Growth of cranial vault and base /fixed orthodontic courses

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Growth of cranial vault and base /fixed orthodontic courses

  1. 1. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL VAULT AND BASE Anatomy Function Prenatal growth Postnatal growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL VAULT AND BASE INTRODUCTION Skull is a blend of the morphogenesis & growth of three skull entities. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. skull Cranial vault/calvaria. 1. Neurocranium Cranial Base 2. The face Orognathofacial complex ( Splanchocranium,viserocranium) 3. The masticatory appartus(i.m.) Dentition www.indiandentalacademy.com Neural Crest and Paraxial Mesoderm Tissue.
  5. 5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. The Neurocranium Cranial vault Cranial Base (Desmocranium)  Cranial floor  The newly expanded associated with the brain. nasal and auditory  Intramembranous bone sense organs. of paraxial mesoderm  Endochondral bone of origin. neural crest origin.  It’s cartilaginous precursor is known as chondrocranium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Face Orognathofacial complex Brachial arch structure Intramemranous bone of neural crest origin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. ANATOMY Norma Verticalis – Above Norma Basalis – Below Norma Lateralis – Side Norma Occipitalis – Back Norma Frontalis - Front www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. ANATOMY Calvaria or brain box - 8 bone 2 Paired 4 Unpaired Parietal Frontal Temporal Occipital Sphenoid Ethmoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. SUTURE  Metopic suture  Coronal suture  Sagittal suture  Lambdoid suture  Bregma  Lambda FUNCTION Protection of the brain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. PRENATAL GROWTH  intramembranous ossification. MEMBRANOUS NEUROCRANIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. PRENATAL GROWTH Ectomeninx Duramater Superficial membrane Vault Endomeninx Arachnoid piamater www.indiandentalacademy.com Base
  13. 13. PRENATAL GROWTH Capsular mevmbraneEndomeninx – Neural crest origin Ectomeninx – Neural crest and paraxial mesoderm Ectomeninx: Mesoderm – Frontal, Parietal, sphenoid, petrous temporal & occipital. Neural crest – Lacrimal, nasal, squamous temporal, zygomatic, maxilla & mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. PRENATAL GROWTH OSSIFICATION SITE Frontal Bone – Primary centre Super ciliary arch – Secondary centres Zygomatic process, Nasal spine, Trochlear fossa Parietal bone – Region of Parietal eminence www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. PRENATAL GROWTH Occipital bone (Squamous part) – Just above superior nuchal line Temporal bone (Squamous part) – Root of zygoma Tympanic ring of temporal bone – 4 centers in lateral wall of tympanum www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. FONATANELLES  At birth ,skull bones separated by loose connective tissue.  6 in no. Close at various times 2 months to 2 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. FONATANELLES Postnatal growth results narrowing of suture and elimination of fontanelles. Posterolateral fonatanelles Anterior www.indiandentalacademy.com posterior
  19. 19. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Endosteal surface are resorptive . The ectocranial surface are depository in nature. Remodeling allow for change in contour. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. POSTNATAL GROWTH  Arc of curvature of whole bone decrease and bone becomes flatter . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. POSTNATAL GROWTH Only the inner aspects of frontal bone can be used as stable reference point for growth studies from age 7 yrs. Onwards. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. CALVARIAL GROWTH Suture growth-major mechanism. 2. Remodeling/ surface apposition-after 4 yrs. 3. Centrifugal displacement by the expanding brain (FMH) 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL BASE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. ANATOMY OF CRANIAL BASE  ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA  MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA  POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA 1. Orbital plate of frontal bone 2. Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. 3. Anterior part of the body of sphenoid & lesser wing of sphenoid. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID It separates the fossa from nasal cavity & forms the roof of the nasal cavity. A median crest like elevation -CRISTA GALLI THE SPHENOID BONE Anterior part of the upper surface of its body is termed the JUGUM SPHENOIDALE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. ORBITAL PLATE OF FRONTAL BONE It separates the orbit and its contents from the inferior surface of the frontal lobe of the brain. Its antero medial part split into 2 laminae FRONTAL SINUS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA It is deeper than the anterior fossa  It shaped like a butterfly.  In front it is bounded by posterior borders of the lesser wing of the sphenoid and the body of the sphenoid,  Behind by superior borders of the temporal bones & Dorsum sellae of sphenoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA Centrally  OPTIC CANAL  HYPOPHYSEAL FOSSA Laterally  SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE  FORAMEN ROTUNDUM  FORAMEN OVALE  FORAMEN SPINOSUM  FORAMEN LACERUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA Largest and deepest of the cranial fossa Anteriorly – Dorsum sellae & body of the sphenoid Posteriorly –Squamous part of the occipital bone Laterally – Petrous & mastoid parts of temporal bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA VARIOUS FORAMINA FORAMEN MAGNUM JUGULAR FORAMIN INTERNAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS HYPOGLOSSAL CANAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. CRANIAL BASE FUNCTIONS  Supports & protects the brain & spinal cord.  Articulation of skull with vertebral column , mandible & maxilla.  Buffer zone between the brain, face & pharyngeal region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. PRENATAL GROWTH Cranial base develops by endochondral bone formation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. PRENATAL GROWTH CHONDRIFICATION  Mesenchyme paraxial mesoderm and neural crest .  