Functional matrix theory/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
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Functional matrix theory/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Functional matrix hypothesis www.indiandentalacademy.com INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Initial formulation Form and function are intimately related 1867 – Effect of function on bone – femur- Anatomist Meyer & mathematician Culmann – Theory of “Trajectory of bone formation” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Initial formulation • 1870 – Julius Wolff – stated that the external morphology & internal architecture of bone is directly proportional to the functional forces acting upon it • Modern restatement – WILHELM HIS – 1874 – “physiology of the plastic” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Initial formulation • Wilhelm Roux & Hans Driesch – ENTWICKLUNGMECHANIK (developmental mechanism) • Benninghoff showed that the stress trajectories obeyed no individual bone limits but rather the demands of the functional forces • “Functional cranial component” – Vander Klauuw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Stress trajectories www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Development of a concept Dept of anatomy – university of columbia (1948-51) “problems of cranial growth in general and the role of sutures in particular” Books – “The development of the vertebral skull – Gaven de beer “on growth and form” - Thompson www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Development of a concept 10 yrs – extensive study 1960 – 1st paper – YOUNG – American journal of physical anthropology 1962 – 2nd major paper - orthodontic community www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Point of view • „If neither bone or cartilage were the determinants for craniofacial growth , it would appear that the control would have to be in the adjacent soft tissues‟ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Classic statement – 1981 • The functional matrix hypothesis claims that the origin , growth & maintenance of all skeletal tissues and organs are always secondary , compensatory and obligatory responses to temporally and operationally prior events or processes that occur in specifically related non-skeletal tissues, organs or functioning spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Basic concept of growth • Transformation (remodelling) -change in size and shape -osseous deposition and resorption • Translation (displacement) -change in spatial position -without osseous deposition and resorption www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Basic concept of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Functional cranial component Skeletal unit Functional matrices Macroskeletal Eg-endocranial surface Of calvaria Microskeletal Eg-coronoid, angular Periosteal Eg-teeth and muscles Capsular Eg-orofacial, neurocranial Components & concepts www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Concepts and components Head and neck region carry out number of functions -Respiration -Olfaction -Vision -Hearing -Balance -Chewing -Digestion -Swallowing -Speech -Neural integration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Components & concepts • Functional cranial component (FCC) – The tissues, organs, spaces & skeletal parts necessary to carry out a given function • Functional matrix – non-skeletal tissues of a FCC eg-muscles, glands, nerve ,vessels, teeth • Skeletal unit – skeletal tissues which protect or support the functional matrix eg-bone,cartilage & tendinuous tissue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Skeletal unit Microskeletal unit– bone composed of several contiguous skeletal units eg . Mandible – alveolar angular condylar coronoid basal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Skeletal unit • Maxilla- nasal orbital pneumatic basal alveolar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Skeletal unit • Macroskeletal unit - adjoining portions of number of neighbouring bones carrying out a single function eg-endocranial surface of calvaria www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Functional demands • Coronoid --------------temporalis • Angular---------------- masseter & medial pterygoid • Alveolar---------------presence of teeth • Basal-------------------inferior alveolar neuromuscular triad matrix www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Periosteal matrix • These are non-skeletal functioning units adjacent to the skeletal unit. • Produce secondary – compensatory transformation • Best eg:- role of temporalis – coronoid process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Periosteal matrix • Removal,denervation – postinfectively/post- traumatically - decrease in the size or total disappearance • Functional hypertrophy/hyperactivity- increase in size and change in shape www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Capsular matrix • FCC (skeletal + functional matrices) capsules • Each capsule is a envelope sandwiching the FCC in b/w its layers • Arise , grow, exist , operate & maintained www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Capsular matrix www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Capsular matrix 4 such cranial capsules exist Neurocranial capsule Orofacial capsule Orbital capsule Otic capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Capsular matrix • Capsular matrices exist in volumes • volumetric capsular matrix – expansion of capsule • Translation of embedded bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Neurocranial capsule • Calvarial bones sandwiched b/w the skin & duramater www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Neurocranial capsule • Composition --5 layers of the scalp outer table --bone inner table diploic space --2 layers of duramater www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Neurocranial capsule • Contents --brain --leptomeninges volume of NCC --CSF www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Neurocranial capsule • Two important factors volume of the neural mass Total neural mass – morphologically significant – than amount of brain tissue Expansion of the neurocranial capsule Primary event – expansion of capsular matrices – compensatory expansion of capsule – translation of FCC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Neurocranial capsule • Hydrocephaly -- passive , non – periosteal translative growth produced by capsular matrices --The expansion of the NCC is always proportional to the increase in neural mass www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Orofacial capsule • Sandwiched b/w skin & mucosa • Surrounds and protects oronasopharyngeal functioning spaces • These 3 spaces (oral,nasal & pharyngeal)are unitary spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Orofacial capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Orofacial capsule • Patency – functional unit • Related to the general metabolic demands of the body • Respiratory functional space volume – dominant cranial functioning space www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Orofacial capsule WORK OF BOSMA Primary function – maintenance of patent airway Dynamic musculoskeletal postural balance – “Airway Maintenance Mechanism” Airway maintained throughout range of motion of head & neck www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Orofacial capsule • Embryonic development --originate by process of enclosure --formation of palate – nasal & oral portions --Volumetric growth of these spaces is the primary morphogenetic event in facial skull growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Support for the hypothesis  mandibular growth --bilateral condylectomy – does not effect growth or spatial movement of acondylar contiguous structures Hydrocephaly Microcephaly Size of eye and orbit Teeth and alveolar bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. CLINICAL ASPECTS • Etiology of m o due to deficient functioning eg – mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, digit sucking • Growth modulation is based upon this theory • Appliances are used to either transmit, eliminate or guide the natural forces of musculature www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. CLINICAL ASPECTS • Palate splitting – adjustive and compensatory reactions of sutural connective tissue and the immediate sensitive response of membranous bone to tensional forces www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Shortcomings • No clear explanation of how functional needs are transmitted to the tissues around mouth and nose – Proffit • Does not suggest unitary mechanism www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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