Growth & development of cranial vault / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


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Growth & development of cranial vault / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Growth and Development of Cranial Vault www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. SKULL  At birth-45 bony elements  In adults-22 bones Face-14 bones Cranium- 8 bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Bones of the VAULT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5.  SUTURES -Coronal -Sagittal -Lambdoid -Metopic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Metopic suture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Development of calvaria Pre-natal growth Ectomeninx Endomeninx Skull bone Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Ossification centers of the skull www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Fontenellae -flat bones connected by loose c.t www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Time of closure Fontenallae -Anterior -2nd year -posterior -2 mts -Ant lateral -3mts -Post lateral -end of 1 yr -Medial frontal suture -6 to 8 yrs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Post-natal growth of cranial vault  Growth of brain  Cephalocaudal  Theories gradient of growth of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Cephalocaudal gradient of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Theories of growth  Sutural theory-by Sicher  Cartilaginous  FMH-by theory-by Scott Moss www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Genetically determined Growth at sutures Mild effect of local factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Intrinsic Genetic factors Desmocranial Desmocranial Growth Growth Local epigenetic factors General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Importance to cartilage growth Inherent growth potential Sutures respond Primary growth center-nasal septum, synchondrosis & environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. FMH(Moss) Functional matrices Epigenetic control Environmental control www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. FMH(Moss) Intrinsic Genetic factors Local epigenetic factors Desmocranial Desmocranial Growth Growth General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Post-natal Growth • Brain expands- passively displaced • C.T stroma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Post-natal Growth • Tension at sutures • New bone dep • ↑ Circumference www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Post-natal Growth • Flattening of bones • Thickening not uniform (sicher) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Direction of bone growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  Cranial growth-combination  Sutural growth  Surface appo & resorp  Outward disp by expanding brain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Anatomy Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Anterior cranial fossa  Orbital part of frontal bone  Cribriform  Anterior plate of ethmoid bone part of body of sphenoid & lesser wing of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Anterior cranial fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Middle cranial fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Middle cranial fossa Deeper than ant cranial fossa  Shaped like a butterfly  In front bounded by post part of lesser wing of sphenoid & body of sphenoid  Behind by sup border of temporal bones & dorsum sellae of sphenoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Middle cranial fossa Centrally Optic canal Hypophysial fossa Laterally Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotandum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Posterior cranial fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Pre-natal growth Cranium divided into 2 parts •Neurocranium-protects, supports; brain, sense organs •Viscerocranium-elementary, resp track, face, max & mandible Basicranium - both www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Pre-natal growth Condrification Early evidence of cartilage Late somite period-4th i.u week www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Condrification centers From cartilages- •Parachordal cartilage •Hypophysial cartilage / postsphenoid •Trabecular cartilage / Presphenoid •Otic capsule •Nasal capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Primordial cartilages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Pre-natal growth Parachordal cartilage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Parachordal cartilage Fused sclerotomes arising from occ somites Sclerotomes- bounds magnum Anlagen- basilar, condylar parts www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  Hypophyseal cartilage 2 cartilages on either sides - fuse postsphenoid Sella turcea, post part of body of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  Trabecular cartilage 2 cartilages on either side Ant part of body of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Trabecular cartilage Laterally Orbitosphenoid cartilage- forms lesser wing of sphenoid  Alisphenoid cartilage- forms greater wing of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Trabecular cartilage Anteriorly presphenoid fuse Mesethmoid cartilage At birth – Ethmoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  Otic capsule Otic capsule Mastoid & Petrous part of temp bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  Nasal capsule Conrify in 2nd i.u month www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Chondrocranial ossification www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Chondrocranial ossification • 110 ossi centers – embryonic skull • 45 bones – neonatal skull • 22 bones – young adult • Unossified remnents – ala,nasal sepum, speno-occi&speno-petrous jn,apex of petrous bone,btwn separate parts of occ bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Occipital bone  7 ossi centers - 2 intramembranous 5 endochondral  Sq portion above sup nuchal line –ossify from pair of i.m ossi centers 8th i.u week  Infranuchally – pair of endochondral centers 10th i.u week www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Occipital bone  Single median endochondral ossi center at 11th week ant to fora magnum& ant 3rd occi condyl  pair of endochondral ossi centers at 12th week from exocci bone lat to magnum including 2/3rd occi condyl www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Temporal bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Temporal bone 21 ossi centers squamous & tympanic comp – ossify i.m Petrosal & styloid elements - endochond www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Temporal bone     Sq portion – single center at 8th i.u week Tympanic ring- 4 centers at 3rd i.u month Petrosal part- 14 centers; appear at 16th week, fuse 6th i.u month Styloid process- 2 centers upper center- just before birth lower center- just after birth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Ethmoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Ethmoid bone  Ossifies from 3 centers  Single median center in mesethmoid cartilage – forms ppd plate & crista galli just before birth A pair appear in nasal capsular carti 4th i.u month  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Inferior nasal concha Purely  endochondral bone Single center  Cartilage of lat part of nasal capsule appear in 5th i.u mth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Sphenoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Sphenoid bone •Intramembranous ossification centers Medial pterygoid plates – 2 Lateral pterygoid plates -2 •Endochondral ossification centers Presphenoid – 3 Postsphenoid – 4 Orbitosphenoids - 2 Alisphenoids - 2 Pterygoid hamuli - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Cranial base angulation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Cranial base angulation Hypophyseal fossa (prechordal & chordal parts) Nasion - Sella - Basion . Precartilage stage – 150°, highly obtuse Cartilage stage 130° Preossification stage – 115°-120°,more acute Ossification stage – 125°-130 , postnatally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Post-Natal growth Endocranial surface – resorptive × Multidirectional enlargement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59.  Bony elevations b/w fossae, divide fossa into various compartments  Middle & post fossae by petrous elevation  Olfactory fossae by crista galli  Rt & left mid cranial fossae by midline sphenoidal elevation  Rt & left ant & post cranial fossae by longi midline bony ridge www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Post-natal growth Fossa expands outward by resorption, Partitions between them enlarge inward by deposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Post-natal growth  Remodelling provides stability for nerves & vessel passage way  Foramina undergo remodelling & drift to maintain position of cranial nerves & major blood vessels www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Synchondrosis  Regarded as growth center & pacemaker of cranial base  Midline part of cranial base www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63.  Synchondrosis at the base  Spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis  Intersphenoidal synchondrosis  Spheno-occipital synchondrosis  Intraoccipital synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis  Principle growth cartilage of base  Present till brain & base conti to grow & expand  Its growth ceases at 12 to 15, at 20 sphenoid&occi segments fuse www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Structure of synchondrosis Zones of cartilage Familial reserve zone  Cell division zone  Hyper tropic zone  Calcified zone Two major directions Of linear growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Structure of synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67.  Cranial base growth at s-o syn is reltd to primary displacement  Sinus is drawn out www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Expansion of middle cranial fossa Secondarily displaces – Ant cranial fossa , naso -max complex & the mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Frontal lobe & ant cranial fossa growth complete by 5 – 6 yrs  Temporal lobe& middle fossa continue to grow for several yrs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Post-natal growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. References Craniofacial Embryology -G.H.SPERBER  Essentials Of Facial Growth -D.H.ENLOW  Orthodontics- principle & practice -T. M. GRABER  Anatomy –Gray  Contemporary orthodontics W.R.PROFFIT  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. THANK YOU www.indiandentalacademy.com

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