Functional matrix theory/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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Functional matrix theory/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Functional matrix hypothesis INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
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  3. 3. Thank you For more details please visit
  4. 4. Initial formulation Form and function are intimately related 1867 – Effect of function on bone – femur- Anatomist Meyer & mathematician Culmann – Theory of “Trajectory of bone formation”
  5. 5. Initial formulation • 1870 – Julius Wolff – stated that the external morphology & internal architecture of bone is directly proportional to the functional forces acting upon it • Modern restatement – WILHELM HIS – 1874 – “physiology of the plastic”
  6. 6. Initial formulation • Wilhelm Roux & Hans Driesch – ENTWICKLUNGMECHANIK (developmental mechanism) • Benninghoff showed that the stress trajectories obeyed no individual bone limits but rather the demands of the functional forces • “Functional cranial component” – Vander Klauuw
  7. 7. Stress trajectories
  8. 8. Development of a concept Dept of anatomy – university of columbia (1948-51) “problems of cranial growth in general and the role of sutures in particular” Books – “The development of the vertebral skull – Gaven de beer “on growth and form” - Thompson
  9. 9. Development of a concept 10 yrs – extensive study 1960 – 1st paper – YOUNG – American journal of physical anthropology 1962 – 2nd major paper - orthodontic community
  10. 10. Point of view • „If neither bone or cartilage were the determinants for craniofacial growth , it would appear that the control would have to be in the adjacent soft tissues‟
  11. 11. Classic statement – 1981 • The functional matrix hypothesis claims that the origin , growth & maintenance of all skeletal tissues and organs are always secondary , compensatory and obligatory responses to temporally and operationally prior events or processes that occur in specifically related non-skeletal tissues, organs or functioning spaces
  12. 12. Basic concept of growth • Transformation (remodelling) -change in size and shape -osseous deposition and resorption • Translation (displacement) -change in spatial position -without osseous deposition and resorption
  13. 13. Basic concept of growth
  14. 14. Functional cranial component Skeletal unit Functional matrices Macroskeletal Eg-endocranial surface Of calvaria Microskeletal Eg-coronoid, angular Periosteal Eg-teeth and muscles Capsular Eg-orofacial, neurocranial Components & concepts
  15. 15. Concepts and components Head and neck region carry out number of functions -Respiration -Olfaction -Vision -Hearing -Balance -Chewing -Digestion -Swallowing -Speech -Neural integration
  16. 16. Components & concepts • Functional cranial component (FCC) – The tissues, organs, spaces & skeletal parts necessary to carry out a given function • Functional matrix – non-skeletal tissues of a FCC eg-muscles, glands, nerve ,vessels, teeth • Skeletal unit – skeletal tissues which protect or support the functional matrix eg-bone,cartilage & tendinuous tissue
  17. 17. Skeletal unit Microskeletal unit– bone composed of several contiguous skeletal units eg . Mandible – alveolar angular condylar coronoid basal
  18. 18. Skeletal unit • Maxilla- nasal orbital pneumatic basal alveolar
  19. 19. Skeletal unit • Macroskeletal unit - adjoining portions of number of neighbouring bones carrying out a single function eg-endocranial surface of calvaria
  20. 20. Functional demands • Coronoid --------------temporalis • Angular---------------- masseter & medial pterygoid • Alveolar---------------presence of teeth • Basal-------------------inferior alveolar neuromuscular triad matrix
  21. 21. Periosteal matrix • These are non-skeletal functioning units adjacent to the skeletal unit. • Produce secondary – compensatory transformation • Best eg:- role of temporalis – coronoid process
  22. 22. Periosteal matrix • Removal,denervation – postinfectively/post- traumatically - decrease in the size or total disappearance • Functional hypertrophy/hyperactivity- increase in size and change in shape
  23. 23. Capsular matrix • FCC (skeletal + functional matrices) capsules • Each capsule is a envelope sandwiching the FCC in b/w its layers • Arise , grow, exist , operate & maintained
  24. 24. Capsular matrix
  25. 25. Capsular matrix 4 such cranial capsules exist Neurocranial capsule Orofacial capsule Orbital capsule Otic capsule
  26. 26. Capsular matrix • Capsular matrices exist in volumes • volumetric capsular matrix – expansion of capsule • Translation of embedded bones
  27. 27. Neurocranial capsule • Calvarial bones sandwiched b/w the skin & duramater
  28. 28. Neurocranial capsule • Composition --5 layers of the scalp outer table --bone inner table diploic space --2 layers of duramater
  29. 29. Neurocranial capsule • Contents --brain --leptomeninges volume of NCC --CSF
  30. 30. Neurocranial capsule • Two important factors volume of the neural mass Total neural mass – morphologically significant – than amount of brain tissue Expansion of the neurocranial capsule Primary event – expansion of capsular matrices – compensatory expansion of capsule – translation of FCC
  31. 31. Neurocranial capsule • Hydrocephaly -- passive , non – periosteal translative growth produced by capsular matrices --The expansion of the NCC is always proportional to the increase in neural mass
  32. 32. Orofacial capsule • Sandwiched b/w skin & mucosa • Surrounds and protects oronasopharyngeal functioning spaces • These 3 spaces (oral,nasal & pharyngeal)are unitary spaces
  33. 33. Orofacial capsule
  34. 34. Orofacial capsule • Patency – functional unit • Related to the general metabolic demands of the body • Respiratory functional space volume – dominant cranial functioning space
  35. 35. Orofacial capsule WORK OF BOSMA Primary function – maintenance of patent airway Dynamic musculoskeletal postural balance – “Airway Maintenance Mechanism” Airway maintained throughout range of motion of head & neck
  36. 36. Orofacial capsule • Embryonic development --originate by process of enclosure --formation of palate – nasal & oral portions --Volumetric growth of these spaces is the primary morphogenetic event in facial skull growth
  37. 37. Support for the hypothesis  mandibular growth --bilateral condylectomy – does not effect growth or spatial movement of acondylar contiguous structures Hydrocephaly Microcephaly Size of eye and orbit Teeth and alveolar bone
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  39. 39. CLINICAL ASPECTS • Etiology of m o due to deficient functioning eg – mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, digit sucking • Growth modulation is based upon this theory • Appliances are used to either transmit, eliminate or guide the natural forces of musculature
  40. 40. CLINICAL ASPECTS • Palate splitting – adjustive and compensatory reactions of sutural connective tissue and the immediate sensitive response of membranous bone to tensional forces
  41. 41. Shortcomings • No clear explanation of how functional needs are transmitted to the tissues around mouth and nose – Proffit • Does not suggest unitary mechanism
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  44. 44. Thank you For more details please visit