Form ECTOMENINGEAL CAPSULE .  Earliest evidence of skull formation.  Mesenchyme Starting on day 40 i.u. Cartilage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. GROWTH OF CRANIAL BASE (proffit)  Cartilages (initially) Endochondral ossification Bone.  Midline structure.  Moves laterally ,sutures growth & surface remodeling becomes prominent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. GROWTH OF CRANIAL BASE (MOYER) 1. Complex balance among sutural growth. 2. Elongation at synchondrosis. 3. Extensive cortical drift. 4. Remodeling. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. PRENATAL GROWTH CARTILAGES  PARACHORDAL CARTILAGE  HYPOPHYSEAL / POSTSPHENOID CARTILAGE  TRABECULAR  OTIC CAPSULE  NASAL CAPSULE / PRESPHENOID CARTILAGES. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. PRENATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. PRENATAL GROWTH PARACHORDAL CARTILAGES  The sclerotomes cartilage -four occipital somites. first part of skull to develop foramen magnum boundaries occipital bone (basilar and condylar part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. PRENATAL GROWTH 2 Hypophyseal cartilages - Postsphenoid Sella turcica Body of the sphenoid (post. Part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. PRENATAL GROWTH 2 Presphenoid cartilage- Presphenoid bone Body of the sphenoid bone (ant. Part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. PRENATAL GROWTH  Orbito sphenoid Lesser wing  Alisphenoid - Greater wing  Optic capsule not chondrify. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. PRENATAL GROWTH OTIC CAPSULE Mastoid and petrous portions of the temporal bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. PRENATAL GROWTH  MESETHMOID CARTILAGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. PRENATAL GROWTH NASAL CAPSULE - Nostril cartilages Nasal septal cartilage  Nasal septal cartilage – Functional matrix Midface growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION 110 ossification centers in embryonic human skull. Ossification starts in the 4 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION UNOSSIFIED CHONDROCRANIAL REMNANTS –  Alae & septum of the nose,  Spheno-occpital & spheno-petrous junctions,   The apex of the petrous bone and Between the separate parts of the occipital bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. OSSIFICATION occipital bone – 7 centres Intramembranous Endochondral ossification centre ossification centre  Supranuchal squamous - 2  Infranuchal squamous - 2  Basilar - 1  Exoccipital - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. OSSIFICATION temporal bone -21 centers Intramembranous Endochondral ossification centre ossification centre  Squamous portion -1  Petrosal part - 14  Tympanic ring - 4  Styloid process - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. OSSIFICATION ETHMOID BONE – 3 endochondral centres  Perpendicular plate & crista galli – 1  Lateral labyrinths - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. OSSIFICATION sphenoid - 19 Intramembranous ossification centres  Medial pterygoid plates – 2  Lateral pterygoid plates -2 centres Endochondral ossification centres  Presphenoid – 3  Postsphenoid – 4  Orbitosphenoids - 2  Alisphenoids - 2  Pterygoid hamuli - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. OSSIFICATION VOMER Alae – 2 intramembranous centres Inferior nasal concha Lamina – 1 endochondral centre Sphenoidal conchae -2 endochondral centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. CRANIAL BASE ANGULATION Hypophyseal fossa ( prechordal & chordal parts) Nasion     - Sella - Basion . Precartilage stage – 150°, highly obtuse Cartilage stage 130° Preossification stage – 115°-120°,more acute Ossification stage – 125°-130 , postnatally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. CRANIAL BASE ANGULATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. PRE NATAL GROWTH Highly Uneven Anterior cranial base increases its length and width by 7 folds( 10th & 40thweek of I.U) Posterior cranial base grows only 5 fold www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. POSTNATAL GROWTH Cranial base acts as a template from which the face develops. Suture growth is unidirectional. So remodeling is requried. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. POSTNATAL GROWTH  The mid ventral segments of cranial base grows more slowly than the floor of the lateral located fossae.  To accommodate the medulla,pons,hypothalamus & optic chiasma. Foramen Spinal Cord Drift process Differential remodelling www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. POSTNATAL GROWTH SYNCHONDROSIS - They are a retention left from the primary cartilages of the chondrocranium after the endochondral ossification centers appear during fetal development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. POSTNATAL GROWTH SYNCHONDROSIS – Fetal & early postnatal peroids. 1. Spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis 2. Inter-spenoidal synchondrosis - before birth 3. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. POSTNATAL GROWTH SPHENO-OCCIPITAL SYNCHONDROSIS Major contributor in the postnatal growth. Fuses at 12-13 years in girls & 14-15 years in boys and ossifies at 20 years of age www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. POSTNATAL GROWTH Sinus secondarily grows as the body of the sphenoid bone expands with the moving naso-maxillary complex www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. POSTNATAL GROWTH ZONES OF SYNCHONDROSIS 1. Familial reserve zone 2. Cell division zone 3. Hypertrophic zone 4. Calcified zone A growth centre Bipolar direction of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. POSTNATAL GROWTH Middle cranial fossa & it’s neural contents Secondary displacement effect (Anterior cranial floor , nasomaxillry complex & mandible) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. POSTNATAL GROWTH Frontal lobe growth completes by 5years. Temporal lobes continue to enlarge for several more years and displaces the frontal lobe forward. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69.  Craniofacial Embryology -G.H.SPERBER  Essentials Of Facial Growth -D.H.ENLOW  Anatomy –Gray  Contemporary orthodontics W.R.PROFFIT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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