion must be not less than 1% nor greater than 1.6%. Another desirable feature of an inlay investment is that its maximum thermal expansion be attained at a temperature not higher than 700°C. Thus when a thermal expansion technique is employed, the maximum mold temperature for casting of gold alloy should be less than 700°C. 12
  13. 13. Effect of Water:Powder ratio The magnitude of thermal expansion is related to the amount of solids present. Therefore it is apparent that the more water that is used in mixing the investments, the less is the thermal expansion that is achieved during subsequent heating. Effect of chemical modifiers: The addition of small amounts of sodium, potassium, or lithium chlorides to the investment eliminates the contraction caused by the gypsum and increases the expansion without the presence of an excessive amount of silica. Strength: According to ADA specification No. 2, the compressive strength for an inlay investment should not be less than 2.4Mpa tested 2 hours after setting. Heating the investment to 700°C may increase or decrease the strength as much as 65%, depending on the composition. The greatest reduction in strength on heating is found in investments containing sodium chloride. 13
  14. 14. Other gypsum investment considerations: Fineness: The fineness of the investment may affect the setting time, the surface roughness of the casting and other properties, fine particle size is preferable to a coarse one, the finer the investment, the smaller are the surface irregularities on the casting. Porosity: During the casting process, the molten metal is forced into the mold under pressure, as the molten metal enters the mold, the air must be forced out ahead of it. If the air is not completely eliminated, a back pressure builds upto prevent the gold alloy form completely filling the mold. The common method for venting the mold is through the pores of the investment. Generally, the more gypsum crystals that are present in the set investments, the less is its porosity. The particle size of the investment is also a factor. The more uniform the particle size, the greater is its porosity. 14
  15. 15. Phosphate Bonded Investments The rapid growth in use of metal ceramic restorations and increased use of a higher melting alloys have resulted in a increased use of phosphate bonded investment. As suggested by Skinner (1963) “The definite advantage of this type of investment is that there is less chance for contamination of gold alloy during casting and hence could be the investment of the future. The present trend is towards the use of less expensive base metal alloys, most of which require phosphate investments. Composition: These investments, like the gypsum investments consist of refractory fillers and a binder. The filler is silica, in the form of cristobalite, quartz, or a mixture of the two and in the concentration of approximately 80%. The purpose of this filler is to provide high temperature thermal shock resistance (refractoriness) and a high thermal expansion. The binder consists of magnesium oxide and a phosphate (Monoammonium phosphate). 15
  16. 16. Colloidal silica liquid suspensions are available for use with the phosphate bonded investments in place of water 33% dilution of colloidal silica is required. Carbon is often added to the powder to produce clean castings, and facilitate the ‘devesting’ of the casting from the mold. Setting Reaction The chemical reaction for the binder system that causes the investment to set and harden is NH4H2PO4 + MgO + 5H2O  NH4 MgPO4 6H2O Setting and Thermal Expansion Substitution of colloidal silica solution instead of water considerably increases the expansion. When phosphate bonded investments are mixed with water they exhibit the same shrinkage as gypsum bonded investments. This contraction is practically eliminated when a colloidal silica solution replaces the water. The early thermal shrinkage of phosphate investments is associated with the decomposition of the binder, magnesium ammonium 16
  17. 17. phosphate and is accompanied by the evolution of ammonia, which is readily apparent by its odor. Working and Setting Time Phosphate investments are markedly affected by temperature. The warmer the mix, the faster it sets. The setting reaction itself gives off heat, and this further accelerates the rate of setting. The more efficient the mixing better the casting in terms of smoothness and accuracy. The ideal technique is to mix, as long as possible, yet have enough time for investing. Mechanical mixing under vacuum is preferred. Ethyl Silicate Bonded Investments ETHYL SILICATE bonded investments are being used in the construction of the high fusing base metal partial denture alloys. These investments are losing popularity because of the more complicated and time consuming procedures involved. The silica is the binder which may be derived from ethyl silicate or sodium silicate. 17
  18. 18. The REACTION The silica is bonded by the hydrolysis of ethyl silicate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The product of the hydrolysis is the formation of a colloidal solution of silica acid and ethyl alcohol. Si (O2C5H4) + 4H2O HCl Si(OH)4 + 4C2H5OH Ethyl silicate has the disadvantage of containing inflammable components because sodium silicate and colloidal silica are more common binders used. These investments are supplied with two bottles of special liquid to be mixed with the investments. One bottle contain diluted water soluble silicate solution such as sodium silicate, the other bottle usually contains diluted acid solution such as solution of HCl. Before use of the equal volume of each bottle is mixed so that hydrolysis can take place and freshly prepared silicic acid is formed. The Powder: liquid ratio is used according to manufacturers instruction. This type of investment can be heated to 1090°C and 1180°C and is compatible with higher fusing alloys. 18